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Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations, but breeds in a single nation

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (250-20,000 square km (about 100-8000 square miles)) BREEDING: southwestern Washington south through mountains to southern California and west-central Nevada. Populations fragmented within range (AOU 1983, Pearson 1997). NON-BREEDING: primarily from Durango and southern Nuevo Leon south to Oaxaca, from Chiapas to Guatemala, and southern Honduras to western Nicaragua (Pearson 1997). Rare and/or local in coastal California (from central California south) and in west-central Nicaragua and Costa Rica; accidental to western Panama (AOU 1983, Stiles and Skutch 1989, Pearson 1997). Highest densities in Central Volcanic Belt of Mexico (Howell and Webb 1995). MIGRATION: through Sonora, Chihuahua, San Luis Potosi, and rarely northern Baja California.

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Range

Mountains of w US; winters to Nicaragua.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 14 cm

Weight: 10 grams

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Type Information

Cotype for Dendroica occidentalis
Catalog Number: USNM 30681
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds
Sex/Stage: Male; Adult
Preparation: Skin: Whole
Collector(s): O. Salvin & F. Godman
Year Collected: 1861
Locality: Volcan De Fuego, Guatemala, North America
  • Cotype: Salvin. August 1863. Proc. Zool. Soc. London. for 1863 (2): 187, pl. 24, fig. 2.
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Cotype for Dendroica occidentalis
Catalog Number: USNM 30681
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds
Sex/Stage: Male; Adult
Preparation: Skin: Whole
Collector(s): O. Salvin & F. Godman
Year Collected: 1861
Locality: Volcan De Fuego, Guatemala, North America
  • Cotype: Salvin. August 1863. Proc. Zool. Soc. London. for 1863 (2): 187, pl. 24, fig. 2.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
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Comments: BREEDING: Generally in upland coniferous forests with high canopy volume; shrub understories less important (Pearson 1997, AOU 1998). Prefers mature stands of pine and fir, with large trees and dense cover; prefers scattered groups of tall trees emergent from canopy (USDA Forest Service 1994). Douglas-fir (PSEUDOSTUGA MENZIESII) an important tree species throughout breeding habitat. Nests in older second-growth (> 40 yrs) and mature forests (> 120 yrs; Meslow and Wight 1975).

In Washington and Oregon, found in Douglas-fir, western hemlock (TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA), Pacific silver fir (ABIES AMABILIS) and other firs (ABIES spp.). Also occurs in low densities in subalpine forests dominated by subalpine-fir (ABIES LASIOCARPA), which may include lodgepole pine (PINUS CONTORTA) and other conifers (Manuwal et al. 1987). In northwest Washington east of Puget Sound, once bred in oak-fir associations, but habitat is vanishing. In southern Washington Cascades Douglas-fir forests, found most abundant in young (55-80 year; average 7.9 birds per visit); relatively dry old-growth (210-440 year; 6.2 birds per visit); and mature (95-190 year; 5.6 birds per visit) stands; less abundant in wet (300-730 year; 1.6 birds per visit) and mesic (250-700 year; 2.1 birds per visit) old-growth stands (Manuwal 1991).

In Coastal Oregon Douglas-fir forests, was one of most commonly detected species, but was more abundant in young stands (40-72 year; two-year average 69.6 pairs per 40 hectares) than in mature (80-120 year; 41.1 pairs per 40 hectares) or old-growth stands (200-525 year; 48.4 pairs per 40 hectares), where canopy cover decreased with stand age (Carey et al. 1991). Positively associated with percent conifer cover, larger trees and taller trees; negatively associated with deciduous tree and shrub understory (Morrison 1982). In a comparison of streamside to upslope sites in mixed-coniferous forests dominated by Douglas-fir, was never detected in riparian sites (McGarigal and McComb 1992).

In Oregon Cascades, was most frequently detected species in young (30-80 year) and mature (80-200 year) Douglas-fir stands, and was second-most frequently detected species in old-growth stands (200-500 year; Gilbert and Allwine 1991). A synthesis of studies in Oregon Cascades Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests, showed the species most abundant in natural old-growth (200-450 yr), natural mature (80-190 year) and young closed canopy plantation (30-60 year) stands, and absent in clearcut and retention-cut plots (clearcuts with 2-14 trees per hectare or 1-6 trees per acre retained; Hansen et al. 1995).

In coastal California, breeds in Douglas-fir and coast redwood (SEQUOIA SEMPERVIRENS) habitats (Dunn and Garret 1997); in Douglas-fir forests found most abundant in older, cooler, and higher-elevation stands, and counts were highest in stands >300 years (Raphael 1987). In Marin County, occurs in moderately dense Douglas-fir and douglas-fir/coast redwood forests in canyons at mid- to high elevations with east or north exposures (Shuford 1993, cited in Pearson 1997). In California mountains, found in red fir (ABIES MAGNIFICA), white fir (ABIES CONCOLOR), sugar pine (PINUS LAMBERTIANA), ponderosa pine (PINUS PONDEROSA), Jeffrey pine (PINUS JEFFREYI), lodgepole pine, and sequoia (SEQUOIA GIGANTEA) forests (Verner and Larson 1989, Dunn and Garrett 1997). In a mixed conifer-oak forest, showed a preference for foraging in ponderosa and sugar pine (Airola and Barrett 1985).

Usually nests on outer limb of conifer, 6-18 meters above ground (sometimes 0.6-15 meters high).

NONBREEDING: In a variety of habitats during migration including woodland and scrub habitats composed of live oaks (QUERCUS spp.), cottonwood (POPULUS spp.), tamarisk (TAMARIX spp.), chaparral, desert woodlands, cottonwood-willow, large mesquite, and pecan orchards (Rosenberg et al. 1991, Dunn and Garrett 1997). Winters in conifers, especially pines and pine-oak habitats from 1,500 to 3,000 meters (Howell and Webb 1995, Dunn and Garrett 1997, AOU 1998). In Mexico, Hutto (1992) describes this species as a two-zone generalist, using both cloud forest and pine-oak-fir forest. In Costa Rica mostly in hedgerows or at forest edge, forages in conifers, especially Guatemalan cypress (CUPRESSUS LUSITANICA) (Stiles and Skutch 1989).

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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

On lower Colorado River Valley, Arizona, transient in late-April to late May, and mid-August to mid-October (Rosenberg et al. 1991). Winter in highlands from central Mexico into Central America to northern Nicaragua; accidental in western Panama, often occurs with Townsend's warbler (DENDROICA TOWNSENDI) (Ehrlich et al. 1988; Stiles and Skutch 1989; Howell and Webb 1995).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Forages actively in branches of conifers for insects (e.g., beetles, caterpillars, flies, etc.) and spiders. Often forages high in trees, 30-60 meters above ground (Terres 1980). In Sierra-Nevada mixed conifer, foraged 5 to 25 meters above ground (Airola and Barrett 1985), and in Giant Sequoia forest foraged above 10 meters (Kilgore 1971).

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

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General Ecology

Frequently found in association with yellow-rumped warbler (DENDROICA CORONATA).

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 9.1 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Clutch size is 3-5. Nestlings are altricial and downy.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dendroica occidentalis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AACCGATGATTATTCTCAACCAACCACAAAGACATCGGGACCCTATACCTAATTTTCGGCGCATGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGTACCGCCCTA---AGCCTCCTCATCCGAGCAGAACTAGGCCAACCCGGAGCCCTTCTGGGAGAC---GACCAAGTCTACAACGTAGTCGTCACGGCCCATGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTTATGCCAATTATAATCGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCCCTAATA---ATCGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGGCTACTCCCACCATCATTCCTTCTCCTCCTAGCATCCTCCACAGTTGAAGCCGGCGTAGGTACAGGCTGAACAGTGTACCCCCCACTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCCCATGCCGGAGCTTCAGTCGACCTT---GCAATCTTCTCTTTACACCTAGCCGGTATTTCCTCAATCCTCGGGGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACAGCAATTAACATGAAACCTCCTGCCCTCTCACAATACCAAACACCACTGTTCGTCTGATCAGTCCTAATCACTGCAGTCCTTCTACTCCTCTCCCTTCCAGTCCTAGCTGCA---GGGATCACAATACTTCTCACAGACCGCAACCTCAACACCACTTTCTTCGACCCTGCCGGAGGAGGAGATCCCGTCCTATATCAACATCTTTTCTGATTCTTCGGTCACCCAGAAGTCTACATCCTAATCCTCCCAGGATTTGGAATCATCTCTCACGTCGTAACATACTATGCAGGCAAAAAA---GAACCATTCGGCTACATAGGAATAGTATGAGCTATGCTATCCATCGGATTCCTAGGATTCATTGTCTGAGCTCACCACATATTCACAGTAGGAATAGACGTTGACACCCGAGCTTACTTCACATCCGCCACTATAATCATTGCTATCCCAACCGGAATCAAAGTATTCAGCTGACTA---GCCACACTACACGGAGGG---ACAATCAAATGAGACCCCCCAATACTATGAGCCCTAGGGTTCATCTTCCTGTTCACCATTGGAGGTCTAACAGGAATCGTACTAGCAAACTCCTCACTAGACGTCGCCTTACACGACACTTACTATGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCATTACGTG---CTATCCATAGGAGCAGTATTTGCAATCTTAGCAGGCTTCACCCACTGATTCCCCCTATTCACAGGCTACACACTCCACTCAACATGAGCTAAAGCACACTTCGGTGTAATATTCGTAGGTGTAAACCTAACCTTCTTCCCCCAACACTTCCTAGGCCTAGCTGGCATGCCACGA---CGATACTCAGACTACCCAGACGCTTACACA---TTATGAAACACCATCTCCTCTGTAGGCTCACTCATCTCACTAACAGCTGTAATCATACTAGTATTCATTATCTGAGAGGCCTTCGCATCAAAACGTAAAGTA---CTACAGCCGGAACTAGCCAGCACTAAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dendroica occidentalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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