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The family Palaephatidae currently includes ca. 60 species equally divided between southern South America (Davis 1986) and Australia (Nielsen 1987; Common 1990). Five genera (Sesommata, 6 species; Metaphatus, 6 species; Plesiophatus, l species; Palaephatus, 13 species; and Apophatus, 2 species) have been described from South America and two (Azaleodes, 4 species and Ptyssoptera, 25 species) from Australia. Autapomorphies for the Palaephatidae include the terminal, median ridge covered with campaniform sensillae on the oviscapt and possibly the mesal plate on the abdominal prolegs of the larva. The squamiform seta laterad to the pretarsal claw on the larva is an unusual feature also shared with some Incurvariidae and Prodoxidae. Unlike most monotrysian Heteroneura, adult male Palaephatidae have also developed a diverse assortment of sex scale pockets, most of them located in various regions of the wings.