Дефиниција: Fully formed eggs are retained and hatched inside the maternal body and are released as live offspring (Lincoln et al., 1998). No nutrition is derived from the mother.
Дефиниција: position of an organism in a food web. May be described verbally with descriptors including primary producer, herbivore or carnivore. If described numerically, 1 indicates a primary producer, 2 a herbivore, and so on up the food web.