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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The Hispaniolan Amazon lives in pairs and small flocks, and nests in tree cavities, and sometimes dead tree-stumps and rock crevices (2) (6). Breeding is known from February to May but may extend further into the year (2). Clutches typically contain two to four eggs, and incubation in captivity lasts 24 to 26 days (5) (6). Chicks usually fledge at 10 to 12 weeks of age (6). The Hispaniolan Amazon feeds on the fruits and seeds of palms, cacti and guava, as well as cultivated plants such as bananas and maize (5).
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Description

Like most Amazons, this species is green with some dark edging to the feathers, giving a scaled appearance (4). The forehead is white, bordered by blue, and the ear-coverts are dark blue to black (5). Reddish patches appear on the lower face and throat, the belly and the base of the tail (4) (5). Primary flight feathers and wing-coverts are blue and the green tail has slight yellowish colouration at the tips (4) (6).
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Distribution

Range

Hispaniola and satellite islands.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Range

Native to Hispaniola, occurring in both Haiti and the Dominican Republic, as well as the satellite islands of Grande Cayemite, Gonâve, Beata and Saona (2). Populations have also been introduced to Puerto Rico (USA), and St Croix and St Thomas in the Virgin Islands (USA) (2).
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Ecology

Habitat

Found in a variety of wooded habitats, from arid lowland palm-savannah to pine to more humid montane evergreen forest, up to approximately 1,500 metres above sea level (2) (5). This species often frequents cultivated lands such as banana plantations and maize fields in order to forage (2).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Amazona ventralis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amazona ventralis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List (1) and listed on Appendix II of CITES (3).
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Threats

This Amazon parrot is thought to have undergone significant declines due to habitat clearance, poaching for food, trapping for the local and international cage-bird trade and shooting as a crop pest (2) (5). Nest poaching is fairly common, even in protected areas, and, in some cases, entire trees are cut down to obtain the nestlings for trade (7). Conversion of land for agriculture and charcoal production have destroyed most suitable habitat (2).
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Management

Conservation

The National Aviary and the Sociedad Ornitologica Hispaniola (SOH) have begun an education strategy involving a series of community workshops to improve awareness among communities living near the remaining parrot populations (2) (7). Populations of this parrot receive some protection in protected areas such as Sierra de Bahorucos and Del Este National Parks in the Dominican Republic (2) (7). In 1997 to 1998, 49 captive-reared birds were released and radio-tracked in Del Este National Park, and there is potential for further reintroductions (2). Continued field research is planned for 2007 to determine clutch and brood sizes, and nest success, as well as to further establish the extent of habitat loss and nest poaching on Hispaniola and the patterns of extinction throughout the island. It is hoped that the information gained from such studies will help guide appropriate conservation measures and to emphasize the seriousness of the decline of the Hispaniolan Amazon to local people and to governments (7).
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Wikipedia

Hispaniolan amazon

The Hispaniolan amazon or Hispaniolan parrot (Amazona ventralis) is a species of parrot in the Psittacidae family. It is found on Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), and has been introduced to Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

The main features that differentiate it from other amazons are the white forehead, pale beak, white eye-ring, blue ear patch, and red belly.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, and plantations. It is threatened in its home range by habitat loss and the capture of individuals for the pet trade.

The presence of this bird outside of its native Hispaniola is due to it being introduced, this in part from a release of birds raised in captivity as a studied rehearsal for the re-colonization program of the highly endangered Puerto Rican amazon.

Habitat and distribution[edit]

As with other amazons, it prefers forested areas where food is plentiful. This parrot lives in the wood forests in the Dominican Republic and Haiti. However over the recent years they have been capture out of their natural habitat illegally for pet trades or just to keep them as pets which are very popular in the Dominican Republic. Right now[when?] the population ranges from 10,000 to 19,000 in the wild and decreasing.

The sharply declining population of Hispaniolan amazons are found in a small area of Haiti, Dominican Republic and a few of-shore islands. It has been introduced to Puerto Rico.

These parrots create nests in tree cavities, the clutch ranges from 2 to 4 eggs maximum, the eggs hatch in about a 30 days and chicks usually fledge at 10 to 12 weeks of age. However people often remove the newborns from the tree cavities and destroy the nest that have been reused over the years and afterwards priving the parrot from reproducing.

Description[edit]

Plumage green; most feathers edged with blue; white forehead and around eyes; some blue patches on cheeks and crown; a little red under the chin; ear coverts black; has red on abdomen; blue wind coverts; green edging to outer webs; yellowish green under tail; tail upper-side green with yellow tips; outer tail feathers red at base; bill horn coloured; iris is brown and feet is pale. its body length is about 28 cm long. The average adults weight 250g (8.75 oz). has a heavy and powerful beak, their bite can cut open skin and do deep cuts.

Although a common amazon, due to habitat loss, hunting and trapping the wild population is declining sharply. These amazons prefer to be either in small groups or pairs. They are noisy and cautious, spending the greater part of their days eating and resting in trees. When in flight, they have a very heavy wing beat and are slow. They feed on fruits, berries, seeds, nuts and possibly flowers and constantly chatter while feeding. They have been known to cause damage to banana, guava, maize and cactus fruit crops.

Breeding[edit]

Breeding in aviculture is often not successful and when they are in pairs, they need to be isolated. This is the main reason for the declining population. They are hard to breed and are not hardy, meaning that they can not survive if released into the wild.

References[edit]

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