The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Anderson, C.L. Canning, E.U. Okamura, B. (1999) Molecular data implicate bryozoans as hosts for PKX (Phylum Myxozoa) and identify a clade of bryozoan parasites within the Myxozoa. Parasitol 119: 555-561
  • Canning, E.U. & Okamura, B. (2004) Biology and evolution of the Myxozoa. Adv Parasitol 56: 43-131
  • Canning, E.U. Curry, A. Feist, S.W. Longshaw, M. & Okamura, B. 1999. Tetracapsula bryosalmonae n.sp. for PKX organism the cause of PKD in salmonid fish. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 19(2): 203-206.
  • Canning, E.U. Curry, A. Feist, S.W. Longshaw, M. & Okamura, B. 2000. A new class and order of myxozoans to accommodate parasites of bryozoans with ultrastructural observations on Tetracapsula bryosalmonae (PKX organism). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 47: 456-468.
  • De Kinkelin, P. Gay, M. Forman, S. (2002) The persistence of infectivity of Tetracapsula bryosalmonae-infected water for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Dis 25: 477-482
  • Feist, S.W. Longshaw, M. Canning, E.U. Okamura, B. (2001) Induction of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss via the bryozoan Fredericella sultana infected with Tetracapsula bryosalmonae. Dis Aquat Org 45: 61-68
  • Foot, Foott J.S. Hedrick, R.P. (1987) Seasonal occurrence of the infectious stage of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) and resistance of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, to reinfection. J Fish Biol 30:477–483
  • Grabner, D.S. El-Matbouli, M. 2008. Transmission of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea) to Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata) by various fish species Dis. Aquat. Org. 79, 133-139.
  • Hill, S.L.L. & Okamura, B. 2007. Endoparasitism in colonial hosts: patterns and processes. Parasitology 134: 841-852. doi: 10.1017/S003112007002259
  • Jiménez-Guri, E. Philippe, H. Okamura, B. & Holland, P.W.H. 2007. Buddenbrockia is a cnidarian worm. Science 317: 116-118.
  • Morris, D.J. Adams, A. 2006. Trasmission of freshwater myxozoans during the asexual propagation of invertebrate hosts. Int. J. Parasitol. 36, 371-377.
  • Morris, D.J. and Adams, A. 2006. Transmission of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea), the causative organism of salmonid proliferative kidney disease, to the freshwater bryozoan, Fredericella sultana. Parasitology 133: 701-709.
  • Morris, D.J. and Adams, A. 2008. Sporogony of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in the brown trout Salmo trutta and the role of the tertiary cell during the vertebrate phase of myxozoan life cycles. Parasitology 135: 1075-1092.
  • Parasitol 56: 43-131
  • Tops, S. Curry, A. & Okamura, B. 2005. Diversity and systematics of the Malacosporea (Myxozoa). Invertebrate Biology 124: 285-295.
  • Tops, S. Hartikainen, H. & Okamura, B. 2009. The effects of infection by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) and temperature on Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa). International Journal for Parasitology 39: 1003-1010. doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2009.01.007
  • Tops, S. Lockwood, W. Okamura, B. 2006. Temperature-driven proliferation of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in bryozoan hosts portends salmonid declines. Dis. Aquat. Org. 70, 227-236.


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