The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
  • Gill, F. and M. Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Johnson, K. P. and M. D. Sorenson. 1999. Phylogeny and biogeography of dabbling ducks (genus Anas): a comparison of molecular and morphological evidence. Auk 116(3):792–805.
  • Kear, J., ed. 2005. Ducks, Geese and Swans. Bird Families of the World XVI. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Livezey, B. C. 1995. Phylogeny and evolutionary ecology of modern seaducks (Anatidae: Mergini). Condor 97:233-255.
  • Livezey, B. C. 1996. A phylogenetic analysis of geese and swans (Anseriformes: Anserinae), including selected fossil species. Syst. Biol. 45:415-450.
  • Madge, S. and H. Burn. 1988. Waterfowl: An Identification Guide to the Ducks, Geese, and Swans of the World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Madsen, J., T. Fox and J. Cracknell, eds. 1999. Goose Populations of the Western Palearctic. A review of Status and Distribution. Wetlands International Publication No. 48. Wetlands International, Wageningen, National Environmental Research Institute, Ronde.
  • Scott, P. and M. Ogilvie. 1998. Collins Illustrated Checklist: Wildfowl of the World. Harper-Collins.
  • Soothill, E. and P. Whitehead. 1996. Wildfowl: A World Guide. London: Blandford.
  • WoRMS (2015). Anatidae. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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