- VLIZ Alien Species Consortium
Bonamia ostreae is a parasitic protist in the phylum Haplosporidia that can cause lethal infections in shellfish, particularly the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis. Infection in oysters rarely results in clinical signs of disease and often the only indication of the infection is increased mortality. The Australian flat oyster, Ostrea angasi, has been infected with two similar Bonamia parasites, Bonamia exitiosa and B. roughleyi.
The cells of Bonamia ostreae measure 2-3 µm in diameter and are found within the haemocytes of the oyster. Lesions occur with focal infiltration of the haemocytes within the connective tissue of the mantle and gills, and in the vascular sinuses near the digestive gland, intestine and stomach. Infection seems to be correlated to haemocyte destruction and diapedesis.
A study in the Netherlands of the epidemiology of European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis, infected with Bonamia ostreae showed that the parasite was present throughout the year and was detected in all oyster weight classes. The study analyzed the prevalence relative to O. edulis density, biomass and a range of environmental parameters. Prevalence was greatest in the largest oysters and was higher in spring than in the autumn, perhaps because of the mortality of these shellfish during the summer. Mortality seemed to be correlated with higher water temperatures and oysters seemed to be more susceptible to infection after seasons with lower food availability or lower salinity levels.
In Europe, distribution of the parasite is along the Atlantic coast from Spain to Denmark. In the USA it is found on the Atlantic coast in Maine and the Pacific coast from California to Washington.
A study was made in 2001 into the relative susceptibility of different strains of Ostrea edulis to the parasite Bonamia ostreae.
Another study was made in 2004 into the incidence of infection by Bonamia ostrea in different populations of Ostrea edulis.
A study made in 2010 aimed to evaluate the Bonamia spp. infection status of Ostrea stentina in the Mediterranean Sea.
- Scottish Fish Health Inspectorate
- Ryan B. Carnegie, Kristina M. Hill, Nancy A. Stokes, Eugene M. Burreson, The haplosporidian Bonamia exitiosa is present in Australia, but the identity of the parasite described as "Bonamia" (formerly Mikrocytos) roughleyi is uncertain, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Volume 115, January 2014, Pages 33-40, ISSN 0022-2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2013.10.017. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201113001626) ]
- Engelsma, Marc Y.; Kerkhoff, Sonja; Roozenburg, Ineke; Haenen, Olga L. M.; van Gool, Ad; Sistermans, Wil; Wijnhoven, Sander; Hummel, Herman (2010). "Epidemiology of Bonamia ostreae infecting European flat oysters Ostrea edulis from Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands". Marine Ecology Progress Series 409: 131–42. doi:10.3354/meps08594.
- Culloty, S; Cronin, M; Mulcahy, M (2004). "Potential resistance of a number of populations of the oyster Ostrea edulis to the parasite Bonamia ostreae". Aquaculture 237: 41–58. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.04.007.
- Culloty, Sarah C.; Cronin, Michelle A.; Mulcahy, Máire F. (2001). "An investigation into the relative resistance of Irish flat oysters Ostrea edulis L. to the parasite Bonamia ostreae (Pichot et al., 1980)". Aquaculture 199 (3–4): 229–44. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00569-5.
- Hill, Kristina M.; Carnegie, Ryan B.; Aloui-Bejaoui, Nejla; Gharsalli, Refka El; White, Delonna M.; Stokes, Nancy A.; Burreson, Eugene M. (2010). "Observation of a Bonamia sp. Infecting the oyster Ostrea stentina in Tunisia, and a consideration of its phylogenetic affinities". Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 103 (3): 179–85. doi:10.1016/j.jip.2009.12.011. PMID 20036670.
- Lynch, S. A.; Abollo, E.; Ramilo, A.; Cao, A.; Culloty, S. C.; Villalba, A. (2010). "Observations raise the question if the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, can act as either a carrier or a reservoir for Bonamia ostreae or Bonamia exitiosa". Parasitology 137 (10): 1515–26. doi:10.1017/S0031182010000326. PMID 20388237.
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