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This genus is rare in museum collections but is widely distributed in the Amazon and Paraguay-Parana River systems.
Friel (1992) presents evidence for oophagy within Amaralia based on examination of the stomach contents of 23 specimens (17 A. hypsiura & 6 A. "oviraptor"). Seven individuals had masses of eggs such as those llustrated below. The eggs are similar in appearance to those of loricariid catfishes and in one case ingested embryos could be positively identified as loricariids. The other 16 specimens had empty stomachs. This is in striking contrast to the stomachs of other aspredinids which always contained at least some detritus and invertebrates (aquatic insect larve and terrestial insects).