dcsimg

Amenazas ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Factores de riesgo

Consideramos que los principales factores de riesgo para esta especie es la introducción de depredadores exóticos (p. ej. gatos domésticos) y la alteración del hábitat por la actividad humana en las islas que habita este saurio, así como la actividad de pastoreo en algunos sitios de la Reserva de la Biosfera Desierto del Vizcaíno (Galina-Tessaro et al. 2002). Es necesario monitorear las poblaciones de U. stansburiana y lograr diferenciar lo que puede ser una fluctuación natural de ellas, de una declinación por causas de la actividad humana.

Situación actual del hábitat con respecto a las necesidades de la especie

En muchas de las islas del Golfo de California (GC) y el Océano Pacífico (OP) se ha documentado la introducción de gatos y cabras (SEMARNAP 2000; CONAMP 2005); se desconocen los efectos de éstos sobre las poblaciones de U. stansburiana y otros saurios nativos de las islas. En la parte continental, una de las zonas representativas de esta especie es la Reserva de la Biosfera Desierto del Vizcaíno, ya que contiene el 74% de las especies de saurios localizadas en todo el estado de Baja California Sur (sin incluir las islas). En la isla San Benito se le ha encontrado en las madrigueras del Petrel Negro (Oceanodroma melania), entre rocas de todos tamaños, basura, carcazas de León marino y sobre agaves y arbustos de lento crecimiento (Grismer 2002).
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta stansburiana. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Biología de poblaciones ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Antecedentes del estado de la especie o de las poblaciones principales

Es una especie abundante en la mayoría de las zonas donde habita, y destacan las poblaciones en las Islas San Benito, San Roque y Asunción en el Océano Pacífico (OP), además es común en la zona de Rancho Socorro y Guerrero Negro. Asimismo, Grismer (2002) reporta que esta especie no se encuentra en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir y en las partes altas de la Sierra de Guadalupe.
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta stansburiana. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Comportamiento ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Wiens (2000) estudió la relación entre la morfología y los despliegues para el cortejo y la defensa del territorio en la familia Phrynosomatidae, y concluyó que existe una ligera asociación entre los distintos caracteres. Particularmente, comenta que los caracteres morfológicos son más volubles evolutivamente. En el caso de Uta stansburiana se ha observado mucha variación en los caracteres asociados al cortejo y la defensa del territorio. Por ejemplo, en una misma población existen distintas estrategias para cortejar y defender el territorio, Alonzo &Sinervo (2001) observaron que existen distintos morfos en la coloración de los machos; azul, naranja y amarillo. Los morfos azules cooperan entre ellos en la defensa del territorio y en el acceso a las hembras, los amarillos husmean detrás de los territorios del resto de los morfos para conseguir hembras y no defienden su territorio, los anaranjados son agresivos y copulan con muchas hembras además de robar el territorio de otros machos (ver http://www.ucsc.edu/currents/02-03/06-23/lizards.html).
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta stansburiana. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Descripción ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
El cuerpo de este saurio es robusto y la cabeza es triangular. Los individuos adultos alcanzan hasta 69.0 mm de longitud hocico cloaca (LHC) y la cola llega a medir hasta 1.6 veces la LHC. Las escamas dorsales son ligeramente quilladas, las laterales son granulares y las ventrales son imbricadas (arregladas una encima de otra). El pliegue gular se extiende dorsalmente hasta la inserción de las extremidades anteriores. Las extremidades posteriores son robustas y casi del doble de longitud de las anteriores. Presentan entre 24-33 poros femorales. El patrón de coloración es muy variable y depende del sustrato predominante donde se encuentra la población, el sexo y la edad. En el caso de los machos adultos el dorso es de color oscuro y presenta líneas claras en la región dorso-lateral desde la nuca y hasta la base de la cola, el dorso generalmente presenta manchas color turquesa en la región central y amarillentas en los costados, la cola presenta tonos verdosos, la región gular obscura con manchas anaranjadas o amarillas en su región lateral, el vientre es de color gris claro. Las hembras y los juveniles son semejantes a los machos excepto porque carecen del patrón de manches en la región dorsal. Cuando están preñadas las hembras presentan una coloración anaranjada en los costados de la cabeza, el cuello y la región gular, la cual se atenúa cuando ovipositan.
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta stansburiana. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Descripción ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Comentarios al nombre

Grismer (1999) examinó 743 ejemplares preservados y 244 esqueletos del género Uta y no encontró caracteres consistentes que permitieran diferenciar a esta especie de U. stansburiana. Además, Upton &Murphy (1997) reportan que el citocromo b y 6 secuencias de ATPasas de U. stellata son casi idénticas a las de U. stansburiana. Basado en estas evidencias Grismer concluye que U. stansburiana stellata es un sinónimo de U. stansburiana (Flores-Villela and Canseco-Márquez 2004).
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta stansburiana subsp. stellata. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Descripción ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Comentarios al nombre

Smith &Taylor (1950) consideraron la mancha axilar como un caracter diagnóstico para determinar a U. mannophora como una especie, sin embargo, Ballinger &Tinkle (1972) concluyen que esta carece de caracteres que la separen de U. stansburiana elegans por lo que U. mannophora es un sinónimo de ella.
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta mannophora. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Descripción ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Comentarios al nombre

Grismer (1999) examinó 743 ejemplares preservados y 244 esqueletos del género Uta y no encontró caracteres consistentes que permitieran diferenciar a esta especie de U. stansburiana, por lo que él concluye que U. antiqua es un sinónimo de U. stansburiana (Flores-Villela and Canseco-Márquez 2004).
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta antiqua. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Descripción ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Comentarios al nombre

Para establecer la identidad de las especies del género Uta Ballinger &Tinkle (1972) analizaron la variación morfológica de 69 poblaciones (3036 individuos) del género. Las dos poblaciones (islas Cedros y Natividad, Golfo de California) de esta especie que Ballinger &Tinkle analizaron no tienen diferencias consistentes con respecto a U. stansburiana elegans por lo que concluyen que U. concinna es un sinónimo de ella.
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta concinna. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Distribución ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Endémica

MEXICO
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta mannophora. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Distribución ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Histórica/Actual

MEXICO

Localidad tipo: Valley of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.

El área de distribución de este saurio en México va desde los estados de Sinaloa, Durango, Chihuahua, Sonora, Zacatecas, Coahuila hasta toda la península de Baja California y gran cantidad de islas en el Pacifico (Asunción, Cedros, Coronado, Magdalena, Natividad, San Benito, San Gerónimo, San Martín, San Roque, Santa Margarita y Todos Santos) y del Golfo de California (Ángel de la Guarda, Ballena, Bota, Cabeza de Caballo, Cardonaza Este, Carmen, Cerraja, Danzante, Coronados, Dátil, El Pardito, Espíritu Santo, Flecha, Gallo, Granito, Lagartija, La Ventana, La Rasa, Las Galeras, Mejía, Mitlán, Montserrat, Partida Norte, Partida Sur, Patos, Piojo, Pond, Roca Lobos, Salsipuedes, San Lorenzo Norte, San Francisco, San Ildefonso, San Lorenzo Sur, San Luis, San José, San Marcos, Smith, Tiburón, Tortuga y Willard) (Grismer 2000).

MEXICO / BAJA CALIFORNIA

MEXICO / BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR

MEXICO / COAHUILA

MEXICO / CHIHUAHUA

MEXICO / DURANGO

MEXICO / SINALOA

MEXICO / ZACATECAS
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta stansburiana. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Distribución ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Endémica

MEXICO
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta stansburiana subsp. stellata. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Distribución ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Endémica

MEXICO
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta antiqua. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Distribución ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Endémica

MEXICO
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta concinna. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Estado de conservación ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010

A amenazada
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta stansburiana. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Estado de conservación ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001

A amenazada
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta mannophora. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Estado de conservación ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001

A amenazada
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta concinna. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Estado de conservación ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001

Pr sujeta a protección especial
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta antiqua. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Estado de conservación ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001

A amenazada
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta stansburiana subsp. stellata. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Genética ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Cariotipo

2n = 34 (ver Sites et al. 1992, pag. 38).
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta stansburiana. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Hábitat ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Uta stansburiana es un saurio terrestre generalista y se le puede encontrar desde regiones con arbustos de salvia hasta en bosques de confieras. En la costa del Pacifico de Baja California se le encuentra en zonas de dunas. En la cara este de la Sierra la Laguna (región de Los Cabos), es una especie relativamente rara en zonas con vegetación densa, pero tiene a ser común en zonas alteradas por la actividad humana (Grismer 2002, p. 187). Aparentemente, este saurio no prefiere ningún sustrato o microhábitat, aunque, sus abundancias son mayores cerca de zonas rocosas. En algunas de las islas que habita es más común en las partes internas de esta que en la costa, especialmente en las islas San Marcos y Carmen. En la isla Coronados es común cerca de las rocas volcánicas, los arbustos y las playas arenosas. Cuando se ve amenazada corre a la base de los arbustos y se entierra en la arena o busca un escondite para escapar. En la isla Espíritu Santo su distribución se ve restringida a las zonas arenosas de las playas, esto debido a que las zonas rocosas están ocupadas por Urosaurus nigricaudus. A diferencia de otras especies del género Uta stansburiana es una especie predominantemente insectívora, Galina-Tesaro et al. (2002) reportan que el 71.8% de la dieta de esta saurio en la isla San Roque estaba compuesta por dipteros.

Macroclima

Esta especie se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la península de Baja California, y los estados de Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Chihuahua y Coahuila. Por lo que el clima a lo largo de su rango de distribución es muy variado, en general se caracteriza por altas temperaturas y escasas precipitaciones. Particularmente, las lluvias en la península de Baja California son determinados por dos tipos de regímenes climáticos: 1) tormentas ciclónicas de invierno provenientes del norte y 2) huracanes en el otoño provenientes del sur (Turner &Brown 1982 en Grismer 2002); la precipitación durante el verano aumenta hacía el sur de la península (en la región de Los Cabos). Asimismo, la temperatura aumenta hacia el sur de la distribución, siendo en el invierno de 6°C a 16°C y durante el verano de 20°C a 30°C. Además, en el resto de los estados donde se distribuye el clima es semiárido, calido o semicálido donde la temperatura media anual es superior a los 22°C y las lluvias entre el verano e invierno representan hasta el 18% anual (Arriaga et al 2000).
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta stansburiana. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Relevancia de la especie ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Relevancia de la especie

Uta stansburiana es una especie ampliamente distribuida en el oeste de Estados Unidos y el norte de México, se ha documentado su presencia en gran cantidad de islas del océano Pacifico y del Golfo de California. Por lo que ha sido utilizada en gran cantidad de estudios sobre biogeografía, evolución de estrategias reproductivas, comportamiento, morfología, entre otros.
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta stansburiana. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Reproducción ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил Conabio
Es una especie ovípara que se reproduce durante todo el año. Grismer (2002) ha observado copulas desde febrero hasta diciembre en Baja California Norte (BCN), y desde marzo a octubre en Baja California Sur (BCS). Tanto en la península como en las islas Grismer observó hembras grávidas desde marzo hasta julio, estas median entre 46 y 77 mm de LHC, y tenían entre 2 y 5 huevos.
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-2.5
авторски права
CONABIO
библиографски навод
Flores-Villela, O. y Rubio-Pérez, I. V. 2008. Ficha técnica de Uta stansburiana. En: Flores-Villela, O. (compilador). Evaluación del riesgo de extinción de setenta y tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria) incluidas en la Norma Oficial Mexicana-059-SEMARNAT-2001. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias. Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera". Bases de datos SNIB-CONABIO. Proyecto No. CK008. México, D.F.
автор
Flores-Villela, O.
автор
Rubio-Pérez, I. V.
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
Conabio

Distribution ( англиски )

добавил ReptileDB
Continent: Middle-America North-America
Distribution: USA (Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, W Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, W Texas), Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, NE Durango, Coahuila) elegans: Mexico (Southern two-thirds of Baja California and on Smiths, Mejía, Angel de la guarda, Isla Partida, Isla Raza, Sal Si Puedes, North San Lorenzo, South San Lorenzo, Tortuga, San Marcos, Ildefonso, East and West Las Galeras, Montserrate, San José, San Francisco, Espíritu Santo, Ballena Island.)
Type locality: La Paz, Baja California. antiqua: San Lorenzo Norte, San Lorenzo Sur, Salsipuedes Islands, Gulf of California) martinensis: Mexico (San Martin Island, Baja California.) stejnegeri: USA (Trans-Pecos Texas, parts of the Texas pahandle, SW Oklahoma, New Mexico, SE Arizona); Mexico: Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon. stellata: Mexico (San Benitos Island, Baja California.) stellata: Mexico (San Benito Island, Gulf of California.
Type locality: San Benito Island.) taylori: Mexico; Holotype: FMNH 100097.
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
авторски права
Peter Uetz
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
ReptileDB

Distribution ( англиски )

добавил ReptileDB
Continent: Middle-America
Distribution: Mexico (Cerros = Cedros Island, Natividad Islands, Baja California)
Type locality: Cerros [= Cedros] Island, Baja California.
лиценца
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
авторски права
Peter Uetz
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
ReptileDB

Gemeiner Seitenfleckleguan ( германски )

добавил wikipedia DE

Der Gemeine Seitenfleckleguan (Uta stansburiana) ist ein Vertreter der zu den Leguanartigen gehörenden Phrynosomatidae und erreicht eine Körperlänge von maximal 17 Zentimetern. Er lebt in den meist sandig-felsigen Trockengebieten Nordamerikas. Der Trivialname Seitenfleckleguan bezieht sich auf den auffälligen dunklen Fleck an den Flanken des Tiers direkt hinter den Beinen.

Merkmale

Der Seitenfleckleguan ist mit maximal 17 Zentimetern Körperlänge relativ klein. Er ist grau-braun gefärbt und besitzt hinter dem Nacken und den Vorderbeinen beiderseits dunklere Flecken. Die Kehle ist gesprenkelt und kann besonders bei den Männchen einen großen Anteil blauer Pigmentflecken aufweisen, auf dem Bauch findet sich dagegen keine bunte Fleckung. Diese auffällige Färbung erscheint erst im Erwachsenenalter. Ein auffällig dunkler Fleck befindet sich an den Flanken der Tiere direkt hinter den Beinen. Die Rückenschuppen sind klein und unterhalb der Kehle sind Hautfalten ausgebildet. Der Leguan ähnelt in seinem Aussehen dem Westlichen Zaunleguan (Sceloporus occidentalis), welche allerdings etwas größer und dunkler ist.

Als Sexualdimorphismus ist beim Männchen der Schwanzansatz deutlich geschwollen und hinter dem Anus befinden sich deutlich vergrößerte Schuppen. Die Färbung ist auf der Rückenseite deutlicher blau und gelb gefleckt. Beim Männchen gibt es mehrere unterschiedliche Farbmorphen, die sich vor allem an der blauen, gelben oder orangen Kehlfärbung unterscheiden. In Untersuchungen wurde festgestellt, dass die unterschiedlichen Farbvarianten mit unterschiedlichem Verhalten vor der Paarung einhergehen (siehe unten). Diese bunte Fleckung fehlt den Weibchen, es ist stattdessen braun und schwarz gemustert.

Verbreitung

 src=
Verbreitungsgebiet des Seitenfleckleguans

Der Seitenfleckleguan ist eine der häufigsten Echsen trockener Gebiete der westlichen USA. Sein Verbreitungsgebiet erstreckt sich vom Bundesstaat Washington über Südkalifornien bis nach Westtexas und Mexiko, im Westen bis Colorado. Außerdem findet man die Tiere auf einer Reihe vorgelagerter Inseln an der Pazifikküste.

Lebensraum

Der Seitenfleckleguan lebt fast ausschließlich in ariden Gebieten, also in Wüsten- und Halbwüstengebieten mit spärlicher Vegetation. Ebenfalls anzutreffen ist er in trockenen Flussbetten, felsigen Canyons und im Bereich von größeren Straßen sowie seltener in trockenen Waldbeständen. Seine Verbreitung reicht dabei bis in eine Höhe von maximal etwa 3000 Metern. Innerhalb seiner Habitate ist er meist häufig zu finden.

Die individuelle Reviergröße und der Aktionsraum der Tiere ist sehr klein. So konnte für die Tiere in Colorado nachgewiesen werden, dass sich die Einzeltiere im Laufe ihres Lebens nicht mehr als ein paar hundert Meter von ihren Schlupfnestern weg bewegen, wobei die Männchen dabei noch die größeren Strecken zurücklegen. So ist das Aktivitätsgebietes bei den Männchen durchschnittlich 440 bis 610 Quadratmeter groß, bei den Weibchen 190 bis 225 Quadratmeter. Die Bruthöhle befindet sich im Regelfall sehr zentral im Aktivitätsgebiet der Weibchen. Pro Hektar können zwischen 10 und 285 Tiere leben, wie in Studien in Washington, Oregon, Nevada und Kalifornien ermittelt wurde.

Lebensweise

 src=
Gemeiner Seitenfleckleguan, Männchen

Der Seitenfleckleguan ist tagaktiv, wobei er allerdings hauptsächlich morgens oder am späten Nachmittag aktiv wird. Die heißesten Tagesstunden verbringt er versteckt unter Steinen oder in seinem im Sandboden angelegten Bau. An regnerischen oder auch nur stärker bewölkten Tagen bleibt er im Versteck. Im nördlichen Verbreitungsgebiet ist er vom März bis November aktiv, den Winter verbringt er eingegraben in Winterruhe. Im südlichen Gebiet ist er ganzjährig aktiv.

Seitenfleckleguane ernähren sich von Insekten, Skorpionen und Webspinnen, in sehr seltenen Fällen wurde Kannibalismus an Jungtieren beobachtet. Selbst wird er von größeren Eidechsen, Schlangen, Eulen und Greifvögeln gejagt.

Er hält sich während seiner Aktivitätszeiten vor allem in Verstecken wie Pflanzen oder größeren Steinen am Boden auf, kann jedoch auch regelmäßig beim Sonnenbaden auf flachen Steinen und sonnenbeschienenen Felsen beobachtet werden. Anders als bei den meisten Echsenarten sind diese Tiere auch bei tiefen Temperaturen im Winter aktiv, da sie aufgrund ihrer geringen Körpergröße in der Sonne sehr schnell erwärmt werden.

Paarungsverhalten

Das Paarungsverhalten der Seitenfleckleguane wird vor allem durch die Männchen bestimmt, die sich entsprechend ihrem Aussehen sehr unterschiedlich verhalten. So gibt es innerhalb der einzelnen Populationen unter den männlichen Tieren Exemplare mit blauer, gelber und orangefarbener Kehlfärbung, die ein jeweils anderes Paarungsverhalten aufweisen. Barry Sinervo und Jean Clobert veröffentlichten 2004 ihre Beobachtungen an diesen Männchen und deren Paarungsstrategien und konnten eine Reihe von interessanten Paarungsstrategien beobachten:

  • Die orangefarbenen Männchen sind sehr aggressiv und verpaaren sich mit möglichst vielen Weibchen, wobei sie auch andere Männchen bedrohen und diese zur Freigabe ihrer Weibchen drängen.
  • die gelben Männchen verstecken sich in der Regel und paaren sich mit Weibchen, wenn sie diese in unbeobachteten Momenten allein vorfinden. Sie nutzen dabei die Unaufmerksamkeiten der anderen Männchen.
  • die blauen Männchen verteidigen ihre Weibchen gegen andere Männchen und sind entsprechend sehr stark auf einzelne Weibchen fixiert.

Aus diesen unterschiedlichen Verhaltensweise resultieren verschiedene Konfliktsituationen. So attackieren orangefarbene Männchen regelmäßig die blauen Männchen und sind denen im Regelfall auch überlegen, wodurch sie ihnen das Weibchen wegnehmen. Die gelben Männchen sind weniger aggressiv und werden von den aufmerksamen blauen Männchen im Regelfall verjagt, können jedoch von der Unaufmerksamkeit der orangefarbenen Männchen profitieren und sich mit den Weibchen dieser Männchen verpaaren. Aufgrund dieser Konstellation kommt es zu einem Zyklus wie beim Spiel Schere, Stein, Papier, da jede der drei Strategien stärker als die erste, aber schwächer als die zweite der anderen Strategien ist. Es kann sich keine Evolutionär stabile Strategie (ESS) entwickeln und die relative Anzahl der Farbmorphen in der Population schwankt. Daher koexistieren die drei Typen und die Gene für Färbung und Verhalten verändern sich innerhalb der Population zyklisch. Sinervo und Lively beobachteten während einer Studie von 1990 bis 1995 ebendiese Schwankungen. In den Jahren 1990 und 1991 überwogen blaukehlige Männchen, während 1992 ihre Zahl deutlich zurückging und die Zahl der orangekehligen Männchen einen Höhepunkt erreichte. In den Jahren 1993 und 1994 war die häufigste Färbung gelb, und 1995 war die Verteilung in der Population ungefähr gleich wie 1990. Diese Variation scheint von der relativen Fitness der drei Strategien angetrieben zu werden.

Eine weitere Beobachtung der Forscher war, dass sich blaue Männchen im Regelfall in der Nähe von anderen blauen Männchen ansiedeln, die allerdings nur sehr selten Geschwister sind. Die Nachbarn achten in diesem Fall gemeinsam auf die zugehörigen Weibchen und kooperieren auch bei der Verteidigung gegen die orangefarbenen Tiere und haben entsprechend einen wesentlichen Vorteil gegenüber diesen. Auch orangenfarbene Männchen siedeln bevorzugt in der Nähe von blauen Männchen ohne weitere blaue Nachbarn, da hier die Chance auf den Fortpflanzungserfolg am größten ist, dagegen ist es für sie ungünstig, ebenfalls orangefarbene Nachbarn zu haben.

Die Forscher stellten diese Strategien als einen sehr interessanten Fall der Entwicklung einer Palette von Verhaltensweisen dar, die gemeinsam mit einer Farbgebung nur durch ein Gen bedingt sind. So ist die Kooperation sowie das Verhalten gegenüber den Weibchen und den anderen Farbmorphen mit dem Gen für die blaue Farbmorphe gekoppelt, genauso verhält es sich mit den Genen der anderen Farbvarianten.

Eiablage und Entwicklung

 src=
Gemeiner Seitenfleckleguan, Juveniles Tier

Regional unterschiedlich legt das Weibchen März und August mehrere Gelege in den unterirdischen Bauten der Tiere an. Dabei kommt es im nördlichen Verbreitungsgebiet bis zu drei Gelegen mit jeweils einem bis fünf Eiern und im südlichen Verbreitungsgebiet zu zwei bis sieben Gelegen mit einem bis acht Eiern. Das Weibchen ist dabei in der Lage, Spermien im Körper zu bewahren und erst einige Wochen später eine Befruchtung zu erreichen. Etwa ab Mitte Juli schlüpfen die ersten Jungtiere, wobei die Brutzeit im Norden etwas länger dauert als im Süden. Die Geschlechtsreife erreichen die Tiere mit einem bis zwei Jahren.

Die Mortalität der Jungtiere ist sehr hoch, weniger als 10 % überleben das erste Lebensjahr. Dadurch gleicht sich die Sterberate und die Anzahl neuer Jungtiere weitestgehend aus und die Population ist entsprechend relativ stabil.

Systematik

Die Erstbeschreibung des Seitenfleckleguans erfolgte 1862 durch die Zoologen Baird und Gerard in den Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences als Typusart und zugleich erste Art der Gattung Uta. Die Benennung der Gattung Uta erfolgte nach dem Bundesstaat Utah, in der die Tiere entdeckt wurden, und der Artname U. stansburiana stellt eine Ehrung des Zoologen Howard S. Stansbury dar.

Insgesamt werden je nach Autor mehrere Unterarten des Seitenfleckenleguans unterschieden, deren Verbreitungsgebiete sich teilweise sehr stark überlappen. Neben der Nominatform, dem Nördlichen Seitenfleckleguan Uta stansburiana stansburiana, existieren noch sechs weitere Unterarten. Die Tiere der Inseln Angel de la Guarda, Mejia and Raza sollen nach einer 1997 veröffentlichten Analyse auf der Basis mitochondrialer DNA eine eigene Art darstellen. Diese Ansicht hat sich allerdings bislang nicht durchgesetzt. Die folgenden Unterarten werden aktuell anerkannt:

  • Westlicher Seitenfleckleguan – Uta stansburiana elegans Yarrow, 1882
  • Uta stansburiana martinensis Van Denburgh, 1905
  • Nevada-Seitenfleckleguan – Uta stansburiana nevadensis Ruthven, 1913
  • Nördlicher Seitenfleckleguan – Uta stansburiana stansburiana Baird & Girard, 1852
  • Östlicher Seitenfleckleguan – Uta stansburiana stejnegeri Schmidt, 1921
  • Uta stansburiana taylori Smith, 1935
  • Plateau-Seitenfleckleguan – Uta stansburiana uniformis Pack & Tanner, 1970

Bestandszahlen und Gefährdung

Der Seitenfleckleguan ist im größten Teil seines Verbreitungsgebiets sehr häufig und kann als nicht gefährdet eingeschätzt werden. In den nördlicheren, kühleren Bundesstaaten ist er natürlicherweise seltener, eine Gefährdung durch den Menschen liegt jedoch auch hier nicht vor. Der einzige Bundesstaat, in dem der Seitenfleckleguan als kritisch gefährdet eingestuft wird, ist Oklahoma, da es hier nur sehr wenige Gebiete gibt, in denen die Lebensraumbedingungen für die Tiere gegeben sind. Ein besonderer Schutz sowie Handelseinschränkungen im Rahmen des Washingtoner Artenschutzabkommens besteht nicht.

Außer Flüssen, Seen oder Gebirgsketten bilden Straßen Verbreitungsgrenzen, besonders bei viel befahrenen Hauptstraßen hat eine Überquerung häufig tödliche Folgen für die Tiere.

Terrarienhaltung

Der Seitenfleckleguan ist ein beliebtes Terrarientier, da er gemeinhin als einfach zu haltende Art gilt. Er ist sehr anpassungsfähig und reagiert wenig empfindlich auf unregelmäßige Bedingungen.

Gehalten werden die Tiere paarweise in mittelgroßen Terrarien, die mindestens eine Größe von 60 × 40 × 40 Zentimeter (B×T×H) haben sollten. Als Bodengrund dient eine Sandauslage und Klettermöglichkeiten in Form von größeren Steinen sollten gegeben sein. Wichtig ist die richtige Temperaturregelung. Demnach sollte die Tagestemperatur bis auf 30 °C ansteigen und nachts eine Abkühlung auf ungefähr 23 °C erfolgen. Auf einem Sonnenplatz unterhalb eines Strahlers dürfen auch bis zu 40 °C erreicht werden. Eine morgendliche Luftfeuchtigkeit im Bereich von 75 % sollte ebenfalls eingehalten werden, ebenso wie eine ausreichende Beleuchtung mit UV-Anteil. Die Ernährung erfolgt mit Insekten und Spinnen.

Eine Beratung durch Fachleute und die Weiterbildung durch geeignete Literatur vor der Anschaffung dieser Tiere ist trotz der hier dargestellten Angaben unbedingt notwendig.

Literatur

  • John L. Behler, Frederic Wayne King: The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York 1979, ISBN 0-394-50824-6.
  • Martin J. Osborne: An introduction to game theory. Oxford university press, New York 2004, ISBN 0-19-512895-8. S. 407.
  • Robert C. Stebbins: A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Field Marks of all Species in Western North America (= Peterson Field Guide Series. Bd. 16). Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston 1966 (2nd edition revised. ebenda 1985, ISBN 0-395-19421-0).
  • Barry Sinervo, Jean Clobert: Morphs, Dispersal Behavior, Genetic Similarity, and the Evolution of Cooperation. In: Science. Bd. 300, Nr. 5627, 2003, S. 1949–1951, doi:10.1126/science.1083109.
  • Barry Sinervo, Curt M. Lively: The rock–paper–scissors game and the evolution of alternative male strategies. In: Nature. Bd. 380, Nr. 6571, 1996, S. 240–243, doi:10.1038/380240a0.

Weblinks

 src=
– Sammlung von Bildern, Videos und Audiodateien
 src=
Dieser Artikel wurde am 28. August 2005 in dieser Version in die Liste der exzellenten Artikel aufgenommen.
 title=
лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
Autoren und Herausgeber von Wikipedia
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia DE

Gemeiner Seitenfleckleguan: Brief Summary ( германски )

добавил wikipedia DE

Der Gemeine Seitenfleckleguan (Uta stansburiana) ist ein Vertreter der zu den Leguanartigen gehörenden Phrynosomatidae und erreicht eine Körperlänge von maximal 17 Zentimetern. Er lebt in den meist sandig-felsigen Trockengebieten Nordamerikas. Der Trivialname Seitenfleckleguan bezieht sich auf den auffälligen dunklen Fleck an den Flanken des Tiers direkt hinter den Beinen.

лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
Autoren und Herausgeber von Wikipedia
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia DE

Common side-blotched lizard ( англиски )

добавил wikipedia EN

The common side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana) is a species of side-blotched lizard in the family Phrynosomatidae. The species is native to dry regions of the western United States and northern Mexico. It is notable for having a unique form of polymorphism wherein each of the three different male morphs utilizes a different strategy in acquiring mates. The three morphs compete against each other following a pattern of rock paper scissors, where one morph has advantages over another but is outcompeted by the third.[2][3][4]

Etymology

The specific epithet, stansburiana, is in honor of Captain Howard Stansbury of the US Corps of Topographical Engineers, who collected the first specimens while leading the 1849-1851 expedition to explore and survey the Great Salt Lake of Utah.[5][6]

Taxonomy

Image of common side-blotched lizard. A distinguishing feature of this species is the dark blotch behind the front leg, which is clearly seen in this image. The dark blotch is generally less prominent in females than in this male.

The systematics and taxonomy of the widespread and variable lizards of the genus Uta is much disputed.[7][8] Countless forms and morphs have been described as subspecies or even distinct species.[9]

  • The forms which occur in most of Mexico (except Baja California) have been recognized as a very distinct species, the eastern side-blotched lizard, Uta stejnegeri.[10]
  • Populations from San Benito and Cedros Islands were separated as distinct species Uta stellata and U. concinna, but are now included in U. stansburiana.
  • Those of Isla Santa Catalina and Isla Salsipuedes, U. squamata and U. antiqua are sometimes included in this species, too, but this is certainly not correct in the latter case, and probably in the former also.
  • Based on the same data that would give U. squamata species rank, the southern Baja California populations could arguably be split off (as Uta elegans), too.
  • The proposed subspecies martinensis and taylori are probably not valid.
  • The populations on Isla Ángel de la Guarda, Isla Mejia and Isla Rasa almost certainly constitute a separate species closer to Uta palmeri, and that of San Esteban Island may so too, being close to squamata.
  • The status of the Isla Encantada group populations named as Uta encantadae, U. lowei and U. tumidarostra is not completely resolved; these distinct populations are of comparatively recent origin and are sometimes included in this species, but their unique adaptations to living in intertidal habitat suggest they should be considered distinct; whether as one or as three species remains unresolved.[11]
The male (pictured above) is more brightly colored than the female and is usually distinguished by the presence of blue spots on its back, especially near the base of the tail. Also, the base of the tail is swollen in the male.[12]

Physical description

The common side-blotched lizard is a species of small iguanid lizard. Males can grow up to 60mm (2.4 inches) from snout to vent, while females are typically a little smaller. The degree of pigmentation varies with sex and population. Some males can have blue flecks spread over their backs and tails, and their sides may be yellow or orange, while others may be unpatterned. Females may have stripes along their backs/sides, or again may be relatively drab. Both sexes have a prominent blotch on their sides, just behind their front limbs.[13] Coloration is especially important in common side-blotched lizards, as it is closely related to the mating behavior of both males and females.[2][14]

The different throat morphologies that the side-blotched lizard adopts also affects their sprinting speed. Across all three morphs, sprinting speed is positively correlated with blue hue, the brightness of the yellow throat, and the level of saturation of the orange throats. While aspects of throat coloration are positively related to sprinting speed and mass of the lizard, they do not affect the lizard’s snout-vent and hind limb length. Researchers from Utah State University have suggested that this relationship between physical capabilities and coloration plays a role in sexual competition amongst male side-blotched lizards.[15]

The speed of these male lizards during the end of their reproductive seasons is dependent on their body temperature. The maximum sprinting speed of these lizards is achieved when the body temperature is between 35-38 degrees Celsius.[16]

Physiology

When comparing populations within wind farms and in neighbouring control sites, no differences in oxidative stress are seen in the side-blotched lizard. In females oxidative stress also increases with the number of yolk follicles produced.[17]

Genetic determination of throat-color polymorphism

Analysis of DNA nuclear microsatellites has provided genetic evidence for the rock-paper-scissors behavior pattern of male side-blotched lizard competition. In populations where all three morphs are present, shared paternity between yellow- and blue-throated individuals occurs at a rate significantly below random chance, while shared paternity between yellow- and orange-throated males occurs at a rate significantly above chance. In addition, blue-throated males often shared paternity with orange-throated males, despite having mostly yellow-throated neighbors.[3]

Blood plasma testosterone levels play an important role in the creation of the three male morphs both during and after development. Orange-throated males have 46-48% higher plasma testosterone levels compared to their yellow- or blue-throated counterparts. Experimental elevation of plasma testosterone levels in the other two male morphs led to increases in endurance, aggressiveness, and territory size to the degree expressed by normal orange-throated males. In addition, the transformation of yellow-throated males to blue-throated males is accompanied by an increase in their plasma testosterone levels.[18]

Throat color in side-blotched lizards is genetically determined, and has high heritability.[2] It is determined by a single Mendelian factor with three alleles. In males, the o allele is the dominant allele, and the b allele is recessive to the y allele. Therefore, phenotypically orange-throated males have genotypes of either oo, ob, or oy. Yellow-throated males have genotypes of either yy or yb, and blue-throated males are exclusively bb. In females, all individuals with the dominant o allele are orange-throated, while those lacking an o allele develop yellow throats.[14]

Tails

For the side-blotched lizard, limbs serve as an anti-predatory defense – their ability to survive without a tail allows them to escape predation after being caught. While this defense mechanism can be advantageous, the loss of a tail can also negatively impacts a lizard’s survival and reproduction. For the Uta stranburiana, the loss of a tail is accompanied by a loss of social status amongst their peers. This can contribute to them having a hard time acquiring and maintaining a superior home range. The influence of tail loss on survivorship, however, is only significant during conditions of low mortality – when the overall mortality rate of side-blotched lizards is 30-40% higher than average, the condition of the tail does not impact the survival of adults and juveniles.[19] This is because the tails of side-blotched lizards are not energetic lipids stores. As mentioned earlier, lizards that lose their tails are at a greater risk of predation than lizards with their tails intact. Since social status is an important survival mechanism amongst side-blotched lizards, researchers have suggested that the loss of a tail, which contributes to a decrease in social status, forces tailless side-blotched lizards to inhabit more inferior home ranges. Therefore, in addition to losing a physiological defense mechanism when losing their tails, side-blotched lizards are also inclined to inhabit inferior living conditions which bolsters their risk of predation. [20]

Mating

Rock–paper–scissors mechanism

Male side-blotched lizards exhibit distinct polymorphism in their throat colors, and can be divided into three different categories. Each of these three different morphs varies in how it competes for mates, and variation within a breeding population is maintained by a rock paper scissors mechanism of frequency-dependent sexual selection. A cycle is created where the least common morph of one breeding season often has the largest number of mature living offspring in the next year. This is because one morph does particularly well against another, but poorly in comparison to the third.[2]

  • Orange-throated males are "ultradominant." They are the largest and most aggressive morph, defending relatively large (about 100 m2 or 120 yd2) territories and keeping harems of females with which they mate. They are adept at stealing mates from blue-throated individuals, but are vulnerable to cuckoldry by the yellow-throated female mimics.[2] Orange-throated males also have significantly reduced yearly survival rates compared to the other two morphs.[18]
  • Blue-throated males are "dominant". They are intermediate in size, and guard smaller territories containing only a single female. As they only have one mate to defend, they are better at catching yellow-throated sneaks, but are also susceptible to having their mates stolen by the larger, more aggressive orange-throated males.[2]
  • Yellow-throated males are “sneakers”. Their coloration is similar to that of sexually mature females, and they typically mimic female “rejection” displays when they encounter dominant orange- or blue-throated males. Unlike the other morphs, yellow-throated males do not hold territories. Instead, they have wide-reaching home ranges that may overlap with several other lizards’ territories.[2][18] They rely on their mimicry to sneak matings with unattended females. This is more easily achieved among the harems kept by orange-throated males than by the single, closely guarded mate of the blue-throated males. Though orange-throated males have the highest mortality rates, yellow-throated males have higher relative rates of posthumous fertilization (posthumous birth), indicating an increased reliance on sperm competition as part of their reproductive strategy.[3] Yellow-throated males can in specific instances transform into blue-throated males over the course of the breeding season. This transformation is usually triggered by the death of a nearby dominant male, and the blue patches the yellow-throated males develop is qualitatively distinct from the blue patches of genetically blue-throated males. Not all yellow-throated males transform, but when they do, they give up their female mimicry and adopt the “dominant” morph's behavior pattern. No transformations in the other direction, in which dominant males gain yellow-throat coloration, have been observed.[18]

Female side-blotched lizards have also been shown to exhibit behaviorally correlated differences in throat coloration. Orange-throated females are considered r-strategists. They typically produce large clutches consisting of many small eggs. In contrast, yellow-throated females are K-strategists that lay fewer, larger eggs. Like the male morphs, the frequencies of these two female morphs also cycle with time. However, the cycle is shorter – two years in comparison to the male morphs’ four- or five-year cycle – and is not a result of frequency-dependent sexual selection. Instead, orange-throated females are more successful at lower population densities, where competition for food is less fierce and less selection pressure from predation occurs.[14] When population density is high and or when predators abound, yellow-throated females tend to have higher reproductive success. In general, their larger hatchlings have higher short-term and long-term survival rates, and these advantages are magnified in times of scarcity. Side-blotched lizards show displays and aggression shortly after hatching, and even minute differences in size can lead to increased social dominance and capacity to outcompete the smaller hatchlings.[21]

Reproduction

Image of common side-blotched lizards mating. The male lizard is the on the right, and the female lizard is on the left.

Female side-blotched lizards lay clutches with an average of 5.1 eggs and a maximum of 9 eggs in a single clutch. Smaller clutch sizes, often associated with yellow-throated females, have an increased frequency of eggs bursting upon being laid or egg binding, suggesting an upper physiological limit to how much a female can invest in each individual egg she lays.[4]

The presence of a tail on female side-blotched lizards can impact reproduction. Tailless female lizards have reduced overall survivorship due to the increased risk of predation they experience without this physiological defense mechanism. Although tailless female side-blotched lizards experience an increased risk of death, the loss of a tail does not impose an energetic handicap on them that negatively impacts their potential growth and reproduction. Additionally, the lack of a tail in adult males attempting to mate with females during the spring decreases their ability to successfully copulate which suggests that tails are sufficient to increase the likelihood of males attracting sexual partners during reproductive seasons.[22] In addition to the way that physiological traits affect female reproduction, the age of females, the environment they inhabit, and the time in the reproductive season also affect female fecundity. A study conducted by researchers at Utah State University confirmed that older females lay more eggs than yearling females and that the annual variations that have been previously observed in female fecundity are the result of variations in the numbers of clutches (clutch frequency), not by the average size of clutches produced. [23]

As the reproductive season progresses for side-blotched lizards, females tend to produce fewer but larger eggs. Researchers hypothesize that this occurs because of the tradeoff between egg size and clutch size. Later in their reproductive seasons, female lizards are selected to increase their egg size to produce larger and more competitively superior hatchlings because during this time in the season, food is generally more scarce and juvenile density is high. It has also been suggested that selection favors smaller clutches at the end of the reproductive season because females invest their remaining reproductive energy into their last clutches. Therefore, these females want to ensure that this remaining energy was well spent and that her hatchlings will have a good chance of survival. With a decreased clutch size, when the female side-blotched lizard allocates her energy into her last clutch, each hatchling will receive more parental investment from their mother – assuming that the mother’s energy is divided equally among the hatchlings of the smaller clutch. [24] Researchers at Utah State University also verified that clutch frequency is positively correlated with the density of rainfall. Their results indicated that there is a causative association between winter rainfall and clutch frequency for female side-blotched lizards. The researchers suggested that air temperatures play an important role in the timing and deposition of the first spring clutch – that increases in winter rainfall induce earlier clutches in female side-blotched lizards.[25]

Speciation

The "rock-paper-scissors" mating strategy is a genetically-based male polymorphism that has been maintained over millions of years throughout many populations of side-blotched lizard in the United States and Mexico. However, speciation has resulted from the formation of reproductive isolation between populations when a population loses of one or more of the male morphologies.[26][27] However, speciation due to the loss of a male morph has occurred when populations lose one or more male morphs and become reproductively isolated from populations with the ancestral polymorphism.[28] For side-blotched lizards, the morph lost most commonly is the sneaker male.[28] In other cases, speciation has occurred as a result of hybridization between morphs occurring in response to rapid changes in the environment .[26][29]

The loss of a male morph can change selection on the remaining morphs.[30] In side-blotched lizards, for example, female mate preferences change after the loss of a male morph, and alleles that once allowed other male morphs to outcompete the lost morph for mates are no longer as beneficial.[30] These shifts in selection often lead to greater sexual size dimorphism.[30] Larger male and female size regularly follow the loss of a polymorphism, as seen in the side-blotched lizards.[28] Predator-prey dynamic also change after a male morph is lost, with predators evolving to prey on the remaining morphologies.[30]

Behavior

Aggression

Dominant male side-blotched lizards are aggressive in the defense of their territories. Upon spotting another conspecific within their territories, resident individuals enter a state of heightened alertness. They perform one or more “pushups” (vertical bobbing motions), arch their backs, and extend their limbs before approaching the intruder.[13] If the intruder is another male, the resident follows up by rushing, butting, or nipping at the intruder, which will then usually proceed to run away.

Tail length is important in the determination of dominance hierarchies. Like many other lizard species, side-blotched lizards use tail autotomy as an escape mechanism. However, a reduction in tail length also confers a loss of social status for both males and females.[31] Males will autotomize their tails less readily than will females, likely due to the increased importance of social status for males. Subordinate females can still mate, but male reproductive success is directly tied to their social status.[32]

Courtship with aggression

If the intruder is a female, the male resident will initiate courtship, which consists of circling, flank-biting, licking, smelling, shallower head-bobbing, and eventually copulation. Body shape and passivity are the main releasers for courtship activity, and males have been observed in trying to court and copulate with smaller lizards of other species, as well as smaller subordinate side-blotched lizards.[33]

Aggression among different morphs

Side-blotched lizards come in three different morphs; the orange and blue morphs are known to be territorial while the yellow morphs are known to be non-territorial. It is important to understand these differences because the territorial orange and blue morphs rely on spatial processing mechanisms to acquire and defend their territories. This suggests that there are differences in neuronal plasticity across the three morphs in the regions of their brains that are responsible for the processing, recognition, and learning of new spatial information. In a study published by the University of Nevada, researchers confirmed that when territorial side-blotched lizards are placed in larger spaces, the production of new neurons in the region of their brains responsible for spatial learning become stimulated. Interestingly, this does not happen in non-territorial yellow side-blotched lizard morphs which indicates that non-territorial morphs do not have the neuronal capacity to behave territorially in the way that orange and blue morphs can.[34]

The opposing forces of sexual selection and natural selection are important for the maintenance of trait variation in alternative reproductive strategies in side-blotched lizards. The OBY locus that determines throat phenotype in these lizards is an important genetic marker that is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin hormone modulation of testosterone in male side-blotched lizards. Researchers from the University of Chicago have confirmed that the oo, ob (orange phenotype), and bb (blue phenotype) males are near their physiological and behavioral capacities for reproductive success. On the other hand, yy and by (yellow phenotype) males are below their physiological maximum. The researchers have proposed that although the levels gonadotropins are important for the maintenance of physiological, morphological, and behavioral variation in male side-blotched lizards, they are also responsible for the immunosuppression of sexual signals in yellow-throated side-blotched male lizards. [35]

Spatial processing

Although territorial behaviors are important defining differences between the different morphologies of these lizards, environmental experiences play important roles in the cortical volume of both territorial and non-territorial side-blotched lizards. The phenotypic differences between the different male morphologies of side-blotched lizards can be exacerbated by the experiences that the lizards encounter. In a study published by ScienceDirect, researchers confirmed that environmental experiences of both territorial and non-territorial side-blotched lizards affects the cortical volume of their brains. When these lizards grow up in controlled captive environments, the cortical volume of their brains are smaller, regardless of whether they are territorial or not. This is important because spatial recognition and processing occur in the cortical region of their brains and certain behaviors, like territoriality, that are important for survival rely on the recognition of space. Therefore, the experiences that side-blotched lizards have affect their cortical volume and subsequently, their cortical phenotypes.>[36] While there is a confirmed relationship between territoriality, spatial informational processing, and neuronal plasticity, researchers have suggested that testosterone plays a role in the regulation of medial cortical volumes. In addition, research has demonstrated that testosterone affects territorial males more significantly than non-territorial males. This is likely because during the reproduction season there is an increase in male territoriality, territory size, and testosterone levels. Although more research is needed to confirm that there is a causative relationship between elevated testosterone levels and increases in territorial behaviors, territorial animals rely on spatial memory to remember the boundaries of their territories which is important for detecting potential female partners that might enter their home space range. [37]

Predation

Side-blotched lizards encounter a plethora of different predators in the wild and they engage in a variety of escape behaviors to avoid predation. In a study published in the Canadian Journal of Zoology, researchers confirmed that these escape behaviors – flight initiation distance, distance fled, and refuge entry – no not differ depending on what type of predator the lizard encounters or whether that predator is relatively abundant in their environment. Side-blotched lizards do, however, tend to escape more directly towards refuge when they encounter predatory lizards while less directly towards refuge when encountering predatory snakes. [38]

Diet and feeding

Side-blotched lizards display feeding behavior which can be influenced by sex or season. In a study conducted by Best et al.., these lizards were found to consume diets largely based upon arthropod populations within the area, within a given season. These populations vary by year, and different arthropod populations will fluctuate seasonally. The study showed a correlation between sex and diet, giving way to a number of theories that speculate why gender has an effect on feeding behavior and diet. One mechanism proposes the behavior differences depend on gender, such as guarding territories and attracting mates, are responsible for, or a contributing factor in, feeding behavior. Alternatively, the sexual difference in feeding behavior could also act in favor of reducing intraspecific competition for resources, with individuals eating prey appropriate for their respective size (ex. small females consuming smaller prey).[39]

Feeding regimes in side-blotched lizards are also influenced by their body temperatures. In a study conducted by the University of Chicago, it was confirmed that the body temperature of side-blotched lizards affects their consumption rate of food and the passage time of that ingested food, but body temperature does not affect their digestive coefficient. When the body temperature of the lizard increased between 20 and 36 degrees Celsius, the probability of eating increased curvilinearly while the passage time of ingested food decreased curvilinearly. [40]

Parasites

Like most animals, side-blotched lizards are infected by a variety of parasites. Intestinal parasites include nematodes[41] and cestodes.[42] Blood parasites include members of the Apicomplexa such as Schellackia occidentalis [43] and species of Lankesterella.[44] The tegument is infected by several species of mites.[45] Out of these, Neotrombicula are the most common ectoparasites.[45] The number of Neotrombicula parasites is reduced in populations of side-blotched lizards near wind farms.[17] Parasites can alter metabolism and reproductive success of side-blotched lizards due to body temperature changes in response to fighting the infection.[46]

References

[47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59]

  1. ^ Hammerson, G.A., Frost, D.R. & Santos-Barrera, G. (2007). "Uta stansburiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2014.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Sinervo, B.; C.M. Lively (1996). "The rock–paper–scissors game and the evolution of alternative male strategies". Nature. 380 (6571): 240–243. Bibcode:1996Natur.380..240S. doi:10.1038/380240a0. S2CID 205026253.
  3. ^ a b c Zamudio, Kelly R.; Barry Sinervo (2000). "Polygyny, mate-guarding, and posthumous fertilization as alternative male mating strategies". PNAS. 97 (26): 14427–14432. Bibcode:2000PNAS...9714427Z. doi:10.1073/pnas.011544998. PMC 18935. PMID 11106369.
  4. ^ a b Sinervo, Barry; Paul Licht (1991). "Proximate Constraints on the Evolution of Egg Size, Number, and Total Clutch Mass in Lizards". Science. 252 (5010): 1300–1302. Bibcode:1991Sci...252.1300S. doi:10.1126/science.252.5010.1300. PMID 17842955. S2CID 37108580.
  5. ^ Moll, Edward (2005). "Uta stansburiana Baird and Girard, 1852 - Common Side-blotched Lizard". Sonoran Herpetologist.
  6. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Uta stansburiana, p. 251).
  7. ^ Grismer, L.L. [in French] (1994). "Three new species of intertidal side-blotched lizards (Genus Uta) from the Gulf of California, Mexico". Herpetologica. 50: 451–474.
  8. ^ Upton, Darlene E.; Murphy, Robert W. (1997). "Phylogeny of the side-blotched lizards (Phrynosomatidae: Uta) based on mtDNA sequences: support for midpeninsular seaway in Baja California". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (1): 104–113. doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0392. PMID 9242598.
  9. ^ Schmidt, Karl Patterson (1921). "New species of North American lizards of the genera Holbrookia and Uta" (PDF). American Museum Novitates (22): 1–6.
  10. ^ Collins, Joseph T. (1991). "Viewpoint: a new taxonomic arrangement for some North American amphibians and reptiles" (PDF). Herpetological Review. 22 (2): 42–43. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-29.
  11. ^ Murphy, Robert W. & Aguirre-León, Gustavo (2002): The Nonavian Reptiles: Origins and Evolution. In: Case, Ted & Cody, Martin (eds.): A New Island Biogeography of the Sea of Cortés: 181-220. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513346-3 PDF fulltext Appendices 2-4
  12. ^ "Western Side-blotched Lizard - Uta stansburiana elegans". California Herps. californiaherps.com. 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
  13. ^ a b Tinkle, D.W. (1967). "The life and demography of the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology: Miscellaneous Publications (132).
  14. ^ a b c Alonzo, S.H.; Barry Sinervo (2001). "Mate choice games, context-dependent good genes, and genetic cycles in the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 49 (2–3): 176–186. doi:10.1007/s002650000265. S2CID 23799664.
  15. ^ Jensen, Forest (November 2017). "Sexual Coloration and Performance Capacity in Male Side-Blotched Lizards (UTA Stansburiana)". Biology Posters. Utah State University.
  16. ^ Waldschmidt, Steve; Tracy, Richard (1983). "Interactions between a Lizard and Its Thermal Environment: Implications for Sprint Performance and Space Utilization in the Lizard Uta Stansburiana". Ecology. John Wiley & Sons. 64 (3): 476–484. doi:10.2307/1939967. JSTOR 1939967. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  17. ^ a b Alaasam, Valentina J.; Keehn, Jade E.; Durso, Andrew M.; French, Susannah S.; Feldman, Chris R. (2021). "Ectoparasite Load Is Reduced in Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta stansburiana) at Wind Farms: Implications for Oxidative Stress". Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 94 (1): 35–49. doi:10.1086/712100. PMID 33296296. S2CID 228076503.
  18. ^ a b c d Sinervo, Barry; Donald B. Miles; W.Anthony Frankino; Matthew Klukowski; Dale F. DeNardo (2000). "Testosterone, Endurance, and Darwinian Fitness: Natural and Sexual Selection on the Physiological Bases of Alternative Male Behaviors in Side-Blotched Lizards". Hormones and Behavior. 38 (4): 222–233. doi:10.1006/hbeh.2000.1622. PMID 11104640. S2CID 5759575.
  19. ^ Althoff, David; Thompson, John (1994). "The Effects of Tail Autotomy on Survivorship and Body Growth of UTA Stansburiana under Conditions of High Mortality". Oecologia. 100 (3): 250–255. Bibcode:1994Oecol.100..250A. doi:10.1007/BF00316952. PMID 28307008. S2CID 7299762.
  20. ^ Wilson, Byron (1992). "Tail Injuries Increase the Risk of Mortality in Free-Living Lizards (UTA Stansburiana)". Oecologia. Springer. 92 (1): 145–152. Bibcode:1992Oecol..92..145W. doi:10.1007/BF00317275. PMID 28311825. S2CID 13113025.
  21. ^ Ferguson, Gary W.; Stanley F. Fox (1984). "Annual Variation of Survival Advantage of Large Juvenile Side-Blotched Lizards, Uta stansburiana: Its Causes and Evolutionary Significance". Evolution. 38 (2): 342–349. doi:10.2307/2408492. JSTOR 2408492. PMID 28555919.
  22. ^ Fox, S (2000). "The Effects of Tail Loss on Survival, Growth, Reproduction, and Sex Ratio of Offspring in the Lizard Uta Stansburiana in the Field". Oecologia. SpringerLink. 122 (3): 327–334. Bibcode:2000Oecol.122..327F. doi:10.1007/s004420050038. PMID 28308283. S2CID 25729112. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  23. ^ Turner, Frederick. "Reproduction and Survivorship of the Lizard, Uta Stansburiana, and the Effects of Winter Rainfall, Density and Predation on These Processes". Utah State University. Utah State University.
  24. ^ Nussbuam, Ronald (1981). "Seasonal Shifts in Clutch Size and Egg Size in the Side-Blotched Lizard, Uta Stansburiana Baird and Girard". Oecologia. Springer. 49 (1): 8–13. Bibcode:1981Oecol..49....8N. doi:10.1007/BF00376891. hdl:2027.42/47737. PMID 28309442. S2CID 22402124.
  25. ^ Turner, Frederick. "Reproduction and Survivorship of the Lizard, Uta Stansburiana, and the Effects of Winter Rainfall, Density and Predation on These Processes". Utah State University. Utah State University.
  26. ^ a b Gray, Suzanne M.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S. (2007-02-01). "Linking color polymorphism maintenance and speciation". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 22 (2): 71–79. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2006.10.005. ISSN 0169-5347. PMID 17055107.
  27. ^ Corl, Ammon; Lancaster, Lesley T.; Sinervo, Barry (December 2012). "Rapid Formation of Reproductive Isolation between Two Populations of Side-Blotched Lizards, Uta stansburiana". Copeia. 2012 (4): 593–602. doi:10.1643/CH-11-166. ISSN 0045-8511. S2CID 86230966.
  28. ^ a b c Corl, Ammon; Davis, Alison R.; Kuchta, Shawn R.; Sinervo, Barry (2010-03-02). "Selective loss of polymorphic mating types is associated with rapid phenotypic evolution during morphic speciation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (9): 4254–4259. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.4254C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0909480107. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 2840131. PMID 20160090.
  29. ^ Wellenreuther, Maren; Svensson, Erik I.; Hansson, Bengt (2014). "Sexual selection and genetic colour polymorphisms in animals". Molecular Ecology. 23 (22): 5398–5414. doi:10.1111/mec.12935. ISSN 1365-294X. PMID 25251393. S2CID 5504865.
  30. ^ a b c d McLean, Claire A.; Stuart‐Fox, Devi (2014). "Geographic variation in animal colour polymorphisms and its role in speciation". Biological Reviews. 89 (4): 860–873. doi:10.1111/brv.12083. ISSN 1469-185X. PMID 24528520. S2CID 4664660.
  31. ^ Fox, Stanley F.; Nancy A. Heger; Linda S. Delay (1990). "Social cost of tail loss in Uta stansburiana: lizard tails as status-signalling badges". Animal Behaviour. 39 (3): 549–554. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80421-X. S2CID 53179644.
  32. ^ Fox, Stanley F.; Jason M. Conder; Allie E. Smith (1998). "Sexual Dimorphism in the Ease of Tail Autotomy: Uta stansburiana with and without Previous Tail Loss". Copeia. 1998 (2): 376–382. doi:10.2307/1447431. JSTOR 1447431.
  33. ^ Ferguson, Gary W. (1966). "Releasers of courtship and territorial behaviour in the side blotched lizard Uta stansburiana". Animal Behaviour. 14 (1): 89–92. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(66)80015-5. PMID 5918254.
  34. ^ Maged, Roxolana. "Effect of Differential Space Use on Medial and Dorsal Cortical Neurogenesis in Side-Blotched Lizard, Uta Stansburiana". ScholarWorks. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  35. ^ Mills, Suzanne (2008). "Gonadotropin Hormone Modulation of Testosterone, Immune Function, Performance, and Behavioral Trade‐Offs among Male Morphs of the Lizard Uta Stansburiana". The American Naturalist. University of Chicago. 171 (3): 339–357. doi:10.1086/527520. PMID 18201140. S2CID 24146633.
  36. ^ LaDage, Lara (2016). "Environmental Experiences Influence Cortical Volume in Territorial and Nonterritorial Side-Blotched Lizards, Uta Stansburiana". Animal Behaviour. Academic Press. 115: 11–18. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.01.029. S2CID 54415157. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  37. ^ LaDage, Lara (2017). "Increased Testosterone Decreases Medial Cortical Volume and Neurogenesis in Territorial Side-Blotched Lizards (UTA Stansburiana)". Frontiers in Neuroscience. Frontiers. 11: 97. doi:10.3389/fnins.2017.00097. PMC 5331184. PMID 28298883.
  38. ^ Zani, Peter. "Escape Behavior of Side-Blotched Lizards in Response to Model Predators". ResearchGate. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  39. ^ Best, Troy L.; A. L. Gennaro (September 1984). "Feeding Ecology of the Lizard, Uta stansburiana, in Southeastern New Mexico". Journal of Herpetology. 18 (3): 291–301. doi:10.2307/1564083. JSTOR 1564083.
  40. ^ Waldschmidt, Steve (May 1986). "The Effect of Body Temperature and Feeding Regime on Activity, Passage Time, and Digestive Coefficient in the Lizard Uta Stansburiana: Physiological Zoology: Vol 59, No 3". Physiological Zoology. 59 (3): 376–383. doi:10.1086/physzool.59.3.30156109. S2CID 87385300.
  41. ^ Lyon, R. E. (1986). Helminth parasites of six lizard species from southern Idaho. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 53(2), 291-293. PDF
  42. ^ Bursey, C. R.; Goldberg, S. R. (1996). "Oochoristica macallisteri sp. n. (Cyclophyllidea: Linstowiidae) from the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana (Sauria: Phrynosomatidae), from California, USA" (PDF). Folia Parasitologica. 43: 293–296.
  43. ^ Bonorris, Jim S.; Ball, Gordon H. (1955). "Schellackia occidentalis n.sp., a blood-inhabiting coccidian found in lizards in Southern California". Journal of Protozoology. 2 (1): 31–34. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1955.tb02393.x. ISSN 0022-3921.
  44. ^ Quillfeldt, Petra; Romeike, Tanja; Masello, Juan F.; Reiner, Gerald; Willems, Hermann; Bedolla-Guzmán, Yuliana (2018). "Molecular survey of coccidian infections of the side-blotched lizard Uta stansburiana on San Benito Oeste Island, Mexico". Parasite. 25: 43. doi:10.1051/parasite/2018043. ISSN 1776-1042. PMC 6092949. PMID 30109981. open access
  45. ^ a b Goldberg, Stephen R.; Bursey, Charles R. (1991). "Integumental lesions caused by ectoparasites in a wild population of the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana)". Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 27 (1): 68–73. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-27.1.68. ISSN 0090-3558. PMID 2023329.
  46. ^ Paranjpe, Dhanashree A.; Medina, Dianna; Nielsen, Erica; Cooper, Robert D.; Paranjpe, Sharayu A.; Sinervo, Barry (2014-07-01). "Does Thermal Ecology Influence Dynamics of Side-Blotched Lizards and Their Micro-Parasites?". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 54 (2): 108–117. doi:10.1093/icb/icu069. ISSN 1540-7063. PMID 24920752.
  47. ^ Zani, Peter. "Escape Behavior of Side-Blotched Lizards in Response to Model Predators". ResearchGate. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  48. ^ Wilson, Byron (1992). "Tail Injuries Increase the Risk of Mortality in Free-Living Lizards (UTA Stansburiana)". Oecologia. Springer. 92 (1): 145–152. Bibcode:1992Oecol..92..145W. doi:10.1007/BF00317275. PMID 28311825. S2CID 13113025.
  49. ^ Waldschmidt, Steve (May 1986). "The Effect of Body Temperature and Feeding Regime on Activity, Passage Time, and Digestive Coefficient in the Lizard Uta Stansburiana: Physiological Zoology: Vol 59, No 3". Physiological Zoology. 59 (3): 376–383. doi:10.1086/physzool.59.3.30156109. S2CID 87385300.
  50. ^ Waldschmidt, Steve; Tracy, Richard (1983). "Interactions between a Lizard and Its Thermal Environment: Implications for Sprint Performance and Space Utilization in the Lizard Uta Stansburiana". Ecology. John Wiley & Sons. 64 (3): 476–484. doi:10.2307/1939967. JSTOR 1939967. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  51. ^ Turner, Frederick. "Reproduction and Survivorship of the Lizard, Uta Stansburiana, and the Effects of Winter Rainfall, Density and Predation on These Processes". Utah State University. Utah State University.
  52. ^ Nussbuam, Ronald (1981). "Seasonal Shifts in Clutch Size and Egg Size in the Side-Blotched Lizard, Uta Stansburiana Baird and Girard". Oecologia. Springer. 49 (1): 8–13. Bibcode:1981Oecol..49....8N. doi:10.1007/BF00376891. hdl:2027.42/47737. PMID 28309442. S2CID 22402124.
  53. ^ Mills, Suzanne (2008). "Gonadotropin Hormone Modulation of Testosterone, Immune Function, Performance, and Behavioral Trade‐Offs among Male Morphs of the Lizard Uta Stansburiana". The American Naturalist. University of Chicago. 171 (3): 339–357. doi:10.1086/527520. PMID 18201140. S2CID 24146633.
  54. ^ Maged, Roxolana. "Effect of Differential Space Use on Medial and Dorsal Cortical Neurogenesis in Side-Blotched Lizard, Uta Stansburiana". ScholarWorks. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  55. ^ LaDage, Lara (2017). "Increased Testosterone Decreases Medial Cortical Volume and Neurogenesis in Territorial Side-Blotched Lizards (UTA Stansburiana)". Frontiers in Neuroscience. Frontiers. 11: 97. doi:10.3389/fnins.2017.00097. PMC 5331184. PMID 28298883.
  56. ^ LaDage, Lara (2016). "Environmental Experiences Influence Cortical Volume in Territorial and Nonterritorial Side-Blotched Lizards, Uta Stansburiana". Animal Behaviour. Academic Press. 115: 11–18. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.01.029. S2CID 54415157. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  57. ^ Jensen, Forest (November 2017). "Sexual Coloration and Performance Capacity in Male Side-Blotched Lizards (UTA Stansburiana)". Biology Posters. Utah State University.
  58. ^ Fox, S (2000). "The Effects of Tail Loss on Survival, Growth, Reproduction, and Sex Ratio of Offspring in the Lizard Uta Stansburiana in the Field". Oecologia. SpringerLink. 122 (3): 327–334. Bibcode:2000Oecol.122..327F. doi:10.1007/s004420050038. PMID 28308283. S2CID 25729112. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  59. ^ Althoff, David; Thompson, John (1994). "The Effects of Tail Autotomy on Survivorship and Body Growth of UTA Stansburiana under Conditions of High Mortality". Oecologia. 100 (3): 250–255. Bibcode:1994Oecol.100..250A. doi:10.1007/BF00316952. PMID 28307008. S2CID 7299762.

лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
Wikipedia authors and editors
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia EN

Common side-blotched lizard: Brief Summary ( англиски )

добавил wikipedia EN

The common side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana) is a species of side-blotched lizard in the family Phrynosomatidae. The species is native to dry regions of the western United States and northern Mexico. It is notable for having a unique form of polymorphism wherein each of the three different male morphs utilizes a different strategy in acquiring mates. The three morphs compete against each other following a pattern of rock paper scissors, where one morph has advantages over another but is outcompeted by the third.

лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
Wikipedia authors and editors
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia EN

Uta concinna ( баскиски )

добавил wikipedia EU
(RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.log.warn("Gadget "ErrefAurrebista" was not loaded. Please migrate it to use ResourceLoader. See u003Chttps://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berezi:Gadgetaku003E.");});
лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
Wikipediako egileak eta editoreak
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia EU

Uta concinna: Brief Summary ( баскиски )

добавил wikipedia EU

Uta concinna Uta generoko animalia da. Narrastien barruko Phrynosomatidae familian sailkatuta dago.

лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
Wikipediako egileak eta editoreak
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia EU

Uta stansburiana ( баскиски )

добавил wikipedia EU

Uta stansburiana Uta generoko animalia da. Narrastien barruko Phrynosomatidae familian sailkatuta dago.

Erreferentziak

  1. (Ingelesez)IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. www.iucnredlist.org. 2012ko urriaren 20an eskuratua.
  2. The Species 2000 and ITIS Catalogue of Life

Ikus, gainera

(RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.log.warn("Gadget "ErrefAurrebista" was not loaded. Please migrate it to use ResourceLoader. See u003Chttps://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berezi:Gadgetaku003E.");});
лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
Wikipediako egileak eta editoreak
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia EU

Uta stansburiana: Brief Summary ( баскиски )

добавил wikipedia EU

Uta stansburiana Uta generoko animalia da. Narrastien barruko Phrynosomatidae familian sailkatuta dago.

лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
Wikipediako egileak eta editoreak
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia EU

Uta concinna ( француски )

добавил wikipedia FR

Uta stansburiana, communément appelé lézard à flancs maculés, est une espèce de sauriens de la famille des Phrynosomatidae[1].

Description

 src=
Sur ce lézard à flancs maculés, on voit distinctement la tache sombre sur le flanc. Les points bleus sur le dos montrent qu'il s'agit d'un mâle.

Ce petit lézard est globalement brun, avec des taches très variables. Certaines sous-espèces ont une double rangée de petites taches plus sombres disposées le long de son dos, qui converge en une rangée simple au niveau de la queue. Une tache sombre de plus grande taille est visible juste derrière les pattes antérieures, sur les flancs. Une ligne blanche étroite court du coin extérieur de chaque œil jusqu'aux épaules. Les mâles, notamment lors de la saison de reproduction, présentent des points bleus sur le dos.

Écologie et comportement

Comportement

Bien qu'actif tout au long de l'année dans les régions du Sud, il est toujours plus actif en été. Lors des périodes hivernales ou la nuit, il se cache dans un terrier peu profond qu'il aura creusé, ou sous un tronc mort, un bloc rocheux, ou un autre abri de ce genre[2].

Reproduction

 src=
Accouplement d'Uta stansburiana.

La ponte a lieu de mars à août. Il peut y avoir, chez cette espèce, jusqu'à sept pontes par an. Chaque ponte peut comprendre jusqu'à huit œufs[2].

Alimentation

Ce lézard est insectivore. Il serait capable de consommer 9 000 insectes par an[2].

Prédateurs

Les principaux prédateurs de ce lézard sont les serpents et les oiseaux de proie, tels que les faucons, mais aussi les oiseaux du genre Geococcyx (géocoucous) et la Pie-grièche migratrice. C'est aussi la proie de mammifères du genre Mustela et des mouffettes[2].

Habitat et répartition

 src=
Aire de répartition de l'espèce Uta stansburiana selon l'UICN (consulté le 27 février 2013).

Cette espèce se rencontre[1] :

Il vit dans des zones arides ou semi-arides de broussailles, à une altitude variant entre le niveau de la mer et 2 750 m[3].

Fossiles

Un individu fossile de cette espèce a été découvert sur le site de California Oaks en Californie, États-Unis. Il se situait dans des sédiments gréseux de l'époque Pléistocène, daté entre 1,5 et 0,3 million d'années[4].

Taxinomie

La sous-espèce Uta stansburiana stejnegeri était auparavant classée comme espèce sous le nom de Uta stejnegeri.

Étymologie

Cette espèce est nommée en l'honneur d'Howard Stansbury[5]. Son nom vernaculaire de « lézard à flancs maculés » (side-blotched en anglais) fait référence aux taches noires présentes sur ses flancs[2].

Liste des sous-espèces

Selon Reptarium Reptile Database (11 août 2013)[6] :

  • Uta stansburiana elegans Yarrow, 1882
  • Uta stansburiana martinensis Van Denburgh, 1905
  • Uta stansburiana nevadensis Ruthven, 1913
  • Uta stansburiana stansburiana Baird & Girard, 1852
  • Uta stansburiana stejnegeri Schmidt, 1921
  • Uta stansburiana taylori Smith, 1935
  • Uta stansburiana uniformis Pack & Tanner, 1970

Conservation

 src=
Uta stansburiana

La population totale de ce lézard est estimée à plus d'un million d'individus par l'IUCN qui, de fait, a placé l'espèce dans la catégorie LC (préoccupation mineure)[3].

Publications originales

  • Baird & Girard, 1852 : Characteristics of some new reptiles in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. 6, p. 68-70 (texte intégral).
  • Pack & Tanner, 1970 : A taxonomic comparison of Uta stansburiana of the Great Basin and the upper Colorado River basin in Utah, with a description of a new subspecies. Great Basin Naturalist, vol. 30, no 2, p. 71-90 (texte intégral).
  • Ruthven, 1913 : Description of a new Uta from Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, vol. 26, p. 27-29 (texte intégral).
  • Schmidt, 1921 : A new name for a subspecies of Uta stansburiana Baird and Girard. American Museum Novitates, no 15, p. 1-2 (texte intégral).
  • Smith, 1935 : Descriptions of new species of lizards from Mexico of the genus Uta, with notes on other Mexican species. University of Kansas science bulletin, vol. 22, no 7, p. 157-181 (texte intégral).
  • Van Denburgh, 1905 : The reptiles and amphibians of the islands of the Pacific Coast of North America from the Farallons to Cape San Lucas and the Revilla Gigedos. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 3, vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-40 (texte intégral).
  • Yarrow, 1882 : Description of new species of reptiles and amphibians in the US National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, vol. 5, p. 438-443 (texte intégral).

Notes et références

  1. a et b Reptarium Reptile Database, consulté lors d'une mise à jour du lien externe
  2. a b c d et e Dick Schwenkmeyer, « Uta stansburiana », sur www.sdnhm.org, San Diego Natural History Museum (consulté le 29 octobre 2009)
  3. a et b UICN, consulté lors d'une mise à jour du lien externe
  4. The PaleoBiology Database, « California Oaks (SBCM 5.6.137): Irvingtonian, California », sur http://paleodb.org (consulté le 29 octobre 2009)
  5. Beolens, Watkins & Grayson, 2009 : The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 1-296
  6. Reptarium Reptile Database, consulté le 11 août 2013
лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
Auteurs et éditeurs de Wikipedia
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia FR

Uta concinna: Brief Summary ( француски )

добавил wikipedia FR

Uta stansburiana, communément appelé lézard à flancs maculés, est une espèce de sauriens de la famille des Phrynosomatidae.

лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
Auteurs et éditeurs de Wikipedia
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia FR

Uta stansburiana ( виетнамски )

добавил wikipedia VI

Uta stansburiana là một loài thằn lằn trong họ Phrynosomatidae. Loài này được Baird & Girard mô tả khoa học đầu tiên năm 1852.[1]

Hình ảnh

Tham khảo

  1. ^ Uta stansburiana. The Reptile Database. Truy cập ngày 31 tháng 5 năm 2013.


Hình tượng sơ khai Bài viết liên quan đến bộ bò sát có vảy này vẫn còn sơ khai. Bạn có thể giúp Wikipedia bằng cách mở rộng nội dung để bài được hoàn chỉnh hơn.
лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
Wikipedia tác giả và biên tập viên
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia VI

Uta stansburiana: Brief Summary ( виетнамски )

добавил wikipedia VI

Uta stansburiana là một loài thằn lằn trong họ Phrynosomatidae. Loài này được Baird & Girard mô tả khoa học đầu tiên năm 1852.

лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
Wikipedia tác giả và biên tập viên
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia VI

ワキモンユタトカゲ ( јапонски )

добавил wikipedia 日本語
ワキモンユタトカゲ ユタトカゲのオス
ユタトカゲのオス
分類 : 動物界 Animalia : 脊索動物門 Chordata 亜門 : 脊椎動物亜門 Vertebrata : 爬虫綱 Reptilia : 有鱗目 Squamata 亜目 : トカゲ亜目 Sauria 下目 : イグアナ下目 Iguania : ツノトカゲ科 Phrynosomatidae : ユタトカゲ属 Uta 学名 Uta stansburiana
Baird & Girard, 1852

ワキモンユタトカゲ (Uta stansburiana) はユタトカゲ属のトカゲである。主に北アメリカの西砂漠で見られるトカゲで、特有の繁殖パターンを持っていることで知られる。[1] ユタトカゲはユタトカゲ科に分類される。体長は15cmほどに成長し通常雄のほうが大きい 。また雄は喉のあたりに鮮やかな模様をもつ

ヒョウモントカゲハリトカゲなどの大型のトカゲミチバシリなどのといった生物はこのトカゲにとって天敵である。逆にワキモンユタトカゲが主食とする動物として節足動物昆虫クモ、時にサソリなど。

こうした天敵は少なくないため多産である。 4月から6月にかけて繁殖期を迎え、早ければ5月の下旬には子供が生まれる。繁殖期は9月まで、つまり夏の間中続く。

性別など[編集]

ワキモンユタトカゲについて特筆すべきは3つのタイプのオスと2つのタイプのメスによる性形態である。

オス[編集]

オレンジの喉のオスは最も強い。テストステロンの値が高いことで体は大きく、広い領域を支配し多くのメスを確保できる。

黄色いストライプの喉をもつオスはこそこそと行動する。相手の領域を侵すことはしない。オレンジの喉のオスが領域を守るために不在の間、メスと親密になる。

青い喉のオスは攻撃的な性格ではない。中間的な大きさである。一匹のメスを守ることに専念するが、黄色いストライプのオスから守ることはできてもオレンジの喉のオスにはメスをとられてしまう。


メス[編集]

オレンジの喉のメスはたくさんの小さな卵を領域中に広く産む。

黄色い喉のメスはそれよりは少なく産むが、大きく頑丈な卵を産む。[2]

またオレンジの喉のオスと青い喉のオスはメスを逃がすとため大胆にも人間に近寄ってくる。メスが助かると穴の中や岩の下で"繋がる"。

このようなオスがメスをめぐる争いはじゃんけんのようだと言われる。[3] またメスはオスに比べ色が地味である。

脚注[編集]

  1. ^ Sinervo, B.; C.M. Lively (1996). "The rock–paper–scissors game and the evolution of alternative male strategies". Nature 380 (6571): 240–243. doi:10.1038/380240a0.
  2. ^ Roughgarden, Joan (2004). Evolution's Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24073-1 Especially chapter 6, Multiple Gender Families, pp. 90-93.
  3. ^ Goodenough, J (2010). Perspectives on Animal Behaviour. pp. 70.

参考文献[編集]

  • Collins, Joseph T. (1991): Viewpoint: a new taxonomic arrangement for some North American amphibians and reptiles. Herpetological Review 22(2): 42-43. PDF fulltext
  • Grismer, L.L. (1994): Three new species of intertidal side-blotched lizards (Genus Uta) from the Gulf of California, Mexico. Herpetologica 50: 451–474.
  • Murphy, Robert W. & Aguirre-León, Gustavo (2002): The Nonavian Reptiles: Origins and Evolution. In: Case, Ted & Cody, Martin (eds.): A New Island Biogeography of the Sea of Cortés: 181-220. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513346-3 PDF fulltext Appendices 2-4
  • Oliver, James A. (1943): The Status of Uta ornata lateralis Boulenger. Copeia 1943(2): 97-107. doi:10.2307/1437774 (First page image)
  • Pennock, Lewis A.; Tinkle, Donald W. & Shaw, Margery W. (1968): Chromosome Number in the Lizard Genus Uta (Family Iguanidae). Chromosoma 24(4): 467-476. doi:10.1007/BF00285020 PDF fulltext
  • Upton, Darlene E. & Murphy, Robert W. (1997): Phylogeny of the side-blotched lizards (Phrynosomatidae: Uta) based on mtDNA sequences: support for midpeninsular seaway in Baja California. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 8(1): 104-113. doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0392 PDF fulltext
 title=
лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
ウィキペディアの著者と編集者
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia 日本語

ワキモンユタトカゲ: Brief Summary ( јапонски )

добавил wikipedia 日本語

ワキモンユタトカゲ (Uta stansburiana) はユタトカゲ属のトカゲである。主に北アメリカの西砂漠で見られるトカゲで、特有の繁殖パターンを持っていることで知られる。 ユタトカゲはユタトカゲ科に分類される。体長は15cmほどに成長し通常雄のほうが大きい 。また雄は喉のあたりに鮮やかな模様をもつ

ヒョウモントカゲハリトカゲなどの大型のトカゲミチバシリなどのといった生物はこのトカゲにとって天敵である。逆にワキモンユタトカゲが主食とする動物として節足動物昆虫クモ、時にサソリなど。

こうした天敵は少なくないため多産である。 4月から6月にかけて繁殖期を迎え、早ければ5月の下旬には子供が生まれる。繁殖期は9月まで、つまり夏の間中続く。

лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
ウィキペディアの著者と編集者
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia 日本語