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BiologyOccur from riffle and boulder areas in relatively small upland streams to larger deeper rivers with sand and clay substrates and submerged timber and snags (Ref. 26161, 44894). Found in still and fast-flowing waters (14°-28°C), usually over bedrock, boulder and gravel bottoms of streams. Large fish confined to deep holes between falls and rapids, while small ones are found among boulders. Feed on insects, crayfish, shrimp, and small fishes; cannibalism occurs. Spawn in spring and early summer. The large, adhesive eggs are laid on hard surfaces. Hatching occurs in 5-10 days at 20°C. Sexual maturity is attained at 3-5 years of age (Ref. 44894). Territorial juveniles. Infected by parasitic protozoan Chilodonella cyprini; susceptible to `ich' & Saprolegnia infections. Protected by law and its capture is strictly prohibited. Known to hybridize with closely related Murray (Ref. 44894).