Psychrobacter is a genus of Gram-negative, osmotolerant, oxidase-positive, psychrophilic or psychrotolerant, aerobic bacteria which belong to the family of Moraxellaceae and the class of Gammaproteobacteria.[1][2][3][4] The shape is typically cocci or coccobacilli.[5] Some of those bacteria were isolated from humans and can cause humans infections like endocarditis and peritonitis.[6][7] This genus of bacteria is capable to grow at temperatures between −10 °C and 42 °C.[8] Rudi Rossau found through DNA-rRNA hybridization analysis, that Psychrobacter belongs to the family of Moraxellaceae.[9] The first species (Psychrobacter immobilis) was described by Ellioz Juni and Gloria A. Heym.[10] Psychrobacter occur in wide range of moist, cold saline habitats.[8][11] But they also occur in warm and slightly saline habitats.[4][12]

Further reading[edit]


  1. ^ a b c
  2. ^ Maruyama, A.; Honda, D.; Yamamoto, H.; Kitamura, K.; Higashihara, T. (2000). "Phylogenetic analysis of psychrophilic bacteria isolated from the Japan Trench, including a description of the deep-sea species Psychrobacter pacificensis sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 50 (2): 835–46. doi:10.1099/00207713-50-2-835. PMID 10758895.  edit
  3. ^ Bozal, N. (2003). "Characterization of several Psychrobacter strains isolated from Antarctic environments and description of Psychrobacter luti sp. nov. And Psychrobacter fozii sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53 (4): 1093–1100. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02457-0. PMID 12892132.  edit
  4. ^ a b Bowman, J. P. (2006). "The Genus Psychrobacter". The Prokaryotes. pp. 920–930. doi:10.1007/0-387-30746-X_35. ISBN 978-0-387-25496-8.  edit
  5. ^ Psychrobacter immobilis isolated from foods: characteristics and identification Vet. Med. - Czech, 46, 2001 (4):95-100
  6. ^ Elmer W. Koneman (01.11.2005). Koneman's Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology (6 ed.). Lippencott Williams & Wil. ISBN 0781730147.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  7. ^ ATCC
  8. ^ a b Kim, S. J.; Shin, S. C.; Hong, S. G.; Lee, Y. M.; Choi, I. -G.; Park, H. (2012). "Genome Sequence of a Novel Member of the Genus Psychrobacter Isolated from Antarctic Soil". Journal of Bacteriology 194 (9): 2403. doi:10.1128/JB.00234-12. PMC 3347060. PMID 22493207.  edit
  9. ^ Romanenko, L. A. (2002). "Psychrobacter submarinus sp. nov. And Psychrobacter marincola sp. nov., psychrophilic halophiles from marine environments". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52 (4): 1291–1297. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02087-0. PMID 12148642.  edit
  10. ^ Juni, E.; Heym, G. A. (1986). "Psychrobacter immobilis gen. nov., sp. nov.: Genospecies Composed of Gram-Negative, Aerobic, Oxidase-Positive Coccobacilli". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 36 (3): 388. doi:10.1099/00207713-36-3-388.  edit
  11. ^ Martin Dworkin, Stanley Falkow, Eugene Rosenberg, Karl-Heinz Schleifer, Erko Stackebrandt (2006-09-28). The Prokaryotes: Proteobacteria: Gamma Subclass: A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria Vol. 6 (3 ed.). Springer. ISBN 038725496X. 
  12. ^ Koki Horikoshi, Garabed Antranikian, Alan T. Bull, Frank T. Robb, Karl O. Stetter (2011). Extremophiles Handbook Vol. 1. Springer. ISBN 4431538976. 

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