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BiologyOccurs in still or slow-flowing waters at low elevations close to the sea; most abundant along shore margins in rocky areas. Found around plants, rocks or logs on the margins of still or flowing rivers, streams and lakes (Ref. 44894). The species has a marine juvenile stage, indicative of a diadromous life cycle. Spawning takes place from autumn to winter, among aquatic vegetation. Newly hatched larvae drift downcurrent and out to sea where they spend their first few months, eventually returning to fresh water during spring among annual whitebait migrations. In lacustrine and other landlocked populations, adults move upstream into feeder streams to spawn. The larvae are then swept downstream into lakes (Ref. 44894). Feeds mainly on aquatic and terrestrial insects.