The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Adachi, M., Y. Sako, A. Uchida & Y. Ishida 1995. Ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) define species of the genus Alexandrium. In: P. Lassus, G. Arzul, E. Erard, P. Gentien & C. Marcaillou (eds.), Harmful Marine Algal Blooms, Lavoisier, Intercept Ltd: 15-20.
  • Balech, E. 1995. The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.
  • Bicknell, W.J. & D.C. Walsh 1975. The first 'red tide' in recorded Massachusetts history: managing an acute and unexpectd public health emergency. In: V.R. LoCicero (ed.), Proc. First Int. Conf. Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Massachusetts Sci. Tech. Found., Wakefield: 447-458.
  • Bolch, C.J. & G.M. Hallegraeff 1990. Dinoflagellate cysts in Recent marine sediments from Tasmania, Australia. Bot. Mar. 33: 173-192.
  • Dodge, JD. (1982) Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. Her Majesty's Stationary office. pp 303.
  • Fossil Record to Explain Biogeographic Distributions Within the Alexandrium tamarense ??Species Complex?? (Dinophyceae). Mol. Biol. Evol. 20(7):1015?1027
  • Fukuyo, Y. 1985. Morphology of Protogonyaulax tamarensis (Lebour) and Protogonyaulax catenella (Whedon & Kofoid) Taylor from Japanese coastal waters. Bull. Mar. Sci. 37: 533-534.
  • Fukuyo, Y., H. Takano, M. Chihara & K. Matsuoka 1990. Red Tide Organisms in Japan. An Illustrated Taxonomic Guide. Uchida Rokakuho, Co., Ltd., Tokyo. 407 pp.
  • Fukuyo, Y., K. Yoshida & H. Inoue 1985. Protogonyaulax in Japanese coastal waters. In: D.M. Anderson, A.W. White & D.G. Baden (eds.), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York: 27-32.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. 1991. Aquaculturists Guide to Harmful Australian Microalgae. Fishing Industry Training Board of Tasmania/CSIRO Division of Fisheries, Hobart, 111 pp.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M., C.J. Bolch, S.I. Blackburn & Y. Oshima 1991. Species of the toxigenic dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium in southeastern Australian waters. Bot. Mar. 34: 575-587.
  • Hayashi, T., Y. Shimizu & A.W. White 1982. Toxin profile of herbivorous zooplankton during a Gonyaulax bloom in the Bay of Fundy. Bull. Japan. Soc. Sci. Fish. 48: 1673.
  • Hurst, J.W., Jr. 1975. History of paralytic shellfish poisoning on the Maine coast 1958-1974. In: V.R. LoCicero (ed.), Proc. First Int. Conf. Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Massachusetts Sci. Tech. Found., Wakefield: 525-528.
  • John, U., Fensome RA.,Medlin, LK. (2003) The Application of a Molecular Clock Based on Molecular Sequences and the
  • Larsen, J. & O. Moestrup 1989. Guide to Toxic and Potentially Toxic Marine Algae. The Fish Inspection Service, Ministry of Fisheries, Copenhagen. 61 pp.
  • Lebour, M.V. 1925. The Dinoflagellates of Northern Seas. Marine Biol. Assoc. U.K., Plymouth. 250 pp.
  • Loeblich, L.A. & A.R. Loeblich, III 1975. The organism causing New England red tides: Gonyaulax excavata. In: V.R. LoCicero (ed.), Proc. First Int. Conf. Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Massachusetts Sci. Tech. Found., Wakefield: 207-224.
  • Moestrup, O. & P.J. Hansen 1988. On the occurrence of the potentially toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense (= Gonyaulax excavata) and A. ostenfeldii in Danish and Faroese waters. Ophelia 28: 195-213.
  • Mortensen, A.M. 1985. Massive fish mortalities in the Faroe Islands caused by a Gonyaulax excavata red tide. In: Anderson, D.M., A.W. White & D.G. Baden (eds.), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York: 165-170.
  • Ogata, T. & M. Kodama 1986. Ichthyotoxicity found in cultured media of Protogonyaulax spp. Mar. Biol. 92: 31-34.
  • Ogata, T., M. Kodama, Y. Fukuyo, T. Inoue, H. Kamiya, F. Matsuura, K. Sekiguchi & S. Watanabe 1982. The occurrence of Protogonyaulax spp. in Ofunato Bay, in association with the toxification of the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish.48: 563-566.
  • Oshima, Y., L.J. Buckley, M. Alam & Y. Shimizu 1977. Heterogeneity of paralytic shellfish poisons. Three new toxins from cultured Gonyaulax tamarensis cells, Mya arenaria and Saxidomus giganteus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 57C: 31-34.
  • Oshima, Y., T. Yasumoto, M. Kodama, T. Ogata, Y. Fukuyo & F. Matsuura 1982. Features of paralytic shellfish poison occurring in Tohoku District. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 48: 525-530.
  • Reyes-Vasquez, G., E. Ferraz-Reyes & E. Vasquez 1979. Toxic dinoflagellate blooms in northeastern Venezuela during 1977. In: D.L. Taylor & H.H. Seliger (eds.), Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Elsevier/North-Holland, New York: 191-194.
  • Shimizu, Y., M. Alam, Y. Oshima & W.E. Fallon 1975. Presence of four toxins in red tide infested clams and cultured Gonyaulax tamarensis cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 66: 731-737.
  • Silva, E.S. 1962. Some observations on marine dinoflagellate cultures. Not. E. Estud. Instit. Biol. Marit. 26: 1-26.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Steidinger, Karen A. and Karl Tangen / Carmelo R. Tomas ed. 1997. Dinoflagellates. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. 387-584
  • Tamiyavanich, S., M. Kodama & Y. Fukuyo 1985. The occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning in Thailand. In: D.M. Anderson, A.W. White & D.G. Baden (eds.), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York: 521-524.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Tomas C ed. (1996) Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
  • Turpin, D.H., P.E.R. Dobell & F.J.R. Taylor 1978. Sexuality and cyst formation in Pacific strains of the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax tamarensis. J. Phycol. 14: 235-238.
  • White 1980
  • Yentsch, C.M., B. Dale & J.W. Hurst 1978. Coexistence of toxic and nontoxic dinoflagellates resembling Gonyaulax tamarensis in New England coastal waters (NW Atlantic). J. Phycol. 14: 330.


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