The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • AFPD. 2008. African Flowering Plants Database - Base de Donnees des Plantes a Fleurs D'Afrique.
  • Breedlove, D.E. 1986. Flora de Chiapas. Listados Floríst. México 4: i–v, 1–246.
  • Brummitt, R. K. 2011. Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants: 62. Taxon 60(1): 226–232.
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Ehrh. 1788. In: Beitr. Naturk. 3. 20
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gandhi, K.N., J. L. Reveal & L. Brouillet. 2009. (1886-1887) Proposals to conserve the names Prunus serotina and P. virginiana (Rosaceae) with conserved types. Taxon 58(1): 312–314.
  • Gartenkalender 3: 285. 1783. (4 Aug 1783-17 May 1784) (Gartenkalender)
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. (eds.) 2011. Fl. Antioquia: Cat. 2: 9–939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & C. Ulloa Ulloa. 1994. Seed plants of the high Andes of Ecuador–A checklist. AAU Rep. 34: 1–443.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez. (eds.) 1999. Cat. Vasc. Pl. Ecuador, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Miss. Bot. Gard. 75: i–viii, 1–1181. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Killeen, T. J., E. García Estigarribia & S. G. Beck. (eds.) 1993. Guía Árb. Bolivia 1–958. Herbario Nacional de Bolivia & Missouri Botanical Garden, Edit. Quipus srl., La Paz.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Schwegman, J. E. 1991. The Vascular Flora of Langham Island, Kankakee County, Illinois. Erigenia 11: 1–8.
  • Wilson K.L. & Berendsohn W.G. (eds) (2015). IOPI Global Plant Checklist (version 10.0, Aug 2007). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
    1. Auchmoody, L. R. 1982. Response of young black cherry  stands to fertilization. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  12:319-325.
    3. Auchmoody, L. R., and C. 0. Rexrode. 1984. Black cherry  site index curves for the Allegheny Plateau. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper NE-549. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 5 p.
    5. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175.  Washington, DC. 642 p.
    7. Barnett, P. E., and R. E. Farmer, Jr. 1980. Altitudinal  variation in juvenile characteristics of southern  Appalachian black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.).  Silvae Genetica 29:157-160.
    9. Barnett, P. E., and R. E. Farmer, Jr. 1973. Early flowering  in cherry: effects of genotype, environment, and chemical  growth retardants. In Proceedings, Twelfth Southern  Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p. 118-124. Southern  Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.
    11. Becker, D. D., J. T. Haagen, and W. R. Knight. 1977.  Interim soil survey report for Cameron and Elk Counties,  Pennsylvania. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil  Conservation Service, Pennsylvania State University, and  Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. 97 p. 
    13. Bjorkbom, John C. 1979. Seed production and advance  regeneration in Allegheny hardwood forests. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper NE-435. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 10 p.
    15. Campbell, W. A. 1938. Preliminary report on decay in sprout  northern hardwoods in relation to timber stand improvement.  USDA Forest Service, Occasional Paper 7. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 8 p.
    17. Carmean, Willard H. 1979. Site index comparisons among  northern hardwoods in northern Wisconsin and upper Michigan.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NC-169. North Central  Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 17 p.
    19. Cech, Franklin C., and Katherine K. Carter. 1979. Geographic  variation in black cherry: ten-year results of a West  Virginia provenance test. In Proceedings, First  North Central Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p. 21-27.  North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN.
    21. Cech, F. C., and J. H. Kitzmiller, Jr. 1968. Geographic  variation in seed and seedling characteristics of black  cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.). In Proceedings,  Fifteenth Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference.  p. 53-60. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper  Darby, PA.
    23. Cerutti, James R., and Albert D. Backer. 1971. Warren County  Pennsylvania interim soil survey report. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Pennsylvania State  University, and Pennsylvania Department of Environmental  Resources. University Park, PA.
    25. Church, Thomas W., Jr. 1955. Weeding-an effective treatment  for stimulating growth of northern hardwoods. Journal of  Forestry 53:717-719.
    27. Ciolkosz, E. J., R. W. Ranney, G. W. Peterson, and others.  1970. Characteristics, interpretations, and uses of  Pennsylvania soils, Warren County. Pennsylvania State  University College of Agriculture, Project Report 306.  University Park. 63 p.
    29. Davis, D. D., and W. W. Ward. 1966. Site quality evaluation  for black cherry. p. 54-56. In Pennsylvania State  University, Forest Resource Research Briefs 1. University  Park.
    31. Downs, Albert A. 1938. Glaze damage in the  beech-birch-maple-hemlock type of Pennsylvania and New York.  Journal of Forestry 36:63-70.
    33. Ernst, Richard L. 1987. Growth and yield following thinning  in mixed-species Allegheny hardwood stands. In Proceedings  Symposium, Managing Northern Hardwoods, Ralph D.  Nyland, ed., June 23-25, 1986. State University of  New York, Syracuse. p. 211-222.
    35. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    37. Farmer, Robert E., Jr., and Paul E. Barnett. 1972.  Altitudinal. variations in seed characteristics of black  cherry in the Southern Appalachians. Forest Science  18:169-175.
    39. Forbes, Donovan. 1969. Self and cross-incompatibility in  black cherry (Prunus serotina). Thesis (Ph.D.),  University of Florida, Gainesville.
    41. Forbes, Donovan. 1973. Problems and techniques associated  with natural and controlled pollination of black cherry (Prunus  serotina Ehrh.). In Proceedings, Twentieth  Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p. 47-51  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 
    43. Grisez, Ted J. 1974. Prunus L. Cherry, peach, and  plum. In Seeds of woody plants in the United States.  p. 658-673. C.S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    45. Grisez, Ted J. 1975. Flowering and seed production in seven  hardwood species. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE315.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 8  p.
    47. Grisez, Ted J. 1978. Pruning black cherry in understocked  stands. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-395.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 9 p. 
    49. Grisez, Ted J., and Maurice R. Peace. 1973. Requirements for  advance reproduction in Allegheny hardwoods-an interim  guide. USDA Forest Service, Research Note NE-180.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 5  p.
    51. Gross, Henry L. 1967. Cytospora canker of black cherry.  Plant Disease Reporter 51:941-944.
    53. Gross, Henry L. 1977. Black knot of cherry. Pennsylvania  Department of Forest and Waters, Tree Disease Leaflet 2.  Harrisburg.
    55. Hall, T. F., and G. E. Smith. 1955. Effects of flooding on  woody plants, West Sandy dewatering project, Kentucky  Reservoir. Journal of Forestry 53:281-285.
    57. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    59. Horsley, Stephen B. 1977. Allelopathic inhibition of black  cherry by fern, grass, goldenrod, and aster. Canadian  Journal of Forest Research 7:205-216.
    61. Horsley, Stephen B. 1977. Allelopathic inhibition of black  cherry. 11. Inhibition by woodland grass, ferns, and club  moss. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 7:515-519.
    63. Horsley, Stephen B. 1979. Decomposition of the cyanogenic  glycoside of Prunus serotina: A possible allelopathic  mechanism. (Abstract.) p. 41. Botanical Society of America,  Miscellaneous Publication 157. Columbus, OH.
    65. Horsley, Stephen B. 1981. Glucose- 1-benzoate and prunasin  from Prunus serotina. Phytochemistry 20:1127-1128. 
    67. Horsley, Stephen B. 1986. Evaluation of hay-scented fern  interference with black cherry. Abstract, Proceedings.  American Journal of Botany 73:668-669.
    69. Hough, A. F. 1963. Gum spots in black cherry. Journal of  Forestry 61:572-579.
    71. Hough, Ashbel F. 1965. Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.).  In Silvics of forest trees of the United States. p.  539-545. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC.
    73. Huntzinger, Harold J. 1967. Seeding black cherry in  regeneration cuttings. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  NE-63. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby,  PA. 8 p.
    75. Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States  and Canada. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 626 p. 
    77. Krochmal, Arnold, Russell S. Walters, and Richard M.  Doughty. 1969. A guide to medicinal plants of Appalachia.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-138. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 291 p.
    79. Kulman, H. M. 1964. Defects in black cherry caused  by barkbeetles and agromizid cambium miners. Forest Science  10:258-266.
    81. Lamson, Neil 1. 1976. Appalachian hardwood stump sprouts are  potential sawlog crop trees. USDA Forest Service, Research  Note NE-229. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper  Darby, PA. 4 p.
    83. Lull, Howard W. 1968. A forest atlas of the Northeast. USDA  Forest Service. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station,  Upper Darby, PA. 46 p.
    85. Marquis, David A. 1973. The effect of environmental factors  on advance regeneration of Allegheny hardwoods. Thesis  (Ph.D.), Yale University, New Haven, CT. 147 p.
    87. Marquis, David A. 1975. The Allegheny hardwood forests of  Pennsylvania. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  NE-15. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby,  PA. 32 p.
    89. Marquis, David A. 1975. Seed germination and storage under  northern hardwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 5:478-484.
    91. Marquis, David A. 1978. Application of unevenaged  silviculture and management on public and private  lands. In Uneven-aged silviculture and management in  the United States. Combined Proceedings of two workshops. p.  25-61. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report WO-24.  Timber Management Research, Washington, DC.
    93. Marquis, David A. 1978. The effect of environmental factors  on the natural regeneration of cherry-ash-maple forests in  the Allegheny Plateau region of the eastern United States.  In Proceedings, Symposium Fevillus Precleux, Nancy, France.  p. 90-99. Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique,  Champenoux, France.
    95. Marquis, David A. 1979. Ecological aspects of shelterwood  cutting. In Proceedings, National Silviculture  Workshop, September 17-21, 1979, Charleston, SC. p. 40-56.  USDA Forest Service, Timber Management, Washington, DC. 
    97. Marquis, David A. 1979. Shelterwood cutting in Allegheny  hardwoods. Journal of Forestry 77:140-144.
    99. Marquis, David A. 1981. Effect of deer browsing on timber  production in Allegheny hardwood forests of northwestern  Pennsylvania. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-75.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 10 p. 
    101. Marquis, David A. 1981. Even-age development and management  of mixed hardwood stands: Allegheny hardwoods. In Proceedings,  National Silviculture Workshop on Hardwood Management,  Roanoke, VA. p. 213-226. USDA Forest Service, Washington,  DC.
    103. Marquis, David A. 1981. Removal or retention of  unmerchantable saplings in Allegheny hardwoods: effect on  regeneration after clearcutting. Journal of Forestry  79(5):280-283.
    105. Marquis, David A. 1982. Effect of advance seedling size and  vigor on survival after clearcutting. USDA Forest Service,  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 7 p. 
    107. Marquis, David A. 1986. Thinning Allegheny pole and small  sawtimber stands. In Guidelines for managing  immature Appalachian hardwoods: May 28-30, 1986; Morgantown,  WV_ West Virginia University. p. 68-84.
    109. Marquis, David A. 1987. Silvicultural techniques for  circumventing deer browsing. In Proc.: Deer, Forestry, and  Agriculture: Interactions and Strategies for Management.  June 15-17, 1987, Warren, Pennsylvania; Plateau and Northern  Hardwood Chap., Allegheny Society of American Forestry p.  125-136.
    111. Marquis, David A. 1988. Guidelines for regenerating  cherry-maple stands. In Proc.: Guidelines for  Regenerating Appalachian Hardwood Stands; H. Clay Smith,  Arlyn W. Perkey, and William E. Kidd, Jr., eds. May 24-26,  1988, Morgantown, WV: West Virginia State Univ. & USDA  Forest Service, SAF Publication 88-03:167-188.
    113. Marquis, David A., and Ronnie Brenneman. 1981. The impact of  deer on forest vegetation in Pennsylvania. USDA Forest  Service, General Technical Report NE-65. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 7 p.
    115. Marquis, D. A., R. L. Ernst, and S. L. Stout. 1984.  Prescribing silvicultural treatments in hardwood stands of  the Alleghenies. USDA Forest Service, General Technical  Report NE-96. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station,  Broomall, PA. 91 p.
    117. Matelski, R. P. 1972. Soil series of Pennsylvania-Catena  diagrams. Pennsylvania State University, Agronomy Series  28, 5th ed. University Park. 92 p.
    119. Pitcher, John A. 1984. Geographic variation patterns in seed  and nursery characteristics of black cherry. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper SO-208. Southern Forest Experiment  Station, New Orleans, LA. 8 p.
    121. Pitcher, John A. 1982. Phenotype selection and half-sib  family performance in black cherry. Forest Science  28:251-256.
    123. Pitcher, John A., and Donald E. Dorn. 1972. Geographic  source differences noted in black cherry seed weight,  germination. Tree Planters'Notes 23(3):7-9.
    125. Powell, Douglas S., and E. 11. Tryon. 1979. Sprouting  ability of advance growth in undisturbed hardwood  stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  9:116-120.
    127. Rexrode, Charles 0. 1978. Stem deformity in black cherry.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-411. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 6 p.
    129. Rexrode, C. 0., and L. R. Auchmoody. 1982. Forty-six y after  storm ... glaze-damaged black cherry. Pennsylvania Forests  72(3):8-9.
    131. Rexrode, Charles 0., and John E. Baumgras. 1980. Gum spots  caused by cambium miners in black cherry in West Virginia.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-463. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 9 p.
    133. Roach, Benjamin A. 1977. A stocking guide for Allegheny  hardwoods and its use in controlling intermediate cuttings.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-373. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 30 p.
    135. Shepps, V. C., G. W. White, J. B. Droste, and R. F. S  [n.d.] Glacial geology of northwestern Pennsylvania.  Pennsylvania Department of Internal Affairs, Bulletin G-32.  Harrisburg. 59 p.
    137. Smith, H. Clay. 1965. Effects of clearcut openings on  quality of hardwood border trees. Journal of Forestry  63:933-937.
    139. Stanton, B. J., and H. D. Gerhold. 1988. Family and family x  nitrogen interaction effects on juvenile growth of Prunus  serotina. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  18:1531-1534.
    141. Stout, Susan Laurane, and Ralph D. Nyland. 1986. Role of  species composition in relative density measurement in  Allegheny hardwoods. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  16:574-579.
    143. Stout, Susan L., David A. Marquis, and Richard L. Ernst.  1987. A relative density measure for mixed species stands.  Journal of Forestry 85(7):45-47.
    145. Trimble, G. R., Jr. 1973. Response to crop-tree release  by 7-year-old stems of yellow-poplar and black cherry.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-253. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 10 p.
    147. Trimble, George R., Jr. 1968. Growth of Appalachian  hardwoods as affected by site and residual stand density.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-98. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 13 p. 
    149. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.  1975. Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification  for making and interpreting soil surveys. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 436. Washington, DC. 754  p.
    151. Walters, Russell S. 1985. Black cherry provenances for  planting in northeastern Pennsylvania. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper NE-552. Northeastern Forest Experiment  Station, Broomall, PA. 6 p.
    153. Wendel, G. W. 1972. Longevity of black cherry seed in the  forest floor. USDA Forest Service, Research Note NE-149.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 4  p.
    155. Wendel, G. W. 1975. Stump sprout growth and quality of  several Appalachian hardwood species after clearcutting.  USDA Forest Service, Research Note NE-239. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 9 p.
    157. Wenzel, David. 1970. Soil-ecology report for the owls nest  survey. USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region, Milwaukee, WI.  81 p.
    159. Yeager, A. F., and E. M. Meader. 1958. Breeding better  fruits and nuts. University of New Hampshire Agriculture  Experiment Station, Station Bulletin 448. Durham. 24 p. 


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