The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
- Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
- Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CISRO Publishing, Collingwood, VIC, Australia.
- Johnsgaard, P. A. 1993. Cormorants, Darters, and Pelicans of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC.
- Kennedy, M., Gray, R.D. and Spencer, H.G. 2000. The phylogenetic relationships of the shags and cormorants:can sequence data resolve a disagreement between behavior and morphology? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 17:345-359.
- Siegal-Causey, D. 1988. Phylogeny of the Phalacrocoracidae. Condor 90: 885-905.
- WoRMS (2015). Phalacrocoracidae. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=136993
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