The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2005. "Information on Plague" (On-line). CDC: Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases. Accessed February 17, 2009 at
  • 2008. "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed February 01, 2009 at
  • 2009. "North American Mammals" (On-line). Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Accessed February 01, 2009 at
  • Anderson, S., J. Jones. 1984. Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. United States of America: Wiley-Interscience Publication.
  • Asdell, S. 1964. Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Bordignon, M. 2000. Behaviour and daily activity of the squirrel Sciurus ingrami in a secondary aracaria forest in southern brazil. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 10: 1732-1739.
  • Dewey, T. 2007. "Sciuromorpha" (On-line). Animal Diversity Web. Accessed February 02, 2009 at
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
  • Gurnell, J. 1987. The Natural History of Squirrels. New York: Facts on File Inc.
  • Hayssen, V. 2008. Patterns of Body and Tail Length and Body Mass in Sciuridae. Journal of Mammalogy, 89/4: 852-873. Accessed February 03, 2009 at
  • Hayssen, V. 2008. Reproductive effor in squirrels: Ecological, phylogenetic, allometic, and latitudinal patterns. Journal of Mammalogy, 3: 89-91.
  • J. Brown, Ecological investigations of the Tundra biome in the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska, Special Report, no. 2, Biol. Pap. Univ. Alaska (1975), from p. xiv.
  • Jansa, S., P. Myers. 2000. "Family Sciuridae" (On-line). Animal Diversity Web. Accessed February 12, 2009 at
  • Long, J. 2003. Introduced Mammals of the World. Australia and United Kingdom: CSIRO Publishing and CABI Publishing.
  • Lurz, P. 2011. "Squirrels and Relatives III: Tree Squirrels" (On-line). Grzimek's Animal Life. Accessed April 16, 2011 at
  • Macdonald, D. 1984. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc..
  • Matthews, L. 1971. The Life of Mammals: Volume II. New York City: Universe Books.
  • Michaux, J., L. Hautier, T. Simonin, M. Vianey-Liaud. 2008. Phylogeny, adaptation, and mandible shape in Sciuridae (Rodentia, Mammalia). Mammalia, 72/4: 286-296. Accessed February 03, 2009 at
  • Mundell, E.J. 2007 February 2. Groundhogs, other hibernators, could aid human health. HealthDay Reporter.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Net Industries. 2009. "Squirrels and Relatives - Sciuridae" (On-line). Animal Life Resource - Mammals and Other Warm-Blooded Animals. Accessed February 03, 2009 at
  • Nowak, R. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World 5th Edition, Volume I. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Seebeck, J. 1989. "Fauna of Australia 46. Sciuridae" (On-line). Accessed March 08, 2009 at
  • Steppan, S., B. Storz, R. Hoffmann. 2003. Nuclear DNA Phylogeny of the Squirrels (Mammalia:Rodentia) and the Evolution of Arboreality from c-myc and RAG1. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 30: 703-719. Accessed February 15, 2009 at
  • Steppan, S., S. Hamm. 2006. "Sciuridae. Squirrels. Version 13 May 2006" (On-line). The Tree of Life Web Project. Accessed January 28, 2009 at
  • Thorington, R., K. Ferrell. 2006. Squirrels - The Animal Answer Guide. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Thorington, Richard W., Jr., John L. Koprowski, Michael A. Steele, and James F. Whatton. 2012. Squirrels of the World. vii + 459
  • Thorington, Richard W., Jr., and Robert S. Hoffman / Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Family Sciuridae. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vol. 2. 754-818
  • Vernes, K. 2004. Breeding biology and seasonal capture success of northern flying; squirrels and red squirrels in southern new brunswick. Northeastern Naturalist, 11: 123-137.
  • Wilson, D., D. Reeder. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: 3rd Edition, Volume 2. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207


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