The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Arnold, Augusta Foote. 1903. Sea-Beach at Ebb-Tide. New York : Century Co.; Plate XIII
  • Benedetti-Cecchi L, Bertocci I, Vaselli S, Maggi E, Bulleri F. 2008. Neutrality and the Response of Rare Species to Environmental Variance. PLoS ONE 3(7): e2777. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002777
  • Coppard, SE & AC Campbell. 2007. Grazing of diadematid echinoids in Fiji. Aquat. Bot. 86: 204-212.
  • Dickinson, C.I., (1963). British seaweeds. London & Frome: Butler & Tanner Ltd. External link.
  • Garreta, AG, Lluch, JR, Martí, MCB & MAR Siguan. 2007. On the presence of fertile gametophytes of Padina pavonica (Dictyotales, Phaeophycea) from the Iberian coasts. Anales Jardín Bot. Madrid 64: 27-33.
  • Hardy, F.G. & Guiry, M.D., (2003). A check-list and atlas of the seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. London: British Phycological Society External link.
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), (1999). Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line], External link.
  • Littler, DS & MM Littler. 2000. Caribbean Reef Plants. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 542 pp.
  • Littler, DS, Littler, MM & MD Hanisak. 2008. Submersed Plants of the Indian River Lagoon: A Floristic Inventory and Field Guide. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 286 pp.
  • Neto, AI. 2000. Observations on the biology and ecology of selected macroalgae from the littoral of São Miguel (Azores). Bot. Mar. 43: 483-498.
  • Norton, T.A. (ed.), (1985). Provisional Atlas of the Marine Algae of Britain and Ireland. Huntingdon: Biological Records Centre, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology. External link.
  • Omezzine, F, Haouala, R, Ayeb, AE & N Boughanmi. 2009. Allelopathic and antifungal potentialities of Padina pavonica (L.) extract. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 1: 94-203.
  • Orlando-Bonaca, M, Lipej, L & S Orfanidis. 2008. Benthic macrophytes as a tool for delineating, monitoring and assessing ecological status: the case of Slovenian coastal waters. Mar. Poll. Bull. 56: 666-676.
  • Ramírez ME & B Santelices (1991) Catalogo de las algas marinas bentónicas de la costa templada del Pacifico de Sudamerica. Monografías Biológicas (Chile) 5: 1-440.
  • Taylor, WR. 1979. Marine Algae of the Eastern Tropical and Subtropical Coasts of the Americas. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. USA. 870 pp.
  • Tuya, F, Martín, JA, Reuss, GM & A Luque. 2001. Food of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, central-east Atlantic Ocean). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 81: 845-849.
  • Wuitner, Emile. 1921. Algues Marines des Cotes de France (Manche et Ocean). Paris, France : Paul Lechevalier. Encyclopedie Pratique du Naturaliste. v.VII; Plate 19


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