Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: BREEDING: Florida Keys, Bahamas, Greater Antilles (east to Virgin Islands, including small cays off Cuba, Gomave, and Tortoe) and Cayman Islands. NON-BREEDING: presumably in South America. Regular spring migrant on Dry Tortugas (NGS 1983).

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 24 cm

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Open and semi-open situations. BREEDING: Lays eggs on ground in open area (Raffaele 1983).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Arrives in Puerto Rico in April or May, departs usually August-October (Raffaele 1989). In spring and fall, migrants from other Greater Antillean islands and the Bahamas pass through Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Raffaele 1989).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Usually feeds on flying insects high over fields and pastures in Puerto Rico (Raffaele 1983).

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Somewhat crepuscular; daytime activity most likely on overcast days (Raffaele 1983).

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Reproduction

Lays clutch of 1-2 eggs (usually 1), May-June (Raffaele 1983).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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