The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Borgensen, F. 1918. The Marine Algae of the Danish West Indies, IV. Rhodophyceae (4). Dan. Bot. Ark., Vol. 3, pp.241-304.
  • Ellison, A.M., E.J. Farnsworth, et al. 1996. Facultative Mutualism Between Red Mangroves and Root-Fouling Sponges in Belezean Mangal. Ecology 77(8):2438-2444.
  • Ganesan, M., and L. Kannan. 1995. Iron and Manganese Concentrations in Seawater, Sediment and Marine Algae of Tuticorin Coast, Southeast Coast of India. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 24:236-237.
  • Jokiel, P.L., and J.I. Morrissey. 1986. Influence of Size On Primary Production in the Reef Coral Pocillopora damicornis and the Macroalga Acanthophora spicifera. Marine Biology 91:15-26.
  • Kerr, J.N.Q., and V.J. Paul. 1995. Animal-plant Defense Association: The Soft Coral Sinularia sp. (Cnidaria, Alcyonacea) Protects Halimeda spp. From Herbivory. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 186(2):183-205.
  • Kilar J.A., J.N. Norris, J.E. Cubit, et al. 1988. The Community Structure, Seasonal Abundance, and Zonation of the Benthic Assemblages on a Plant-Dominated Fringing Reef Platform (Caribbean Panama). Smithson. Contrib. Mar. Sci.
  • Kilar, J.A., and J. McLachlan. 1986a. Ecological Studies of the Alga, Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl) Borg. (Ceramiales: Rhodophyta): Vegetative Fragmentation. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 104:1-21.
  • Kilar, J.A., and J. McLachlan. 1986b. Branching Morphology as an Indicator of Environmental Disturbance: Testing the Vegetative Fragmentation of Acanthophora spicifera and the Turf Morphology of Laurencia papillosa. Aquatic Botany 24:115-130.
  • Littler, D., M. Littler, K. Bucher et al. 1989. Marine Plants of the Caribbean, a Field Guide from Florida to Brazil. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. Parekh, R.G., Y.A. Doshi, et al. 1989. Polysaccharides From Marine Red Algae, Acanthophora spicifera, Grateloupia indica and Halymenia porphyroides. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 18:139-140.
  • Russell, D.J. 1992. The Ecological Invasion of Hawaiian Reefs by Two Marine Red Algae, Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl) Boerg. and Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J. Ag., and Their Association With Two Native Species, Laurencia nidifica J. Ag. and Hypnea cervicornis J. Ag. ICES mar. Sci. Symp. 194:110-125.
  • Russell, D.J., and G.H. Balazs. 1994. Colonization by the Alien Marine Alga Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J. Ag. (Rhodophyta: Gigartinales) in the Hawaiian Islands and Its Utilization by the Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas L. Aquatic Botany 47(1):53-60.
  • Tabb, D.C. and R.B. Manning. 1961. A checklist of the Flora and Fauna of Northern Florida Bay, and Adjacent Brackish Water of Florida Mainland, Collected During the Period, July 1957 Through September 1960. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf. Carib., Vol. 11, pp. 552-649.
  • Taylor, W.R. 1967. Marine Algae on the Eastern Tropical and Subtropical Coasts of the Americas. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.870 pp.
  • Taylor, W.R. and A.J. Bernatowicz. 1969. Distribution of Marine Algae About Bermuda. Bermuda Biol. Stn. Res. Spec. Pub. Vol. 1, pp. 1-42.
  • Trono, G. 1968. The Taxonomy and Ecology of the Marine Benthic Algae of the Caroline Islands. PhD Dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.387 pp.


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