The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Andersen, R. A. (2004). Biology and systematics of heterokont and haptophyte algae. American Journal of Botany. 91, 1508-1522.
  • Koehl MAR; Silk WK; Liang H; Mahadevan L. 2008. How kelp produce blade shapes suited to different flow regimes: A new wrinkle. Integr. Comp. Biol. 48(6): 834-851.
  • Koehl, M. A. R. ; Wainwright, S. A. 1977. Mechanical adaptations of a giant kelp. Limnol. Oceanogr. 22: 1067-1071.
  • Steven Vogel. 2003. Comparative Biomechanics: Life's Physical World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 580 p.


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