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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 11.8 years (wild)
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Joao Pedro de Magalhaes
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de Magalhaes, J. P.
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AnAge articles

Reproduction ( englanti )

tarjonnut Animal Diversity Web

Chipping sparrows have long been considered largely monogamous. However, polygyny and extra pair copulations are documented and incidence may be high in some populations. Recent research suggests that males travel widely outside of their territories in search of additional mating opportunities. Mated pairs form soon after males have arrived on the breeding grounds and established a territory. Males attract females with their songs and chase them or perform displays on the ground. Males and females display to each other by collecting nest materials while together. Females beg for food from males as well. Males guard females after copulation to prevent extra pair copulations. Pairs may stay together through a breeding season or new pairs may be formed throughout the season. There are a few reports of helpers at the nest.

Mating System: monogamous ; polygynandrous (promiscuous) ; cooperative breeder

Chipping sparrows breed from mid to late April through July. Pairs begin building nests within a few weeks of arriving on the breeding grounds. Males and females choose a nest site, usually in a conifer tree or shrub from 1 to 3 meters above ground. They are usually built in thick vegetation to provide cover. Females build nests out of grasses, roots, and other fine materials. If the first clutch fails, a second nest will be built and a second clutch attempted. Most chipping sparrows successfully raise 1 brood, although 2 nesting attempts is typical. Females lay from 2 to 7, usually 4, pale blue eggs with brown blotches at the wider end. They lay 1 egg per day and begin incubating just before the last egg is laid. The incubation period is 7 to 15 days, but usually 10 to 12. Fledging occurs at 8 to 12 days and young become fully independent several weeks after fledging. Males and females can breed in their first year after hatching.

Breeding interval: Chipping sparrows usually attempt 2 broods each breeding season, sometimes 3. However, typically only 1 brood is successful each season.

Breeding season: Chipping sparrows breed from mid to late April through July.

Range eggs per season: 2 to 7.

Average eggs per season: 4.

Range time to hatching: 7 to 15 days.

Range fledging age: 8 to 12 days.

Range time to independence: 3 to 5 weeks.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Males and females defend a breeding territory and protect young against predators. Newly hatched chipping sparrows are naked and helpless, but grow quickly, becoming fully feathered at 6 days after hatching and about 80% of adult weight and able to fly as soon as 8 days after hatching. Females incubate the eggs and brood the young and males feed females on the nest. Males are responsible for most feeding of nestlings for the first few days. Males will often give food items to the female in the nest, who then passes them to the young. If a female attempts a second brood, the male may be left to care for the previous brood. Young are fed seeds and insects and parents carry fecal sacs away from the nest. Once the young have fledged, they remain near the nest with their parents for another few weeks, when they become independent. Juveniles then form flocks with other young birds.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female)

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Dewey, T. 2009. "Spizella passerina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spizella_passerina.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Animal Diversity Web

Nimetön ( englanti )

tarjonnut Animal Diversity Web

Investigations of mitochondrial DNA variation in the genus Spizella suggest that it is not a monophyletic group. Relationships with other genera of sparrows are not well understood.

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Dewey, T. 2009. "Spizella passerina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spizella_passerina.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Behavior ( englanti )

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Chipping sparrows get their common name from the sharp "chip" call that they make frequently as they forage and interact with others. Variations on this "chip" call are used for contact calls, threats, or begging. They also have a song, a single noted trill made up of rapid repetitions of a "tssip." These songs are produced throughout the day by males during breeding season from an elevated perch. It is thought that the song is used to advertise and defend a breeding territory and to attract mates. They also produce alarm and aggression calls that sound like harsh "zee-zee-zee's." Geographic variation in calls and songs is not reported.

Chipping sparrows also perform visual displays to communicate, especially during the breeding season. They use body posture to indicate aggression or appeasement.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Dewey, T. 2009. "Spizella passerina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spizella_passerina.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Conservation Status ( englanti )

tarjonnut Animal Diversity Web

Chipping sparrow populations may have increased in North America in response to human changes of habitats, such as logging and secondary regrowth of forests. They do well in suburban areas. In recent years, chipping sparrow populations have declined somewhat with successional changes in forests, intensive agriculture, and competition with house sparrows (Passer domesticus), and increased parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). However, chipping sparrows are found throughout a wide geographic range and population sizes are large.

US Migratory Bird Act: protected

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Dewey, T. 2009. "Spizella passerina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spizella_passerina.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits ( englanti )

tarjonnut Animal Diversity Web

There are no adverse effects of chipping sparrows on humans.

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Dewey, T. 2009. "Spizella passerina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spizella_passerina.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits ( englanti )

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Chipping sparrows are delightful to watch and are common near human habitation because of human modification of habitats.

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Dewey, T. 2009. "Spizella passerina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spizella_passerina.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations ( englanti )

tarjonnut Animal Diversity Web

Chipping sparrow distribution may be limited by competition with a close relative, American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea). Nests are sometimes parasitized by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), although chipping sparrows seem to recognize these birds and attempt to exclude them from their territories. Nest parasitism may be as high as 92% in some areas. Chipping sparrows may abandon parasitized nests or they may successfully raise cowbird hatchlings. Winter mixed-species flocks often include eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), pine warblers (Dendroica pinus), northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), field sparrows (Spizella pusilla), dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), canyon towhees (Pipilo fuscus), rufous-crowned sparrows (Aimophila ruficeps), white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys), vesper sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus), grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum), and chesnut-collared longspurs (Calcarius ornatus).

Mutualist Species:

  • American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea)
  • eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis)
  • yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata)
  • pine warblers (Dendroica pinus)
  • northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis)
  • field sparrows (Spizella pusilla)
  • dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis)
  • canyon towhees (Pipilo fuscus)
  • rufous-crowned sparrows (Aimophila ruficeps)
  • white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys)
  • vesper sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus)
  • grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum)
  • chesnut-collared longspurs (Calcarius ornatus)

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater)
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Dewey, T. 2009. "Spizella passerina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spizella_passerina.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Trophic Strategy ( englanti )

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Chipping sparrows eat mainly grass seeds and the seeds and fruits of annual plants. They supplement their diet with insects during the breeding season, when up to 38% of the diet may be animal prey. Animal prey includes moths and butterflies, beetles, and grasshoppers and crickets. Chipping sparrows seem to prefer crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) and yellow foxtail (Setaria glauca>) seeds, but will eat a wide variety of small seeds. They typically forage on the ground or low in shrubby vegetation, either picking seeds or insects off the ground or directly from leaves and stems. They regularly ingest grit and feed it to their young to help them process their seed diet. During the breeding season, chipping sparrows forage alone or with their mate. In winter they forage in flocks of 25 to 50 birds that travel together. These foraging flocks may be composed of different species of sparrows and niche partitioning may occur in foraging flocks as a result of differences in bill size or foraging microhabitat.

Animal Foods: insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

Primary Diet: herbivore (Granivore )

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Dewey, T. 2009. "Spizella passerina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spizella_passerina.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Distribution ( englanti )

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Chipping sparrows are found throughout most of North America. Some populations are migratory, traveling as far north as central Yukon and east to Newfoundland in Canada to breed. They are found in appropriate habitat throughout the United States and Mexico as well. Populations from the southeastern United States, Texas, southern portions of southwestern United States, throughout Mexico, and as far south as Honduras and Nicaragua may be resident year-round. Populations that migrate to breed in northern North America spend winter in the southern portions of the range, along with year-round residents. Birds may also overwinter in more northern areas if the weather remains mild. They are occasionally seen throughout the Greater Antilles in winter.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

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Dewey, T. 2009. "Spizella passerina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spizella_passerina.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Habitat ( englanti )

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Chipping sparrows are found in a wide variety of open woodland habitats in winter and breeding ranges, unlike most sparrows which are found mainly in grasslands. They are found in open forests or forest edges, particularly in coniferous forests, and in open, riparian forests. They prefer forests with shrubby undergrowth. Because of their preference for open and early successional forests, chipping sparrows are common in suburban areas, urban parks, orchards, and other human-modified landscapes. During migration they move through a wider variety of habitats, including grasslands, desert scrub, and mountainous areas. Competition with a congener, American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), may limit their winter distribution.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; scrub forest

Other Habitat Features: urban ; suburban ; riparian

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Dewey, T. 2009. "Spizella passerina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spizella_passerina.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Life Expectancy ( englanti )

tarjonnut Animal Diversity Web

The oldest recorded chipping sparrow in the wild was 9 years and 9 months old. Like most animals, most mortality probably occurs in the first few weeks of life. Most predation is on nestlings, and eggs and nests are vulnerable to extreme weather. During migration, chipping sparrows may collide with large buildings or TV towers and year-round exposure to agricultural pesticides may harm populations.

Range lifespan
Status: wild:
9.75 (high) years.

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Dewey, T. 2009. "Spizella passerina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spizella_passerina.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Morphology ( englanti )

tarjonnut Animal Diversity Web

Chipping sparrows are small, delicate, active sparrows with a distinctive bright chestnut crown, bordered by white superciliary areas. They have black eyestripes and lores and a buffy white chin. Their back and wings are streaked black and brown, with faint wing bars. The bill is black above and creamy pink or yellow on the lower mandible. The legs and feet are flesh colored at hatching, becoming deeper salmon as birds age. Males and females are similar in plumage. Males are slightly larger in body measurements but may weigh less than females in the summer. Body length is 127 to 147 mm, mass is 11 to 15.5 g. Although they may be difficult to distinguish from other small sparrows in their juvenile plumage, which is buffy, streaked brown overall with black eyestripes and lores, adult chipping sparrows are distinguished by their bright crown and distinctive facial patterning. There are 5 described subspecies, representing geographic variation in plumage color throughout their range. Some of the subspecies migrate, others do not. However, population mixing in the southern portion of the range has not been thoroughly investigated.

Range mass: 11 to 15.5 g.

Range length: 127 to 147 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

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Dewey, T. 2009. "Spizella passerina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spizella_passerina.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations ( englanti )

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Chipping sparrows are preyed on by a wide variety of avian and mammalian predators and snakes. Nest predators include black rat snakes (Pantherophis obsoletus), eastern milk snakes (Lampropeltis triangulum), blue racers (Coluber constrictor), common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata), and domestic cats (Felis catus). Adults are taken in flight or when on the nest, largely by avian predators, but including Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), American kestrels (Falco sparverius), loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and domestic cats (Felis catus). Chipping sparrows use alarm calls and threat displays to deter predators. Their alarm calls may alert other species as well, and all may mob the predator. Adults and nestlings are cryptically colored.

Known Predators:

  • black rat snakes (Pantherophis obsoletus)
  • eastern milk snakes (Lampropeltis triangulum)
  • blue racers (Coluber constrictor)
  • common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis)
  • American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
  • blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata)
  • domestic cats (Felis catus)
  • Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi)
  • prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus)
  • American kestrels (Falco sparverius)
  • loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus)
  • red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)
  • thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus)

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

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Dewey, T. 2009. "Spizella passerina" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Spizella_passerina.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Spizella passerina

tarjonnut DC Birds Brief Summaries

A small (5 ¼ inches) bunting, the Chipping Sparrow in summer is most easily identified by its mottled brown back, gray face and neck, conspicuous white eye-stripes, and rusty red crown. Winter birds are browner and duller overall, particularly on the head and face. This species may be distinguished from the similarly-patterned American Tree Sparrow (Spizella arborea) by that species’ larger size and grayer head. Male and female Chipping Sparrows are similar to one another in all seasons. The Chipping Sparrow breeds across south-central Canada and the northern half of the United States. In winter, northerly-breeding populations migrate south into the southeastern U.S., southwest, and northern Mexico. Populations breeding in the southern United States are non-migratory, and other non-migratory populations exist in Mexico and Central America. Chipping Sparrows breed in a number of woodland habitat types with dense undergrowth, preferring habitats composed at least partly of evergreen trees. In winter and on migration, this species is found in a wider variety of habitats including open deciduous forest, weedy fields, and in suburban yards. Chipping Sparrows primarily eat seeds, but this species also eats small insects during the summer months. In appropriate habitat, Chipping Sparrows may be seen walking or hopping on the ground while foraging for food. Birdwatchers may also listen for this species’ song, a single-pitch rattle; as well as its call, a high “chip,” which gives this species its name. Chipping Sparrows are primarily active during the day.

Threat Status: Least Concern

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Smithsonian Institution
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Reid Rumelt
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DC Birds Brief Summaries

Spizella passerina ( englanti )

tarjonnut EOL authors

A small (5 ¼ inches) bunting, the Chipping Sparrow in summer is most easily identified by its mottled brown back, gray face and neck, conspicuous white eye-stripes, and rusty red crown. Winter birds are browner and duller overall, particularly on the head and face. This species may be distinguished from the similarly-patterned American Tree Sparrow (Spizella arborea) by that species’ larger size and grayer head. Male and female Chipping Sparrows are similar to one another in all seasons. The Chipping Sparrow breeds across south-central Canada and the northern half of the United States. In winter, northerly-breeding populations migrate south into the southeastern U.S., southwest, and northern Mexico. Populations breeding in the southern United States are non-migratory, and other non-migratory populations exist in Mexico and Central America. Chipping Sparrows breed in a number of woodland habitat types with dense undergrowth, preferring habitats composed at least partly of evergreen trees. In winter and on migration, this species is found in a wider variety of habitats including open deciduous forest, weedy fields, and in suburban yards. Chipping Sparrows primarily eat seeds, but this species also eats small insects during the summer months. In appropriate habitat, Chipping Sparrows may be seen walking or hopping on the ground while foraging for food. Birdwatchers may also listen for this species’ song, a single-pitch rattle; as well as its call, a high “chip,” which gives this species its name. Chipping Sparrows are primarily active during the day.

Viitteet

  • Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.
  • Middleton, Alex L. 1998. Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/334
  • Spizella passerina. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012.
  • eBird Range Map - Chipping Sparrow. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012.

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Smithsonian Institution
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Rumelt, Reid B. Spizella passerina. June-July 2012. Brief natural history summary of Spizella passerina. Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
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Robert Costello (kearins)
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Spizella passerina ( asturia )

tarjonnut wikipedia AST
Map marker icon – Nicolas Mollet – Birds – Nature – white.png Les especies d'aves con nome común en llingua asturiana márquense como NOA. En casu contrariu, conséñase'l nome científicu o de la SEO.

La Spizella passerina ye una especie d'ave paseriforme de la familia Emberizidae. Ye una especie del Nuevu Mundu, parcialmente migratoria, que se distribúi en América del Norte y Central.

Descripción

Nos individuos adultos les partes cimeres son de color naranxa óxidu llistáu con negru, sacante la rabadilla, que ye gris y nun tien rayes. Hai dos barras blanques en cada nala. Los individuos con plumaxe reproductivu tienen una gorra naranxa acoloratada, una raya supraocular (supercilio) casi blanca y una llinia transocular (que s'estiende al traviés del güeyu) negra. El picu ye negru. Les partes ventrales son grises, volviéndose blancu escontra'l centru del gargüelu, pechu y banduyu, según les plumes cobertoras inferiores de la cola.

El plumaxe non reproductivu o plumaxe básicu ye menos marcáu. La corona ye parda rayada con negru y con una raya gris a la metá; n'ocasiones la corona puede caltener dellos marxes acolorataos. Les llinies supraocular y transocular, y les barres de les nales tán llavuquiaes y polo tanto son pocu conspicuas. El picu volver de color carne. Nesta temporada puede confundise fácilmente col gorrión indefiníu maciu (S. pallida), que sicasí ye más pálidu y nun tien la rabadilla gris, sinón color ante, amás de presentar un "bigote".

Los individuos xuveniles tán profusamente rayaos nes partes inferiores. Al igual que los adultos en dómina non reproductiva, amuesen una llinia transocular escura. La gorra y la llinia supraocular son variables, pero xeneralmente escures.

Sistemática

El gorrión coronirrufo cejiblanco amuesa variaciones a lo llargo de la so estensa área de distribución en Norteamérica. Tocantes a apariencia física, hai escasa variación, non asina no que se refier a comportamientu. Los ornitólogos suelen estremar la especie en dos grupos: l'occidental y l'oriental. Sicasí, dientro del grupu occidental hai tamién variaciones en plumaxe y comportamientu.

Hai siquier dos subespecies de gorrión coronirrufo cejiblanco nel oeste de Norteamérica. La subespecie Spizella passerina arizonae, llargamente distribuyida, acomuñóse con montes y hábitats grebos del interior. Una población de l'aguada del Pacíficu constitúi la subespecie S. p. stridula. Anque estos dos races son occidentales y son arrexuntaes de cutiu dientro del grupu occidental, non necesariamente formen una sola entidá amás de la subespecie oriental S. p. passerina.

Ecoloxía

Nel este de Norteamérica, el gorrión coronirrufo cejiblanco añera en montes, granxes y árees urbanes y suburbanes. Nel occidente, prefieren montes de coníferes. Ye una especie parcialmente migratoria, y casi toles poblaciones d'altitúes medies y elevaes migren pel hibiernu escontra'l sur de los Estaos Xuníos y a Méxicu. Mientres la migración y nes árees de invernación, estos gorriones son gregarios, formando grupos numberosos con individuos de la mesma especie o cierta asociación con otres especies, como l'azulexu gorjicanelo (Sialia sialis) y el chipe nororiental (Dendroica pinus).

A lo llargo del añu, el gorrión coronirrufo cejiblanco busca alimentu nel suelu, frecuentemente en grupos pocu compautos. La so dieta consiste principalmente de granes. Tamién busquen alimentu frecuentemente sobre parrotales y camperes direutamente. Especialmente en primavera, estes aves pueden ser vistes nos árboles, inclusive nel dosel, onde s'alimenten de yemes vexetales y d'artrópodos.

A entamos de la primavera, en marzu, los primeros migrantes tornen de les sos árees de invernación, pero'l gruesu de migrantes torna a tou lo llargo d'abril. Darréu, los machos definen los sos territorios cantando. La reproducción empieza dende abril, pero pa la mayoría dende finales d'esi mes y principios de mayu d'equí p'arriba.

La muda sigue la "Estratexa complexa alternativa", común nes aves norteamericanes. Hai dos mudes añales nos adultos (finales de branu y finales d'iviernu) y trés nel primer añu de vida.

Notes

Referencies

Enllaces esternos

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Spizella passerina: Brief Summary ( asturia )

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Spizella passerina Map marker icon – Nicolas Mollet – Birds – Nature – white.png Les especies d'aves con nome común en llingua asturiana márquense como NOA. En casu contrariu, conséñase'l nome científicu o de la SEO.

La Spizella passerina ye una especie d'ave paseriforme de la familia Emberizidae. Ye una especie del Nuevu Mundu, parcialmente migratoria, que se distribúi en América del Norte y Central.

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Spizella passerina ( valencia )

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Spizella passerina és una espècie d'ocell passeriforme de la família Emberizidae. És una espècie del Nou Món, parcialment migratòria, que es distribueix a Amèrica del Nord i Central.

 src= A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Spizella passerina Modifica l'enllaç a Wikidata
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Bras pigddu ( kymri )

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Aderyn a rhywogaeth o adar yw Bras pigddu (sy'n enw gwrywaidd; enw lluosog: breision pigddu) a adnabyddir hefyd gyda'i enw gwyddonol Spizella passerina; yr enw Saesneg arno yw Chipping sparrow. Mae'n perthyn i deulu'r Breision (Lladin: Emberizidae) sydd yn urdd y Passeriformes.[1]

Talfyrir yr enw Lladin yn aml yn S. passerina, sef enw'r rhywogaeth.[2] Mae'r rhywogaeth hon i'w chanfod yng Ngogledd America.

Teulu

Mae'r bras pigddu yn perthyn i deulu'r Breision (Lladin: Emberizidae). Dyma rai o aelodau eraill y teulu:

Rhestr Wicidata:

rhywogaeth enw tacson delwedd Bras Brewer Spizella breweri Bras coed Spizella arborea
Spizella-arborea-002 edit2.jpg
Bras llwydaidd Spizella pallida
Spizella pallida4 edit.jpg
Bras meysydd Spizella pusilla
FieldSparrow23.jpg
Bras Pigddu Spizella passerina
Spizella-passerina-015 edit.jpg
Bras Worthen Spizella wortheni Bras yr Eira Plectrophenax nivalis
Plectrophenax nivalis1.jpg
Cardinal cribgoch Paroaria coronata
Bird Dario Niz (5).jpg
Cardinal pigfelyn Paroaria capitata
Yellow-billed cardinal (Paroaria capitata).JPG
Pila mynydd penllwyd Phrygilus gayi
Phrygilus gayi.jpg
Pila mynydd Periw Phrygilus punensis
Phrygilus punensis -near Cusco, Peru-8.jpg
Pila telorus bronwinau Poospiza thoracica
Poospiza thoracica Bay-chested Warbling-finch.jpg
Pila telorus llygatddu’r Dwyrain Poospiza nigrorufa
Poospiza nigrorufa siete vestidos (2).jpg
Pila telorus tingoch Poospiza lateralis
Microspingus (Poospiza) lateralis - Buff-throated warbling-finch; Campos do Jordão, São Paulo, Brazil.jpg
Diwedd y rhestr a gynhyrchwyd yn otomatig o Wicidata.

Gweler hefyd

Cyfeiriadau

  1. Gwefan Cymdeithas Edward Llwyd; adalwyd 30 Medi 2016.
  2. Gwefan Avibase; adalwyd 3 Hydref 2016.
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Bras pigddu: Brief Summary ( kymri )

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Aderyn a rhywogaeth o adar yw Bras pigddu (sy'n enw gwrywaidd; enw lluosog: breision pigddu) a adnabyddir hefyd gyda'i enw gwyddonol Spizella passerina; yr enw Saesneg arno yw Chipping sparrow. Mae'n perthyn i deulu'r Breision (Lladin: Emberizidae) sydd yn urdd y Passeriformes.

Talfyrir yr enw Lladin yn aml yn S. passerina, sef enw'r rhywogaeth. Mae'r rhywogaeth hon i'w chanfod yng Ngogledd America.

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Schwirrammer ( saksa )

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Wissenschaftlicher Name Spizella passerina (Bechstein, 1798)
 src=
Eine Schwirrammer
Tonaufnahme
Vier Rufe, mit verschiedenen Hintergrundgeräuschen dazwischen.

Die Schwirrammer (Spizella passerina) ist ein kleiner Sperlingsvogel aus der Familie der Neuweltammern. Die Schwirrammer ist in fast ganz Nordamerika verbreitet.

Merkmale

Altvögel haben eine rostfarbene Haube, einen dunklen Schnabel und einen grauen Unterkörper. Sie haben einen braunen Rücken mit dunklen Streifen, braune Flügel mit weißen Strichen und einen schmalen Schwanz. Ihr Gesicht ist grau mit einer horizontalen schwarzen Linie die über das Auge geht.

Lebensraum

Der ursprüngliche Lebensraum der Schwirrammern waren wahrscheinlich Nadelwälder, aber durch Anpassung an die Veränderungen mit der zunehmenden Besiedlung durch Menschen, wurden neue Lebensräume erschlossen. Sie lebt heute in Wäldern, landwirtschaftlich genutzten Flächen, Parkanlagen und in städtischen Vorbezirken in Nordamerika. Die Schwirrammer zieht im Winter nach Mexiko und in die südlichen Bundesstaaten der USA.

Lebensweise

Die Schwirrammern suchen am Boden oder in niedrigen Büschen nach Futter. Manchmal fangen sie auch im Flug Insekten. Die Hauptnahrungsquelle sind Insekten und Samen. Außerhalb der Brutzeit leben die Schwirrammern in Schwärmen. Ihr Gesang ist ein einfaches Trillern. Ihre Nester baut die Schwirrammer üblicherweise in Nadel- oder Laubbäumen und gelegentlich auch auf dem Boden.

Unterarten

Es sind fünf Unterarten bekannt:[1]

  • Spizella passerina passerina (Bechstein, 1798)[2] – Die Nominatform kommt im Südosten Kanadas bis ins zentrale und östliche Gebiet der USA vor.
  • Spizella passerina arizonae Coues, 1872[3] – Die Unterart kommt von Alaska bis in den Nordwesten Mexikos vor.
  • Spizella passerina atremaea RT Moore, 1937[4] – Diese Unterart ist im Westen Mexikos verbreitet.
  • Spizella passerina mexicana Nelson, 1899[5] – Diese Unterart ist von Zentral- bis Südmexiko und dem Nordwesten Guatemalas verbreitet.
  • Spizella passerina pinetorum Salvin, 1863[6] – Diese Unterart kommt im Nordosten Guatemalas über Belize bis in den Nordosten Nicaraguas vor.

Etymologie und Forschungsgeschichte

Johann Matthäus Bechstein beschrieb die Schwirrammer unter dem Namen Fringilla passerina. Als Fundort des Typusexemplar gab er Québec an.[2] Es war Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte der erstmals die neue Gattung Spizella für die Klapperammer (Spizella pusilla) ( A. Wilson, 1810) einführte.[7] Erst später wurde auch die Schwirrammer dieser Gattung zugeordnet. Dieser Name ist der Diminutiv des griechischen »spiza σπιζα« für »Fink« und leitet sich wiederum von »spizō σπιζω« für »zwitschern« ab.[8] Das Artepitheton »passerina« stammt vom lateinischen »passerinus« für »Sperling ähnlich« ab.[9] »Arizonae« bezieht sich auf Arizona, da Coues zumindest dort das Verbreitungsgebiet dieser Unterart sah.[3] »Mexicana« bezieht sich auf das Land Mexiko. Nelson nannte die Unterart deshalb auch Mexican Chipping Sparrow.[5] »Pinetorum« ist das lateinische Wort für »auf den Kiefern«, was sich von »pinus« für »Kiefer« ableitet.[10] »Atremaea« leitet sich vom griechischen »atremaios ατρεμαιος« für »still, ruhig« ab.[11]

Literatur

Bücher

  • A. L. Middleton,Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina). In: The Birds of North America. 334/1998, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Johann Matthäus Bechstein: Johann Latham's allgemeine Uebersicht der Vögel. Band 3. Schneider und Weigel, Nürnberg 1798.
  • Elliott Coues: Key to North American birds; containing a concise account of every species of living and fossil bird at present known from the continent north of the Mexican and United States boundary. Illustrated by 6 steel plates, and upwards of 250 woodcuts. Dodd and Mead, New York 1872 (biodiversitylibrary.org [abgerufen am 11. Februar 2015]).
  • James A. Jobling: Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. Christopher Helm, London 2010, ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.

Artikel in Journalen

  • D. J. Albrecht, L. W. Oring: Song in chipping sparrows, Spizella passerina: Structure and function. In: Animal Behaviour. vol 50, 1995, S. 1233–1241.
  • S. H. Anderson, R. I. J. Van Hook: Uptake and Biological Turnover of Cadmium-109 in Chipping Sparrows Spizella-Passerina. In: Environmental Physiology & Biochemistry. vol 3, no 5, 1973, S. 243–247.
  • F. W. Braestrup: Evolution of Vertebrates Parus-Ater Parus-Cristatus Parus-Montanus Nemeritis-Canescens Phylloscopus-Sibilatrix Delichon-Urbica Spizella-Passerina Peromyscus-Maniculatus Turdus-Merula Turdus-Viscivorus Acrocephalus-Palustris. In: Zoologischer Anzeiger. vol 181, no 1/2, 1968, S. 1–22.
  • P. O. Catherine, C. O. Joseph: Effects of Brown-headed Cowbirds on the nesting success of Chipping Sparrows in southwest Colorado. In: The Condor. vol 103, no 1, 2001, S. 127.
  • W. R. Dawson, C. Carey, C. S. Adkisson, R. D. Ohmart: Responses of Brewers Sparrows Spizella-Breweri and Chipping Sparrows Spizella-Passerina to Water Restriction. In: Physiological Zoology. vol 52, no 4, 1979, S. 529–541.
  • C. G. Earley: Brown-headed Cowbird, Molothrus-ater, Seen Removing a Chipping Sparrow, Spizella-passerina, Egg. In: Canadian Field-Naturalist. vol 105, no 2, 1991, S. 281–282.
  • E. R. Fillmore, R. D. Titman: Chipping Sparrow Hanged. In: Canadian Field-Naturalist. vol 91, no 1, 1977, S. 69–69.
  • J. Foster, R. Tozer: Chipping sparrow feeds young of Eastern Kingbird. In: Ontario Birds. vol 19, no 2, 2001, S. 79–83.
  • Liu W-C, Kroodsma DE.: Song development by chipping sparrows and field sparrows. In: Animal Behaviour. vol 57, 1999, S. 1275.
  • Liu W-C, Kroodsma DE.: Dawn and daytime singing behavior of chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina). In: Auk. vol 124, no 1, 2007, S. 44–52.
  • A. L. A. Middleton, D. R. C. Prescott: Polygyny, Extra-pair Copulations, and Nest Helpers in the Chipping Sparrow, Spizella-passerina. In: Canadian Field-Naturalist. vol 103, no 1, 1989, S. 61–64.
  • R. R. Moldenha, P. G. Taylor: Energy-intake by Hydropenic Chipping Sparrows (Spizella-passerina-passerina) Maintained on Different Diets. In: Condor. vol 75, no 4, 1973, S. 439–445.
  • H. R. Pulliam: Do Chipping Sparrows Spizella-Passerina-Arizonae Forage Optimally. In: Ardea. vol 68, no 1-4, 1980, S. 75–82.
  • J. D. Reynolds, R. W. Knapton: Nest-Site Selection and Breeding Biology of the Chipping Sparrow Spizella-Passerina. In: Wilson Bulletin. vol 96, no 3, 1984, S. 488–493.
  • D. M. Scott: House Sparrow and Chipping Sparrow Feed the Same Fledgling Brown-headed Cowbird. In: Wilson Bulletin. vol 100, no 2, 1988, S. 323–324.
  • G. A. Simmons, N. F. Sloan: Consumption of Jack-Pine Budworm Choristoneura-Pinus by the Eastern Chipping Sparrow Spizella-Passerina. In: Canadian Journal of Zoology. vol 52, no 7, 1974, S. 817–821.
  • N. F. Sloan, G. A. Simmons: Foraging Behavior of the Chipping Sparrow in Response to High Populations of Jack Pine Budworm. In: American Midland Naturalist. vol 90, no 1, 1973, S. 210–215.
  • P. A. Stewart: Bird Migration through an Abandoned Farmstead Richmondena-Cardinalis Behavior Dendroica-Palmarum Guiraca-Caerulea Spizella-Passerina. In: Chat. vol 32, no 4, 1968.
  • H. M. Swanson, B. Kinney, A. Cruz: Breeding biology of the Chipping Sparrow in ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range. In: Wilson Bulletin. vol 116, no 3, 2004, S. 246–251.
  • L. Wan-Chun: The effect of neighbours and females on dawn and daytime singing behaviours by male chipping sparrows. In: Animal Behaviour. vol 68, 2004, S. 39.
  • L. Wan-Chun, E. K. Donald: Song Learning by Chipping Sparrows: When, Where, and from Whom. In: The Condor. vol 108, no 3, 2006, S. 509.
  • R. M. Zink, D. L. Dittmann: Population structure and gene flow in the chipping sparrow and a hypothesis for evolution in the genus Spizella. In: The Wilson Bulletin. vol 105, no 3, 1993, S. 399–413.
  • Robert Thomas Moore: New races of Myadestes, Spizella and Turdus from northwestern Mexico. In: Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Band 50, 1937, S. 201–205 (biodiversitylibrary.org [abgerufen am 11. Februar 2015]).
  • Edward William Nelson: Descriptions of New Birds From Mexico. In: The Auk. Band 16, Nr. 1, 1899, S. 25–31 (englisch, unm.edu [PDF; 266 kB; abgerufen am 11. Februar 2015]).
  • Osbert Salvin: Description of thirteen new species of birds discovered in Central America by Frederick Godman and Osbbert Salvin. In: Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1863. Nr. 2, 1863, S. 186–192, Tafel 23, 24 (biodiversitylibrary.org [abgerufen am 11. Februar 2015]).
  • Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte: Saggio d'una distribuzione metodica degli Animali Vertebrati a sangue freddo. In: Giornale Arcadico di Scienze Lettere ed Arti. Band 52, 1832, S. 129–209 (biodiversitylibrary.org [abgerufen am 19. Februar 2015]).

Weblinks

 src= Commons: Schwirrammer – Album mit Bildern, Videos und Audiodateien

alle in englischer Sprache:

Einzelnachweise

  1. IOC World Bird List Bananaquit, buntings, sparrows & bush tanagers
  2. a b Johann Matthäus Bechstein, S. 544, Tafel 120, Figur 1.
  3. a b Elliott Coues, S. 143.
  4. Robert Thomas Moore, S. 203.
  5. a b Edward William Nelson, S. 30.
  6. Osbert Salvin, S. 189.
  7. Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte, S. 205.
  8. James A. Jobling, S. 363.
  9. James A. Jobling, S. 294.
  10. James A. Jobling, S. 307.
  11. James A. Jobling, S. 59.
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Schwirrammer: Brief Summary ( saksa )

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 src= Eine Schwirrammer Tonaufnahme Vier Rufe, mit verschiedenen Hintergrundgeräuschen dazwischen.

Die Schwirrammer (Spizella passerina) ist ein kleiner Sperlingsvogel aus der Familie der Neuweltammern. Die Schwirrammer ist in fast ganz Nordamerika verbreitet.

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Chipping sparrow ( englanti )

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The chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina) is a species of American sparrow, a passerine bird in the family Passerellidae. It is widespread, fairly tame, and common across most of its North American range. There are two subspecies, the eastern chipping sparrow and the western chipping sparrow. This bird is a partial migrant with northerly populations flying southwards in the fall to overwinter in Mexico and the southern United States, and flying northward again in spring. It molts twice a year. In its breeding plumage it has orangish-rust upper parts, gray head and underparts and a distinctive reddish cap. In non-breeding plumage, the cap is brown and the facial markings are less distinct. The song is a trill and the bird has a piercing flight call that can be heard while it is migrating at night.

In the winter, chipping sparrows are gregarious and form flocks, sometimes associating with other bird species. They mostly forage on the ground for seeds and other food items, as well as clambering on plants and trees, feeding on buds and small arthropods. In the west of their range they breed mainly in coniferous forests, but in the east, they choose woodland, farmland, parks and gardens. Breeding starts in late April and May and the nest is often built in a tree.

Description

 src=
An adult and nestlings in a tree nest

Throughout the year, adults are gray below and an orangish-rust color above. Adults in alternate (breeding) plumage have a reddish cap, a nearly white supercilium, and a black trans-ocular line (running through the eye). Adults in basic (nonbreeding) plumage are less prominently marked, with a brownish cap, a dusky eyebrow, and a dark eye-line.

Juvenile chipping sparrows are prominently streaked below. Like non-breeding adults, they show a dark eye-line, extending both in front of and behind the eye. The brownish cap and dusky eyebrow are variable but generally obscure in juveniles.

Vocalizations

The song is a trill that varies considerably among birds within any particular region. Two broad classes of variation in the song of the chipping sparrow are the fast trill and the slow trill. Individual elements in the fast trill are run together about twice as fast as in the slow trill; the fast trill sounds like a buzz or like someone snoring, whereas the slow trill sounds like rapid finger-tapping. Individual elements in the trill are very similar to a high pitch chi chi chi call.

The flight call of the chipping sparrow is heard year-round. Its flight call is piercing and pure-tone, lasting about 50 milliseconds. It starts out around 9 kHz, then falls to 7 kHz, then rises again to 9 kHz. The flight call may be transliterated as seen? Chipping sparrows migrate by night, and their flight calls are a characteristic sound of the night sky in spring and fall in the United States. In the southern Rockies and eastern Great Plains, the chipping sparrow appears to be the most common nocturnal migrant, judged by the number of flight calls detected per hour. On typical nights in August in this region, chipping sparrows may be heard at a rate of 15 flight calls per hour. On better-than-average nights, chipping sparrows occur at a rate of 60 flight calls per hour, and on exceptional nights chipping sparrows' flight calls are heard more than 200 times per hour.

Systematics

Chipping sparrows vary across their extensive North American range. There is minor geographic variation in appearance, and there is significant geographic variation in behavior. Ornithologists often divide the chipping sparrow into two major groups: the eastern chipping sparrow and the western chipping sparrow. However, there is additional plumage and behavioral variation within the western group.

At least two subspecies of chipping sparrows occur in western North America. The widespread Spizella passerina arizonae is associated with mountains and arid habitats of the western interior. A Pacific slope population constitutes subspecies S. p. stridula. Although these two races are both western, and are often lumped together as the western chipping sparrow, they do not necessarily form a single entity that stands apart from the eastern chipping sparrow (S. p. passerina).

The chipping sparrow is part of the family Emberizidae, and is not closely related to the Old World sparrows of the family Passeridae.[2]

Ecology

 src=
A chipping sparrow at a suburban bird feeder

Breeding

The male chipping sparrow start arriving at the breeding grounds from March (in more southern areas, such as Texas)) to mid-May (in southern Alberta and northern Ontario). The female arrives one to two weeks later, and the male starts singing soon after to find and court a mate.[3] After pair formation, nesting begins (within about two weeks of the female's arrival). Overall, the breeding season is from March till about August.[4]

The chipping sparrow breeds in grassy, open woodland clearings[3] and shrubby grass fields.[4] The nest is normally above ground but below 6 metres (20 ft) in height,[3] and about 1 metre (3.3 ft) on average,[5] in a tree (usually a conifer, especially those that are young, short, and thick) or bush. The nest itself is constructed by the female[3] in about four days.[5] It consists of a loose platform of grass and rootlets and open inner cup of plant fiber and animal hair.[4]

The chipping sparrow lays a clutch of two to seven pale blue to white eggs with black, brown, or purple markings. They are about 17 by 12 millimetres (0.67 by 0.47 in), and incubated by the female for 10 to 15 days.[4] The chipping sparrow is often brood parasitized by brown-headed cowbirds, usually resulting in the nest being abandoned.[3]

Feeding

The chipping sparrow feeds on seeds year-round, although insects form most of the diet in the breeding season. Spiders are sometimes taken. Taraxacum officinale seeds are important during spring, and seeds from Fallopia convolvulus, Melilotus spp., Stellaria media, Chenopodium album, Avena spp., and others.[3]

Throughout the year, chipping sparrows forage on the ground[6] in covered areas,[7] often near the edges of fields.[3]

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Spizella passerina". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.old-form url
  2. ^ Allende, Luis M.; Rubio, Isabel; Ruíz-del-Valle, Valentin; Guillén, Jesus; Martínez-Laso, Jorge; Lowy, Ernesto; Varela, Pilar; Zamora, Jorge; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio (2001). "The Old World sparrows (genus Passer) phylogeography and their relative abundance of nuclear mtDNA pseudogenes" (PDF). Journal of Molecular Evolution. 53 (2): 144–154. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.520.4878. doi:10.1007/s002390010202. PMID 11479685. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Rising, J. (2018). del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi; Christie, David A.; de Juana, Eduardo (eds.). "Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina)". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d Hauber, Mark E. (1 August 2014). The Book of Eggs: A Life-Size Guide to the Eggs of Six Hundred of the World's Bird Species. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 581. ISBN 978-0-226-05781-1.
  5. ^ a b Reynolds, John D.; Knapton, Richard W. (1984). "Nest-site selection and breeding biology of the chipping sparrow". The Wilson Bulletin. 96 (3): 488–493. ISSN 0043-5643.
  6. ^ Allaire, Pierre N.; Fisher, Charles D. (1975). "Feeding ecology of three resident sympatric sparrows in eastern Texas". The Auk. 92 (2): 260–269. doi:10.2307/4084555. ISSN 0004-8038. JSTOR 4084555.
  7. ^ Lima, Steven L.; Valone, Thomas J. (1991). "Predators and avian community organization: an experiment in a semi-desert grassland". Oecologia. 86 (1): 105–112. doi:10.1007/BF00317396. ISSN 0029-8549. PMID 28313165.

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Chipping sparrow: Brief Summary ( englanti )

tarjonnut wikipedia EN

The chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina) is a species of American sparrow, a passerine bird in the family Passerellidae. It is widespread, fairly tame, and common across most of its North American range. There are two subspecies, the eastern chipping sparrow and the western chipping sparrow. This bird is a partial migrant with northerly populations flying southwards in the fall to overwinter in Mexico and the southern United States, and flying northward again in spring. It molts twice a year. In its breeding plumage it has orangish-rust upper parts, gray head and underparts and a distinctive reddish cap. In non-breeding plumage, the cap is brown and the facial markings are less distinct. The song is a trill and the bird has a piercing flight call that can be heard while it is migrating at night.

In the winter, chipping sparrows are gregarious and form flocks, sometimes associating with other bird species. They mostly forage on the ground for seeds and other food items, as well as clambering on plants and trees, feeding on buds and small arthropods. In the west of their range they breed mainly in coniferous forests, but in the east, they choose woodland, farmland, parks and gardens. Breeding starts in late April and May and the nest is often built in a tree.

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Spizella passerina ( kastilia )

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El chimbito común (Spizella passerina) también denominado gorrión coronirrufo o cejiblanco,[2]pinzón cantor y sabanero pechigrís, chingolo cejiblanco[3]​ una especie de ave paseriforme de la familia Passerellidae. Es una especie del Nuevo Mundo, parcialmente migratoria, que se distribuye en América del Norte y Central.

Descripción

En los individuos adultos las partes superiores son de color naranja óxido listado con negro, a excepción de la rabadilla, que es gris y no tiene rayas. Hay dos barras blancas en cada ala. Los individuos con plumaje reproductivo tienen una gorra naranja rojiza, una raya supraocular (supercilio) casi blanca y una línea transocular (que se extiende a través del ojo) negra. El pico es negro. Las partes ventrales son grises, volviéndose blanco hacia el centro de la garganta, pecho y vientre, así como los plumas cobertoras inferiores de la cola.

El plumaje no reproductivo o plumaje básico es menos marcado. La corona es parda rayada con negro y con una raya gris a la mitad; en ocasiones la corona puede conservar algunos márgenes rojizos. Las líneas supraocular y transocular, y las barras de las alas están deslavadas y por lo tanto son poco conspicuas. El pico se vuelve de color carne. En esta temporada se puede confundir fácilmente con el gorrión indefinido pálido (S. pallida), que sin embargo es más pálido y no tiene la rabadilla gris, sino color ante, además de presentar un "bigote".

Los individuos juveniles están profusamente rayados en las partes inferiores. Al igual que los adultos en época no reproductiva, muestran una línea transocular oscura. La gorra y la línea supraocular son variables, pero generalmente oscuras.

Sistemática

El gorrión coronirrufo cejiblanco muestra variaciones a lo largo de su extensa área de distribución en Norteamérica. En cuanto a apariencia física, hay escasa variación, no así en lo que se refiere a comportamiento. Los ornitólogos suelen dividir la especie en dos grupos: el occidental y el oriental. Sin embargo, dentro del grupo occidental hay también variaciones en plumaje y comportamiento.

Hay al menos dos subespecies de gorrión coronirrufo cejiblanco en el oeste de Norteamérica. La subespecie Spizella passerina arizonae, ampliamente distribuida, se asocia con montañas y hábitats áridos del interior. Una población de la vertiente del Pacífico constituye la subespecie S. p. stridula. Aunque estas dos razas son occidentales y son agrupadas a menudo dentro del grupo occidental, no necesariamente forman una sola entidad aparte de la subespecie oriental S. p. passerina.

Ecología

En el este de Norteamérica, el gorrión coronirrufo cejiblanco anida en bosques, granjas y áreas urbanas y suburbanas. En el occidente, prefieren bosques de coníferas. Es una especie parcialmente migratoria, y casi todas las poblaciones de altitudes medias y elevadas migran en invierno hacia el sur de los Estados Unidos y a México. Durante la migración y en las áreas de invernación, estos gorriones son gregarios, formando grupos numerosos con individuos de la misma especie o cierta asociación con otras especies, como el azulejo gorjicanelo (Sialia sialis) y el chipe nororiental (Dendroica pinus).

A lo largo del año, el gorrión coronirrufo cejiblanco busca alimento en el suelo, frecuentemente en grupos poco compactos. Su dieta consiste principalmente de semillas. También buscan alimento frecuentemente sobre arbustos y pastos directamente. Especialmente en primavera, estas aves pueden ser vistas en los árboles, incluso en el dosel, donde se alimentan de yemas vegetales y de artrópodos.

A inicios de la primavera, en marzo, los primeros migrantes regresan de sus áreas de invernación, pero el grueso de migrantes regresa a todo lo largo de abril. Inmediatamente, los machos definen sus territorios cantando. La reproducción comienza desde abril, pero para la mayoría desde finales de ese mes y principios de mayo en adelante.

La muda sigue la "Estrategia compleja alternativa", común en las aves norteamericanas. Hay dos mudas anuales en los adultos (finales de verano y finales de invierno) y tres en el primer año de vida.

Notas

  1. BirdLife International (2012). «Spizella passerina». Lista Roja de especies amenazadas de la UICN 2016-2 (en inglés). ISSN 2307-8235. Consultado el 4 de diciembre de 2016.
  2. Sada, Phillips y Ramos, 1984
  3. Chingolo Cejiblanco (Spizella passerina) (Bechstein, 1798)

Referencias

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Spizella passerina: Brief Summary ( kastilia )

tarjonnut wikipedia ES

El chimbito común (Spizella passerina) también denominado gorrión coronirrufo o cejiblanco,​ pinzón cantor y sabanero pechigrís, chingolo cejiblanco​ una especie de ave paseriforme de la familia Passerellidae. Es una especie del Nuevo Mundo, parcialmente migratoria, que se distribuye en América del Norte y Central.

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Spizella passerina ( baski )

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Spizella passerina Spizella generoko animalia da. Hegaztien barruko Emberizidae familian sailkatua dago.

Erreferentziak

  1. (Ingelesez)BirdLife International (2012) Species factsheet. www.birdlife.org webgunetitik jaitsia 2012/05/07an
  2. (Ingelesez) IOC Master List

Ikus, gainera

(RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.log.warn("Gadget "ErrefAurrebista" was not loaded. Please migrate it to use ResourceLoader. See u003Chttps://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berezi:Gadgetaku003E.");});
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Spizella passerina: Brief Summary ( baski )

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Spizella passerina Spizella generoko animalia da. Hegaztien barruko Emberizidae familian sailkatua dago.

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Kenttäsirkkuli

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Kenttäsirkkuli (Spizella passerina) on Pohjois- ja Keski-Amerikassa tavattava sirkkuleihin kuuluva varpuslintu.

Koko ja ulkonäkö

Kooltaan kenttäsirkkuli on noin 13–15 cm. Koiraat ovat usein hieman naaraita kookkaampia. Ruumiinrakenteeltaan kenttäsirkkuli on hoikka ja melko pitkäpyrstöinen varpuslintu. Väritykseltään koiras- ja naarasyksilöt ovat samanlaisia. Kenttäsirkkulin päälaki on väritykseltään kirkkaan ruosteenruskea. Lajin selkä on väritykseltään ruskean ja mustan raidallinen. Päässä on musta silmäkulmajuova ja muuten pää on väriltään harmaa. Rinta ja vatsa ovat väriltään vaalean harmaat. Talvisin kenttäsirkkulit ovat väritykseltään ruskehtavia ja selässä on tummia viiruja. Nuoret linnut ovat höyhenpuvultaan kauttaaltaan ruskea ja viiruinen.[3][4][5]

Levinneisyys ja elinympäristö

Ääninäyte


Kenttäsirkkuli pesii alueella, joka ulottuu Kanadan läpi Yukonin ja Newfoundlandin territorioista etelään Yhdysvaltojen keski- ja itäosiin sekä Meksikoon ja Keski-Amerikassa aina Nicaraguaan saakka. Lintu talvehtii Yhdysvaltain eteläosissa ja Keski-Amerikassa, leutoina talvina myös pohjoisempana.[6][4]

Kenttäsirkkulin elinympäristöä ovat kuivat avoimet metsät ja metsän reunat, joissa on myös ruohikkoisia aukioita. Erityisesti lintu elää havupuumetsissä. Lajia tavataan myös maatalousmaiden lähettyvillä, mutta siellä pesintää hankaloittaa lehmäturpiaali (Molothurus ater), joka on pesäloinen. Laji on sopeutunut myös kaupunkiympäristöihin ja kaupungeissa sitä tavataan puistoissa sekä puutarhoissa. Muuttoaikoina kenttäsirkkulia voi nähdä monenlaisissa ympäristöissä.[5][3][4]

Ravinto

Kenttäsirkkuleiden ravinto koostuu pääasiassa erilaisten heinäkasvien siemenistä. Varsinkin kesäaikaan laji ruokailee myös hyönteisillä kuten perhosilla, kovakuoriaisilla ja heinäsirkoilla. Ravintonsa laji etsii pensaikosta tai maasta. Laji syö myös soraa, mikä tekee siemenravinnon helpommin sulavaksi. Aikuiset antavat soraa myös poikasilleen. Pesimäaikaan laji etsii ravintonsa yksin tai pareittain ja talvisin lintu kokoontuu jopa 50 yksilön parviksi.[4]

Pesintä

Kenttäsirkkulit saapuvat pesimäpaikoilleen huhti-toukokuussa. Pesimäkausi kestää toukokuun puolestavälistä heinäkuun loppuun. Naaraat ja koiraat valitsevat yhdessä pesäpaikan. Pesä sijaitsee yleensä havupuussa tai pensaikossa. Naaras rakentaa pesän heinistä ja juurista. Yleensä pesimäkaudessa on samalla parilla yleensä vain yksi onnistunut pesintä, vaikka myös toista pesintää yritetään usein saman pesimäkauden aikana. Naaraskenttäsirkkuli munii kahdesta seitsemään vaaleansinistä ruskeapilkullista munaa. Naaras hautoo munat ja koiras huolehtii hautovan naaraan ja kuoriutuneiden poikasten ruokinnasta.[4]

Lähteet

  1. BirdLife International: Spizella passerina IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. 2012. International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN, Iucnredlist.org. Viitattu 15.2.2014. (englanniksi)
  2. Spizella passerina ITIS. Viitattu 23.4.2010. (englanniksi)
  3. a b Chipping Sparrow All About Birds. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Viitattu 23.4.2010. (englanniksi)
  4. a b c d e Tanya Dewey: Chipping Sparrow Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Viitattu 23.4.2010. (englanniksi)
  5. a b Chipping Sparrow BirdWeb. Seattle Audubon Society. Viitattu 23.4.2010. (englanniksi)
  6. Robert Wayne Campbell: The Birds of British Columbia, s. 191. UBC Press, 2001. ISBN 9780774806213. Kirja Googlen teoshaussa (viitattu 23.04.2010). (englanniksi)
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Kenttäsirkkuli: Brief Summary

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Kenttäsirkkuli (Spizella passerina) on Pohjois- ja Keski-Amerikassa tavattava sirkkuleihin kuuluva varpuslintu.

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Bruant familier ( Ranska )

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Spizella passerina

Chant

Le Bruant familier (Spizella passerina) est une espèce de passereau appartenant à la famille des Passerellidae.

Description

En plumage nuptial, l'adulte présente une calotte rousse, des joues grises et des sourcils blancs soulignés par une ligne noire traversant chaque œil. En plumage internuptial, cette ligne est foncée, les joues beiges ou brunes et la calotte rousse rayée de noir. Cette calotte est brune rayée de noir chez le jeune qui présente des parties inférieures beiges tandis que celles de l'adulte sont grises. En toutes saisons, les ailes et le dos sont brunâtres.

Répartition

Le Bruant familier est largement répandu à travers toute l'Amérique du Nord. Il est très rare entre octobre et avril dans le nord des Bahamas (erratique dans le sud) et à Cuba.

 src=
Carte de répartition
  • Aire de nidification
  • Voie migratoire
  • Présent à l'année
  • Aire d'hivernage

Habitat

Cet oiseau fréquente les fourrés, les prés, les champs et divers milieux ouverts.

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Bruant familier: Brief Summary ( Ranska )

tarjonnut wikipedia FR

Spizella passerina

Chant

Le Bruant familier (Spizella passerina) est une espèce de passereau appartenant à la famille des Passerellidae.

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Spizella passerina ( Italia )

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Il passero cinguettante (Spizella passerina Bechstein, 1798) è una specie di uccello appartenente alla famiglia dei Passerellidae.[2]

Biologia

Canto

Canto

Distribuzione e habitat

È originario di Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Messico, Nicaragua, Saint-Pierre e Miquelon, Turks e Caicos e Stati Uniti d'America.

Note

  1. ^ (EN) BirdLife International 2012), Spizella passerina, su IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Versione 2019.2, IUCN, 2019.
  2. ^ (EN) Gill F. and Donsker D. (eds), Family Passerellidae, in IOC World Bird Names (ver 9.2), International Ornithologists’ Union, 2019. URL consultato il 29 novembre 2018.

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Spizella passerina: Brief Summary ( Italia )

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Il passero cinguettante (Spizella passerina Bechstein, 1798) è una specie di uccello appartenente alla famiglia dei Passerellidae.

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Musgors ( flaami )

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Vogels

De musgors (Spizella passerina) is een zangvogel uit de familie Emberizidae (gorzen).

Verspreiding en leefgebied

Deze soort telt 5 ondersoorten:

  • S. p. passerina: van zuidoostelijk Canada tot de centrale en oostelijke Verenigde Staten.
  • S. p. arizonae: van Alaska tot noordwestelijk Mexico.
  • S. p. atremaea: westelijk Mexico.
  • S. p. mexicana: centraal en zuidelijk Mexico en noordwestelijk Guatemala.
  • S. p. pinetorum: van noordoostelijk Guatemala en Belize tot noordoostelijk Nicaragua.

Externe link

Bronnen, noten en/of referenties
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Musgors: Brief Summary ( flaami )

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De musgors (Spizella passerina) is een zangvogel uit de familie Emberizidae (gorzen).

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Spizela białobrewa ( puola )

tarjonnut wikipedia POL
Commons Multimedia w Wikimedia Commons

Spizela białobrewa[3] (Spizella passerina) – gatunek ptaka z rodziny pasówek (Passerellidae). Mierzy około 14 cm, na głowie ma rdzawą czapeczkę, białą brew i czarny pasek przechodzący przez oko. Zamieszkuje lasy iglaste, zarośla i miasta w Ameryce Północnej.

Długość ciała wynosi 12–14 cm; masa 10,3–15,5 g. Gnieździ się w otwartych zadrzewieniach, w sadach, parkach i na polach golfowych. Żywi się głównie ziarnami, ale w okresie lęgowym zjada również bezkręgowce[4].

Systematyka

Wyróżniono kilka podgatunków S. passerina[5][4]:

  • S. passerina passerina – południowo-wschodnia Kanada do środkowego i wschodniego USA.
  • S. passerina arizonaeAlaska do północno-zachodniego Meksyku.
  • S. passerina atremaeus – zachodni Meksyk.
  • S. passerina mexicana – środkowy i południowy Meksyk, północno-zachodnia Gwatemala.
  • S. passerina pinetorum – północno-wschodnia Gwatemala i Belize do północno-wschodniej Nikaragui.

Przypisy

  1. Spizella passerina, w: Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ang.).
  2. BirdLife International 2012, Spizella passerina [w:] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015 [online], wersja 2015-4 [dostęp 2015-12-13] (ang.).
  3. Systematyka i nazwy polskie za: P. Mielczarek, M. Kuziemko: Rodzina: Passerellidae Cabanis & Heine, 1850-51 - pasówki - New world sparrows and allies (wersja: 2015-07-08). W: Kompletna lista ptaków świata [on-line]. Instytut Nauk o Środowisku Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego. [dostęp 2015-12-13].
  4. a b Rising, J.: Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina). W: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2014). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive [on-line]. 2011. [dostęp 7 grudnia 2015].
  5. F. Gill, D. Donsker: Bananaquit, buntings, sparrows & bush tanagers (ang.). IOC World Bird List: Version 5.4. [dostęp 2015-12-13].
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Spizela białobrewa: Brief Summary ( puola )

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Spizela białobrewa (Spizella passerina) – gatunek ptaka z rodziny pasówek (Passerellidae). Mierzy około 14 cm, na głowie ma rdzawą czapeczkę, białą brew i czarny pasek przechodzący przez oko. Zamieszkuje lasy iglaste, zarośla i miasta w Ameryce Północnej.

Długość ciała wynosi 12–14 cm; masa 10,3–15,5 g. Gnieździ się w otwartych zadrzewieniach, w sadach, parkach i na polach golfowych. Żywi się głównie ziarnami, ale w okresie lęgowym zjada również bezkręgowce.

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Tjippsparv ( ruotsi )

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Tjippsparv[2] (Spizella passerina) är en vida spridd och mycket vanligt förekommande nord- och centralamerikansk fågel i familjen amerikanska sparvar inom ordningen tättingar.[3]

Kännetecken

Utseende

Tjippsparven är en liten (12-15 cm), slank och rätt långstjärtad amerikansk sparv med rätt liten näbb. I häckningsdräkt är den prydligt och distinkt tecknad med rent gråvit undersida, roströd hjässa samt tydligt svart ögonstreck och vitt ögonbrynsstreck. Vintertid är den mer dämpad i färgerna och därmed mer lik sina nära släktingar lerfärgad sparv och brewersparv, men kan särskiljas genom mörk tygel, gråaktig övergump och tydligast ögonstreck av de tre.[4]

 src=
Adult i häckningsdräkt.
 src=
Vinterdräkt.

Läte

Tjippsparven sjunger en monoton, torr och mekanisk drill av tjippande toner (därav namnet). Den liknar sången hos mörkögd junko, men är längre och mer skallrande. Bland lätena hörs vassa "tsip", i flykten ett ljust och tunt "tsiis".[5]

Utbredning och systematik

Tjippsparv delas in i fem underarter med följande utbredning:[3]

Tjippsparven påträffas även regelbundet på Kuba och i Bahamas.[1] Den har även vid ett tillfälle, i oktober 1981, observerats på ryska Wrangelön.[6]

Levnadssätt

Tjippsparven är en mycket vanlig och vida spridd fågel som ofta ses i människans närhet. Den hittas varhelst det finns inslag av träd och gräsmarker, som i öppna skogsmarker och i skogsbryn, men även i parker, trädgårdar och utmed vägrenar. I bergstrakter kan den påträffas ända upp till trädgränsen. I västra USA rör den sig snart efter häckning till andra områden på jakt efter föda och för att rugga. Den kan då ses i mer öppna gräsmarker och till och med i alpin terräng. Detta har lett till missuppfattningen att den häckar i dessa miljöer.[4]

Tjippsparven födosöker på marken, ofta i små lösa grupper, och tar skydd i buskage. Sången levereras från toppen av ett litet träd, gärna städsegrönt. Den livnär sig huvudsakligen av frön från en lång rad gräs- och örtsorter, men även små frukter som körsbär. Under häckningstid tar den också insekter.[4]

Häckning

Tjippsparven bygger ett löst bo, så fragilt att solljus kan skina igenom det. Det placeras vanligen lågt i en buske eller ett träd, men bon har även hittats i hängande korgar fyllda med mossa och på en gammal gräsklippare inne i en verktygsbod. Den lägger en till tre kullar med två till sju ljusblå till vita, lätt mörkfläckade ägg. Äggen ruvas i tio till 15 dagar, varefter ungarna är flygga efter ytterligare nio till tolv dagar.[4]

 src=
Tjippsparvsbo med ungar.

Status och hot

Tjippsparven är en mycket vanlig förekommande art med en uppskattad världspopulation på hela 230 miljoner häckande individer.[7] Den ökar dessutom i antal, varför internationella naturvårdsunionen IUCN kategoriserar den som livskraftig (LC).[1]

Noter

  1. ^ [a b c] Birdlife International 2012 Spizella passerina Från: IUCN 2015. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.4 www.iucnredlist.org. Läst 2016-02-01.
  2. ^ Sveriges ornitologiska förening (2018) Officiella listan över svenska namn på världens fågelarter, läst 2018-02-14
  3. ^ [a b] Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood (2017) The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 2017 http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download, läst 2017-08-11
  4. ^ [a b c d] Chipping Sparrow Faktablad om tjippsparv på allaboutbird.org
  5. ^ Sibley, David Allen (2003). The Sibley Field Guide to Birds of Eastern North America. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 0-679-45120-X
  6. ^ Vladimir Yu Arkhipov & Łukasz Ławicki (2016). Nearctic passerines in Russia. Dutch Birding, 38, 201-214.
  7. ^ Partners in Flight (2017). Avian Conservation Assessment Database. 2017.

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Tjippsparv: Brief Summary ( ruotsi )

tarjonnut wikipedia SV

Tjippsparv (Spizella passerina) är en vida spridd och mycket vanligt förekommande nord- och centralamerikansk fågel i familjen amerikanska sparvar inom ordningen tättingar.

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Spizella passerina ( vietnam )

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Spizella passerina là một loài chim trong họ Emberizidae.[1]

Chú thích

  1. ^ Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, B.L. Sullivan, C. L. Wood, and D. Roberson (2012). “The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.7.”. Truy cập ngày 19 tháng 12 năm 2012.

Tham khảo


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Spizella passerina: Brief Summary ( vietnam )

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Spizella passerina là một loài chim trong họ Emberizidae.

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Обыкновенная воробьиная овсянка ( venäjä )

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Пение

Птица ищет корм на земле или в низкорослом кустарнике. Иногда они ловят насекомых в полёте. Основной источник питания — это насекомые и семена. Вне периода гнездования птицы живут в стаях. Их пение — это простые трели. Свои гнёзда птицы строят, как правило, в кроне хвойных или лиственных деревьев, иногда также на земле.

Примечания

  1. Бёме Р. Л., Флинт В. Е. Пятиязычный словарь названий животных. Птицы. Латинский, русский, английский, немецкий, французский / Под общ. ред. акад. В. Е. Соколова. — М.: Рус. яз., «РУССО», 1994. — С. 403. — 2030 экз.ISBN 5-200-00643-0.
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Обыкновенная воробьиная овсянка: Brief Summary ( venäjä )

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Пение

Птица ищет корм на земле или в низкорослом кустарнике. Иногда они ловят насекомых в полёте. Основной источник питания — это насекомые и семена. Вне периода гнездования птицы живут в стаях. Их пение — это простые трели. Свои гнёзда птицы строят, как правило, в кроне хвойных или лиственных деревьев, иногда также на земле.

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チャガシラヒメドリ ( Japani )

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チャガシラヒメドリ チャガシラヒメドリ
分類 : 動物界 Animalia : 脊索動物門 Chordata 亜門 : 脊椎動物亜門 Vertebrata : 鳥綱 Aves : スズメ目 Passeriformes : ホオジロ科 Emberizidae : ヒメドリ属 Spizella : チャガシラヒメドリ S. passerina 学名 Spizella passerina 和名 チャガシラヒメドリ


チャガシラヒメドリ(学名Spizella passerina)は、スズメ目ホオジロ科に分類される鳥類の一種。


Sibley分類体系上の位置[編集]

シブリー・アールキスト鳥類分類
スズメ小目 Passerida
スズメ上科 Passeroidea
ホオジロ亜科 Emberizinae

画像[編集]

 src= ウィキメディア・コモンズには、チャガシラヒメドリに関連するカテゴリがあります。


執筆の途中です この項目は、鳥類に関連した書きかけの項目です。この項目を加筆・訂正などしてくださる協力者を求めていますポータル鳥類 - PJ鳥類)。
 title=
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wikipedia 日本語

チャガシラヒメドリ: Brief Summary ( Japani )

tarjonnut wikipedia 日本語


チャガシラヒメドリ(学名Spizella passerina)は、スズメ目ホオジロ科に分類される鳥類の一種。


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ウィキペディアの著者と編集者
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wikipedia 日本語