Overview

Brief Summary

Living Material

The animals are moderately hardy in the laboratory, if they are supplied with running sea water.

  • Cori, C. J., 1933. Dritter Cladus der Vermes Amera. Kamptozoa. Allgemeines fiber den Cladus Kamptozoa. Erste und einzige Klasse des Cladus Kamptozoa; Kamptozoa = Bryozoa Entoprocta=Calyssozoa. Kükenthal Handbuch d. Zool., 2: Hft. 1 (5), 1-64.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1887. On the life-history of Pedicellina. Quart. J. Micr. Sci, 27: 239-263.
  • Hatschek, B., 1877. Embryonalentwicklung und Knospung der Pedicellina echinata. Zeitschr.f. wiss. Zool., 29: 502-549.
  • Hyman, L. H., 1951. The Invertebrates: Acanthocephala, Aschelminthes, and Entoprocta.
  • Marcus, E., 1939. Briozóarios Marinhos Brasileiros. Iii. Boll d. Fill Cien., e Let., Univ. de Sao Paulo, Zool., 3: 111-291.
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Distribution

Gulf of St. Lawrence to Florida
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

sessile, attach to available substrata
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 10 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 168
  Temperature range (°C): 9.788 - 11.855
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.853 - 8.636
  Salinity (PPS): 34.670 - 35.504
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.712 - 6.313
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.382 - 0.460
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.314 - 3.285

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 168

Temperature range (°C): 9.788 - 11.855

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.853 - 8.636

Salinity (PPS): 34.670 - 35.504

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.712 - 6.313

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.382 - 0.460

Silicate (umol/l): 2.314 - 3.285
 
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

ciliary feeders subsisting on a variety of plankters and detritus and entrapping larger particles with their tentacles
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Reproduction

Fertilization and Cleavage

Following gastrulation, there is an apical-oral elongation of the embryo, accompanied by closure of the slit-like blastopore. An apical plate, bearing cilia, develops at the aboral pole but invaginates by the time the larva is set free. Shortly after this organ is formed, the stomodeum and proctodeum invaginate on the oral surface, and the pre-oral or dorsal organ appears as an invagination on the anterior side of the larva above the mouth. At this time, the egg shell vanishes and the larva is freed. When released, the larva swims with the aid of an oral ring of strong cilia, the corona. The digestive tract is complete and feeding occurs. Shortly after release, a well-marked invagination appears between the mouth and anus. This is the vestibule or atrium; it is bordered by the corona. Both the mouth and the anus are borne on long projections called the epistome and anal cone, respectively.

After about a day, the free-swimming larvae attach by means of the atrial surface, and undergo a complicated metamorphosis which involves a degeneration of the apical plate and dorsal organ, and a complete upward rotation of the entire larval body. For further details concerning the larvae and metamorphosis, see the papers by Harmer (1887) Cori (1933) and Hyman (1951).

  • Cori, C. J., 1933. Dritter Cladus der Vermes Amera. Kamptozoa. Allgemeines fiber den Cladus Kamptozoa. Erste und einzige Klasse des Cladus Kamptozoa; Kamptozoa = Bryozoa Entoprocta=Calyssozoa. Kükenthal Handbuch d. Zool., 2: Hft. 1 (5), 1-64.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1887. On the life-history of Pedicellina. Quart. J. Micr. Sci, 27: 239-263.
  • Hatschek, B., 1877. Embryonalentwicklung und Knospung der Pedicellina echinata. Zeitschr.f. wiss. Zool., 29: 502-549.
  • Hyman, L. H., 1951. The Invertebrates: Acanthocephala, Aschelminthes, and Entoprocta.
  • Marcus, E., 1939. Briozóarios Marinhos Brasileiros. Iii. Boll d. Fill Cien., e Let., Univ. de Sao Paulo, Zool., 3: 111-291.
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The Ovum

There is some disagreement as to whether the colonies are bisexual or unisexual (see "Living Material" above). Marcus (1939) suggests that they are unisexual, although hermaphroditism occasionally occurs. Fertilization is internal, and at least the first maturation division occurs within the ovary. After its release from the ovary, the egg passes through a short vagina where it is enclosed in a soft shell with a long stalk. The shelled eggs are attached by means of the stalks to the floor of the brood-chamber, which consists of the walls of the vestibule between the tentacles and the vestibular groove. Cleavage is equal and spiral, closely resembling that of the annelids. Five quartets of micromeres and one quartet of macromeres are produced (Hyman, 1951). A hollow blastula is formed by the 67-cell stage. Gastrulation is by invagination and starts at about the 90-cell stage.

  • Cori, C. J., 1933. Dritter Cladus der Vermes Amera. Kamptozoa. Allgemeines fiber den Cladus Kamptozoa. Erste und einzige Klasse des Cladus Kamptozoa; Kamptozoa = Bryozoa Entoprocta=Calyssozoa. Kükenthal Handbuch d. Zool., 2: Hft. 1 (5), 1-64.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1887. On the life-history of Pedicellina. Quart. J. Micr. Sci, 27: 239-263.
  • Hatschek, B., 1877. Embryonalentwicklung und Knospung der Pedicellina echinata. Zeitschr.f. wiss. Zool., 29: 502-549.
  • Hyman, L. H., 1951. The Invertebrates: Acanthocephala, Aschelminthes, and Entoprocta.
  • Marcus, E., 1939. Briozóarios Marinhos Brasileiros. Iii. Boll d. Fill Cien., e Let., Univ. de Sao Paulo, Zool., 3: 111-291.
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Sexual Reproduction

These colonial bryozoans are moderately common on shells and algae in shallow water. The zoids arise independently from a branched, creeping stolon, and have cup-shaped calyces and yellow-red stalks. Hyman (1951) reports that Pedicellina is sometimes hermaphroditic, sometimes dioecious.

Although this has not been determined for the Woods Hole, Mass., region, it probably occurs during the summer months.

  • Cori, C. J., 1933. Dritter Cladus der Vermes Amera. Kamptozoa. Allgemeines fiber den Cladus Kamptozoa. Erste und einzige Klasse des Cladus Kamptozoa; Kamptozoa = Bryozoa Entoprocta=Calyssozoa. Kükenthal Handbuch d. Zool., 2: Hft. 1 (5), 1-64.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1887. On the life-history of Pedicellina. Quart. J. Micr. Sci, 27: 239-263.
  • Hatschek, B., 1877. Embryonalentwicklung und Knospung der Pedicellina echinata. Zeitschr.f. wiss. Zool., 29: 502-549.
  • Hyman, L. H., 1951. The Invertebrates: Acanthocephala, Aschelminthes, and Entoprocta.
  • Marcus, E., 1939. Briozóarios Marinhos Brasileiros. Iii. Boll d. Fill Cien., e Let., Univ. de Sao Paulo, Zool., 3: 111-291.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Methods of Observation

The ripe eggs measure 40 by 50 by 60 microns, the shortest axis being apico-vestibular.

  • Cori, C. J., 1933. Dritter Cladus der Vermes Amera. Kamptozoa. Allgemeines fiber den Cladus Kamptozoa. Erste und einzige Klasse des Cladus Kamptozoa; Kamptozoa = Bryozoa Entoprocta=Calyssozoa. Kükenthal Handbuch d. Zool., 2: Hft. 1 (5), 1-64.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1887. On the life-history of Pedicellina. Quart. J. Micr. Sci, 27: 239-263.
  • Hatschek, B., 1877. Embryonalentwicklung und Knospung der Pedicellina echinata. Zeitschr.f. wiss. Zool., 29: 502-549.
  • Hyman, L. H., 1951. The Invertebrates: Acanthocephala, Aschelminthes, and Entoprocta.
  • Marcus, E., 1939. Briozóarios Marinhos Brasileiros. Iii. Boll d. Fill Cien., e Let., Univ. de Sao Paulo, Zool., 3: 111-291.
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Care of Adults

Cleaving eggs and young larvae can be dissected from the egg capsules; older larvae will be released if fertile colonies are allowed to stand in fingerbowls of fresh sea water. Harmer (1887) states that the larvae will not attach in small amounts of water. He suggests placing the ripe colonies, together with the algae to which the colonies are attached, in glass jars covered with fine bolting silk. These jars are then suspended in live-boxes, and examined in about a day. At that time, a large number of attached and metamorphosing larvae should be present.

  • Cori, C. J., 1933. Dritter Cladus der Vermes Amera. Kamptozoa. Allgemeines fiber den Cladus Kamptozoa. Erste und einzige Klasse des Cladus Kamptozoa; Kamptozoa = Bryozoa Entoprocta=Calyssozoa. Kükenthal Handbuch d. Zool., 2: Hft. 1 (5), 1-64.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1887. On the life-history of Pedicellina. Quart. J. Micr. Sci, 27: 239-263.
  • Hatschek, B., 1877. Embryonalentwicklung und Knospung der Pedicellina echinata. Zeitschr.f. wiss. Zool., 29: 502-549.
  • Hyman, L. H., 1951. The Invertebrates: Acanthocephala, Aschelminthes, and Entoprocta.
  • Marcus, E., 1939. Briozóarios Marinhos Brasileiros. Iii. Boll d. Fill Cien., e Let., Univ. de Sao Paulo, Zool., 3: 111-291.
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© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Datasets

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