The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Balech E (1995) The genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata). Sherkin Island Marine Station
  • Balech E and Tangen K (1985) Morphology and taxonomy pof toxic species in the tamarensis group (Dinophceae) Alexandrium excavatum (Braarud) comb. nov. and Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) comb. nov. Sarsia, 70: 333-343
  • Balech, E. & K. Tangen 1985. Morphology and taxonomy of toxic species in the tamarensis group (Dinophyceae): Alexandrium excavatum (Braarud) comb. nov. and Alexandrium ostenfeldii comb. nov. Sarsia 70: 333-343.
  • Balech, E. 1995. The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.
  • Braarud, T. 1945. Morphological observations on marine dinoflagellate cultures (Porella perforata, Goniaulax tamarensis, Protoceratium reticulatum). Avh. Utgitt. Nor. Vidensk. Akad. Oslo Mat.-Naturvidensk. Kl. 11: 1-18.
  • Cembella, A.D., J.-C. Therriault & P. Beland 1988. Toxicity of cultured isolates and natural populations of Protogonyaulax tamarensis from the St. Lawrence estuary. J. Shellfish Res. 7: 611-621.
  • Cembella, A.D., J.J. Sullivan, G.L. Boyer, F.J.R. Taylor & R.J. Anderson 1987. Variation in paralytic shellfish toxin composition within the Protogonyaulax tamarensis/catenella species complex; red tide dinoflagellates. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 15: 171-186.
  • Cembella, A.D., N.I. Lewis & M.A. Quilliam 2000. The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) as the causative organism of spirolide shellfish toxins. Phycologia 39: 67-74.
  • Fraga, S. & F.J. Sanchez 1985. Toxic and potentially toxic dinoflagellates in Galician Rias (NW Spain). In: D. Anderson, A.W. White & D.G. Baden (eds.), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York: 51-55.
  • Hansen, P.J., A.D. Cembella & O. Moestrup 1992. The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii: Paralytic shellfish toxin concentration, composition, and toxicity to a tintinnid ciliate. J. Phycol. 28: 597-603.
  • Jensen, M. & O. Moestrup 1997. Autecology of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii: life history and growth at different temperatures and salinities. Eur. J. Phycol. 32: 9-18.
  • K.E. Gribble, B.A. Keafer, N.A. Quilliam, A.D. Cembella, D.M. Kulis, A. Manahan & D.M. Anderson (2005). Distribution and toxicity of Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) in the Gulf of Maine, USA. Deep Sea Research II 52: 2745-2763
  • Konovalova, G.V. 1993. Toxic and potentially toxic dinoflagellates from the far east coastal waters of Russia. In: Smayda, T.J. & Y. Shimizu (eds.), Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea, Elsevier, Amsterdam: 275-279.
  • Larsen, J. & O. Moestrup 1989. Guide to Toxic and Potentially Toxic Marine Algae. The Fish Inspection Service, Ministry of Fisheries, Copenhagen. 61 pp.
  • Levasseur, M., L. Berard-Therriault, E. Bonneau & S. Roy 1998. Distribution of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. In: Reguera, B., J. Blanco, M.L. Fernandez & T. Wyatt (eds.), Harmful Algae, Xunta de Galicia and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Spain: 54-57.
  • Mackenzie, L., D. White, Y. Ohima & J. Kapa 1996. The resting cyst and toxicity of Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) in New Zealand. Phycologia: 35: 148-155.
  • Moestrup, O. & P.J. Hansen 1988. On the occurrence of the potentially toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense (= Gonyaulax excavata) and A. ostenfeldii in Danish and Faroese waters. Ophelia 28: 195-213.
  • Prakash, A. & F.J.R. 1966. A 'red water' bloom of Gonyaulax acatenella in the Strait of Georgia and its relation to paralytic shellfish toxicity. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 23: 1265-1270.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Steidinger, Karen A. and Karl Tangen / Carmelo R. Tomas ed. 1997. Dinoflagellates. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. 387-584
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Tomas C ed. (1996) Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
  • Woloszynska, J. & W. Conrad 1939. Pyrodinium phoneus n. sp., agent de la toxicite des moules du canal maritime de Bruges a Zeebruge. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belg. 15: 1-5.


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