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Overview

Brief Summary

Setophaga coronata

A medium-sized (5-6 inches) wood warbler, the Yellow-rumped Warbler occurs in two geographically-linked color groups. Summer males from the eastern (Myrtle) group are streaked gray above and white below with a black face mask, black breast, white chin, and conspicuous yellow patches on the head, wings, and rump. Summer males from the western (Audubon’s) group have more extensive black on the breast and a yellow throat, but are otherwise similar to eastern males. Females of both groups are duller and browner than the males, and all birds become dull brown above and pale below (while retaining the conspicuous yellow patches) during the winter. This species may be distinguished from the similarly-patterned Magnolia Warbler (Setophaga magnolia) by that species’ heavily streaked breast and broader tail. The eastern form of the Yellow-rumped Warbler breeds across Alaska, Canada, and at higher elevations in the northeastern United States; wintering in the southeastern U.S., the Mid-Atlantic region, the Pacific coast from Washington to California, and the West Indies. The western form breeds in the Pacific Northwest, the mountains of northern California, and in the interior west; wintering in the southern California and the southwest. Both forms winter from the U.S. border south to Central America; the western form also breeds locally in the mountains of Mexico and Guatemala. Yellow-rumped Warblers primarily breed in northern and high-mountain evergreen forest habitats. In winter, this species may be found in open forest, thickets, and scrub as well as locally in urban and suburban areas. Yellow-rumped Warblers primarily eat small insects and spiders, but, more so than most other wood warblers, this species also eats fruits and berries during the winter. In appropriate habitat, Yellow-rumped Warblers may be observed foraging for invertebrates and berries in the tree canopy or in the undergrowth. Birdwatchers may also listen for this species’ song, a series of high-pitched warbling notes petering out at the end. Yellow-rumped Warblers are primarily active during the day, but, like many migratory songbirds, this species migrates at night.

Threat Status: Least Concern

  • Hunt, P. D. and David J. Flaspohler. 1998. Yellow-rumped Warbler (Setophaga coronata), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/376
  • Peterson, Roger Tory. Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980. Print.
  • Setophaga coronata. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
  • Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
  • eBird Range Map - Yellow-rumped Warbler. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
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Distribution

The Yellow-rumped Warbler has a large breeding range. During the spring and summer in the western side of its range, it can be found as far north as central Alaska and as far south as Central America. Its breeding range stretches across Canada, but in the eastern United states, the Yellow-Rumped Warbler is only seen as far south as the Great Lakes states.

The winter range extends from the southern states to the West Indies and Central America. The Yellow-rumped Warbler is a facultative migrant (it moves with food availability and weather) and so has a drastically changing winter range depending on yearly conditions (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999).

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: CORONATA breeds from Alaska and Mackenzie south through Canada to north-central and northeastern U.S.; winters from northwestern, central, and east-central U.S., eastern Mexico (including Yucatan Peninsula), through Central America to Panama (and accidently into northern Colombia and Venezuela), and in Caribbean from the Bahamas through the Greater Antilles, rarely as far east as Virgin Islands. AUDUBONI breeds from British Columbia south through the western U.S. into Baja California; winters from southwestern Canada south throughout western Mexico through Guatemala and uncommonly to Honduras. NIGRIFRONS breeds (and is probably a permanent resident) from northwestern Chihuahua south through the Sierra Madre Occidental through Durango and probably to Jalisco. GOLDMANI is a permanent resident of the highlands of western Guatemala and adjacent Chiapas.

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Geographic Range

The Yellow-rumped Warbler has a large breeding range. During the spring and summer in the western side of its range, it can be found as far north as central Alaska and as far south as Central America. Its breeding range stretches across Canada, but in the eastern United states, the Yellow-Rumped Warbler is only seen as far south as the Great Lakes states.

The winter range extends from the southern states to the West Indies and Central America. The Yellow-rumped Warbler is a facultative migrant (it moves with food availability and weather) and so has a drastically changing winter range depending on yearly conditions (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999).

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

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Physical Description

Morphology

Birds of either sex in all plumages have a yellow rump and a yellow patch on their side just in front of each wing. During the breeding season, male and female also have a yellow crown patch and white tail patches. There are two subspecies (previously considered separate species), the north and eastern Myrtle Warbler and the western Audubon's Warbler. The breeding male Myrtle Warbler has white eyebrows, a white throat, and white sides of neck while the Audubon's Warbler has no eyebrows and a yellow throat. Females and non-breeding males show the same basic pattern but are duller in color than their breeding counterparts (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Dunn 1999; Georgia Wildlife Website 2000).

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Average mass: 11.5 g.

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.1895 W.

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Physical Description

Birds of either sex in all plumages have a yellow rump and a yellow patch on their side just in front of each wing. During the breeding season, male and female also have a yellow crown patch and white tail patches. There are two subspecies (previously considered separate species), the north and eastern Myrtle Warbler and the western Audubon's Warbler. The breeding male Myrtle Warbler has white eyebrows, a white throat, and white sides of neck while the Audubon's Warbler has no eyebrows and a yellow throat. Females and non-breeding males show the same basic pattern but are duller in color than their breeding counterparts (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Dunn 1999; Georgia Wildlife Website 2000).

Average mass: 11.5 g.

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.1895 W.

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Size

Length: 14 cm

Weight: 13 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 14.435 - 14.435
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.914 - 0.914
  Salinity (PPS): 33.299 - 33.299
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.991 - 5.991
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.435 - 0.435
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.871 - 2.871
 
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A highly adaptable bird, the Yellow-rumped Warbler can be found in a variety of habitats including coniferous forest, mixed woodlands, deciduous forest, pine plantation, bogs, forest edges, and openings. In the winter it is often found in brushy thickets of bayberry and wax myrtle (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999).

Terrestrial Biomes: taiga ; forest

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Comments: Nests in forests or open woodlands. In migration and winter found in open forests, woodlands, savanna, roadsides, pastures, and scrub habitat (incl. mangrove thickets in Puerto Rico). May be seen in parks and gardens. Nests on branches 1-15 m above ground.

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A highly adaptable bird, the Yellow-rumped Warbler can be found in a variety of habitats including coniferous forest, mixed woodlands, deciduous forest, pine plantation, bogs, forest edges, and openings. In the winter it is often found in brushy thickets of bayberry and wax myrtle (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999).

Terrestrial Biomes: taiga ; forest

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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 14.435 - 14.435
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.914 - 0.914
  Salinity (PPS): 33.299 - 33.299
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.991 - 5.991
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.435 - 0.435
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.871 - 2.871
 
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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Basically a long-distance migrant in the U.S. and Canada; migrations may be more localized in some areas of the West. Extent of migration varies annually depending on environmental conditions. Arrives in Puerto Rico usually in November, departs by March-April (Raffaele 1983). In Costa Rica, often appears by mid-September but not regular before mid-October, departs by late March (Stiles and Skutch 1989).

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Trophic Strategy

The Yellow-Rumped Warbler feeds mainly on insects in the summer and on berries and fruit in the winter. Yellow-rumped Warblers are capable of assimilating 80% of wax-coated berries such as bayberries. They have developed unique gastrointestinal traits to allow them to subsist on this unusual food source.

The Yellow-Rumped Warbler comes to bird feeders for fruit and suet (Gill 1995; Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999).

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Comments: Feeds on insects (ants, wasps, flys, beetles, mosquitoes, etc.), spiders, some berries and seeds. May drink tree sap. In fall, winter, and spring in the eastern U.S., feeds extensively on MYRICA fruits (Place and Stiles, 1992, Auk 109:334-345). Forages by moving slowly over trunks and branches, also catches insects in flight, and hops on ground picking up small insects and spiders or plucking them from grass (Costa Rica, Stiles and Skutch 1989).

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Food Habits

The Yellow-Rumped Warbler feeds mainly on insects in the summer and on berries and fruit in the winter. Yellow-rumped Warblers are capable of assimilating 80% of wax-coated berries such as bayberries. They have developed unique gastrointestinal traits to allow them to subsist on this unusual food source.

The Yellow-Rumped Warbler comes to bird feeders for fruit and suet (Gill 1995; Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999).

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Associations

Known predators

Dendroica coronata (pygmy nuthatch, Audubon warbler) is prey of:
Accipiter striatus

Based on studies in:
USA: Arizona (Forest, Montane)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • D. I. Rasmussen, Biotic communities of Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, Ecol. Monogr. 11(3):228-275, from p. 261 (1941).
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Known prey organisms

Dendroica coronata (pygmy nuthatch, Audubon warbler) preys on:
Aphididae
Cicadellidae
Coleoptera

Based on studies in:
USA: Arizona (Forest, Montane)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • D. I. Rasmussen, Biotic communities of Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, Ecol. Monogr. 11(3):228-275, from p. 261 (1941).
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General Ecology

In winter, generally occurs in flocks; occasionally solitary (Rappole and Warner 1980).

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
6.9 years.

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Lifespan/Longevity

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
6.9 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 6.9 years (wild)
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Reproduction

The Yellow-rumped Warbler breeds in monogamous pairs. A neat cup made of twigs, bark strips, rootlets, and lined with grasses, hair, and feathers serves as a nest for the Yellow-rumped Warbler. The nest is placed on a horizontal branch near the trunk of a conifer tree 5 to 50 feet in height (the average height of the nest is 20 feet). The outside diameter of the nest is 7.6 to 8.9 cm.

Four to five cream eggs with brown spots are laid, and incubation lasts 12 to 13 days. The chicks are altricial and fledge 12-14 days after hatching. Two broods may be raised in a season (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999; Georgia Wildlife Website 2000).

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Average time to hatching: 12 days.

Average eggs per season: 4.

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Clutch size is 4-5. Incubation lasts 12-13 days, by female. Nestlings are tended by both parents, brooded by female. Young leave nest in 12-14 days (Harrison 1978)

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The Yellow-rumped Warbler breeds in monogamous pairs. A neat cup made of twigs, bark strips, rootlets, and lined with grasses, hair, and feathers serves as a nest for the Yellow-rumped Warbler. The nest is placed on a horizontal branch near the trunk of a conifer tree 5 to 50 feet in height (the average height of the nest is 20 feet). The outside diameter of the nest is 7.6 to 8.9 cm.

Four to five cream eggs with brown spots are laid, and incubation lasts 12 to 13 days. The chicks are altricial and fledge 12-14 days after hatching. Two broods may be raised in a season (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999; Georgia Wildlife Website 2000).

Average time to hatching: 12 days.

Average eggs per season: 4.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dendroica coronata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 34 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNCAACCCGGAGCCCTTCTGGGGGATGACCAAGTCTACAACGTAGTAGTCACGGCCCATGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTTATGCCGATTATAATCGGAGGATTTGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCCCTAATAATCGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCACCATCATTCCTTCTCCTCCTAGCATCATCCACAGTTGAAGCAGGCGTAGGTACAGGCTGAACAGTATACCCCCCACTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCCCATGCCGGAGCCTCAGTCGACCTCGCAATCTTCTCCCTACACCTGGCCGGTATTTCCTCAATCCTCGGAGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACAGCAATTAATATGAAACCTCCTGCCCTTTCACAGTACCAAACCCCACTATTCGTTTGATCAGTCCTAATCACTGCAGTCCTTCTACTCCTTTCCCTTCCAGTTCTAGCTGCAGGAATCACAATGCTCCTCACAGACCGCAACCTCAACACTACATTCTTCGACCCTGCTGGAGGAGGAGACCCCGTCCTATACCAACACCTCTTCTGATTCTTCGGCCACCCAGAAGTCTACATCCTAATCCTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dendroica coronata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 34
Specimens with Barcodes: 37
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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