The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Barnes, Robert D. 1982. Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 247–248. ISBN 0-03-056747-5.
  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. xiii + 992
  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 2002. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936
  • Giard, Alf. 1877. Sur les Orthonectida, classe nouvelle d'animaux parasites des Échinodermes et des Turbellariés. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, vol. 85, no. 18. 812-814
  • Giard, M. A. 1878. On the Orthonectida, a new Class of Animals Parasitic on Echinodermata and Turbellaria. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 5, vol. 1, no. 2. 181-183
  • Hanelt, Ben, David Van Schyndel, Coen M. Adema, Louise A. Lewis & Eric S. Loker. 1996. "The phylogenetic position of Rhopalura ophiocomae (Orthonectida) based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis". Molecular Biology and Evolution 13 (9): 1187–1191. PMID 8896370
  • WoRMS (2015). Orthonectida. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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