The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • A Description of the Genus Pinus, ed. 3 2: [unnumbered page between 144 and 145]. 1832. (Descr. Pinus (ed. 3))
  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • Douglas ex D. Don. 1832. In: Lambert, Descr. Pinus, ed. 8°, 2: p. s.n. inter 144 et 145.
  • Farjon A. (2013). Conifer Database (version Jul 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
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    1. Barnes, Burton V. 1969. Effects of thinning and fertilizing on  production of western white pine seed. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper INT-58. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden,  UT. 14 p.
    2.  
    3. Bingham, R. T., and G. E. Rehfeldt. 1970. Cone and seed yields in  young western white pines. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper INT-79.  Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 12 p. 
    4.  
    5. Bingham, R. T., R. J. Hoff, and R. J. Steinhoff. 1972. Genetics of  western white pine. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper WO-12.  Washington, DC. 28 p.
    6.  
    7. Boyd, R. J. 1969. Some case histories of natural regeneration in the  western white pine type. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper INT-63.  Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 24 p. 
    8.  
    9. Brockway, D. G., C. Topik, M. A. Hemstrom, and W. H. Emmingham.  1983. Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir  zone; Gifford Pinchot National Forest. USDA Forest Service,  R6-Ecol-130a-1983. Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 312 p.
    10.  
    11. Cooper, S. V., K. E. Neiman, R. Steele, and W. David. 1987. Forest  habitat types of northern Idaho: A second approximation. USDA Forest  Service, General Technical Report INT-236. Intermountain Research  Station, Ogden, UT. 135 p.
    12.  
    13. Critchfield, W. B., and E. L. Little, Jr. 1966. Geographic  distribution of the pines of the world. U.S. Department of Agriculture  Miscellaneous Publication 991. Washington, DC. 97 p.
    14.  
    15. Deitschman, G. H., and R. D. Pfister. 1973. Growth of released and  unreleased young stands in the western white pine type. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper INT-132. intermountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 14 p.
    16.  
    17. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    18.  
    19. Foiles, M. W. 1972. Response in a western white pine stand to  commercial thinning methods. USDA Forest Service, Research Note INT-159.  Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 8 p.
    20.  
    21. Franklin, Jerry F., and C. T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of  Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  PNW-8. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland,  OR. 417 p.
    22.  
    23. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin. 1977. Western forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1339. Washington,  DC. 654 p.
    24.  
    25. Graham, R. T. 1988. Influence of stand density on western white pine,  western redcedar, western hemlock, and grand fir tree and stand  development in the Mountain West. In Future forests of the  mountain west: a stand culture symposium. p. 175-184. W. Schmidt, ed.  USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report INT-243. Intermountain  Research Station, Ogden, UT.
    26.  
    27. Hemstrom, M. A., S. E. Logan, W. Pavlat. 1987. Plant and association  and management guide, Willamette National Forest. USDA Forest Service,  R6-Ecol-257-B-86. Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 312 p.
    28.  
    29. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    30.  
    31. Hoff, R. J. 1986. Effect of stratification time and seed treatment on  germination of western white pine seed. In Proceedings-Conifer  Tree Seed in the Inland Mountain West symposium. p. 112-116. R. C.  Shearer, comp. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report INT-203.  Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT.
    32.  
    33. Krugman, Stanley L., and James L. Jenkinson. 1974. In Seeds  of woody plants in the United States. p. 598-638. C. S. Schopmeyer,  tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450.  Washington, DC.
    34.  
    35. Leaphart, C. D. 1958. Root characteristics of western white pine and  associated tree species in a stand affected with pole blight of white  pine. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper INT-52. Intermountain Forest  and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 10 p.
    36.  
    37. Leaphart, C. D., and A. R. Stage. 1971. Climate: a factor in the  origin of the pole blight disease of Pinus monticola Dougl.  Ecology 52:229-239.
    38.  
    39. Minore, Don. 1979. Comparative autecological characteristics of  northwestern tree species-a literature review. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report PNW-87. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 72 p.
    40.  
    41. Pfister, Robert D., Bernard L. Kovalchik, Stephen F. Arno, and  Richard C. Presby. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. USDA Forest  Service, General Technical Report INT-34. Intermountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 174 p.
    42.  
    43. Rehfeldt, G. E. 1979. Ecotypic differentiation in populations of Pinus  monticola in north Idaho-myth or reality. American Naturalist  114:627-636.
    44.  
    45. Rehfeldt, G. E., R. J. Hoff, and R. J. Steinhoff. 1984. Geographic  patterns of genetic variation in Pinus monticola. Botanical  Gazette 145:229-239.
    46.  
    47. Schmidt, Wyman C., and James E. Lotan. 1980. Phenology of common  forest flora of the northern Rockies-1928 to 1937. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper INT-259. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Ogden, UT. 20 p.
    48.  
    49. Shumway, S. E. 1979. Climate. In Forest soils of the  Douglas-fir region. p. 87-91. Paul E. Heilman, Harry W. Anderson, and  David M. Baumgartner, eds. Washington State University Cooperative  Extension Service, Pullman.
    50.  
    51. Steinhoff, R. J. 1979. Variation in early growth of western white  pine in north Idaho. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper INT-222.  Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 22 p. 
    52.  
    53. Steinhoff, R. J. 1981. Survival and height growth of coastal and  interior western white pine saplings in north Idaho. USDA Forest  Service, Research Note INT-303. Intermountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 3 p.
    54.  
    55. Wellner, C. A. 1965. Silvics of western white pine (Pinus  monticola Dougl.). In Silvics of forest trees of the United  States. p. 478-487. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC.
    56.  
     

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