Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 31.5 years (captivity) Observations: One captive specimen was still alive at 31.5 years of age (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Ingmarsson, L. 1999. "Pecari tajacu" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pecari_tajacu.html
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Lisa Ingmarsson, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Conservation Status

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The main predators of Collared Peccaries are humans, coyotes, pumas, jaguars, and bobcats. For centuries, young Peccaries have been captured, kept as domestic pets, and even fattened by Central and South American Indians. In Peru, 10,000 skins have been exported annually for decades. In Texas, more than 20,000 individuals are shot during the hunting season. Populations are fairly resilient due to adaptability, although subspecies in the tropics are threatened by rainforest destruction.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Ingmarsson, L. 1999. "Pecari tajacu" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pecari_tajacu.html
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Lisa Ingmarsson, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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Collared Peccaries have readily habituated urban environments, and often frequent locations where they know they will be fed. Thus, they are potential nuisances.

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Ingmarsson, L. 1999. "Pecari tajacu" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pecari_tajacu.html
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Lisa Ingmarsson, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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Collared Peccaries have for decades been a source of economic income due to their skins and as hunting trophies. They are among the most important big game species in Arizona. The young are often captured and serve as domestic farm animals.

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Ingmarsson, L. 1999. "Pecari tajacu" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pecari_tajacu.html
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Lisa Ingmarsson, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Trophic Strategy

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Collared Peccaries are primarily herbivorous, and have complex stomachs for digesting coarsely-chewed food. In its southern range, this species eats a variety of foods, including roots, bulbs, fungi, and nuts, in addition to fruits and occasional eggs, carrion, snakes, fish, and frogs. In the northern range, Collared Peccaries eats more herbivorous foods, such as roots, bulbs, beans, nuts, berries, grass, and cacti. Despite all this supplementary diet, the main dietary components of this species are agaves and prickly pears. The prickly pear is ideal in the Javelina's arid range due to its high water content. This species is also capable of eating cultivated planted by humans.

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Ingmarsson, L. 1999. "Pecari tajacu" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pecari_tajacu.html
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Lisa Ingmarsson, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Distribution

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Collared Peccaries are found in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. The 14 subspecies occur from northern Argentina in South America, throughout Central America, and have spread into the southern Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas in the United States.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

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Ingmarsson, L. 1999. "Pecari tajacu" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pecari_tajacu.html
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Habitat

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In South and Central America, the Collared Peccary inhabits tropical rainforests. In the southern United States, herds occur in Saguaro deserts, where they prefer mesquite habitats with an abundance of prickly pear cacti. Collared Peccaries have also become common in residential areas, where they may rely on human handouts for food.

Terrestrial Biomes: desert or dune ; forest ; rainforest

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Ingmarsson, L. 1999. "Pecari tajacu" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pecari_tajacu.html
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Lisa Ingmarsson, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Life Expectancy

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Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
31.5 years.

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Ingmarsson, L. 1999. "Pecari tajacu" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pecari_tajacu.html
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Lisa Ingmarsson, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

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Shoulder height: 0.3 to 0.5 m Length: 0.8 to 1.0 m. Weight: 15 to 25 kg. Collared Peccaries are often confused with pigs due to their appearance. Their coat is a grizzled grayish black throughout, except for a yellowish tinge on the cheeks and a whitish to yellowish collar extending the mane, over the shoulders, and to the throat. While males and females are very similar in size and color, young are a yellowish brown color, with a black stripe down the back. Collared Peccaries have short, straight tusks that fit together tightly enough to hone eachother down with every jaw movement. This razor sharpness gives this species its common name: Javelina: a javelin is a lightweight, tip-shaped spear. Javelinas have a distinct dorsal gland on the rump that is essential in much species-specific behavior. They also have poor eyesight and good hearing, which are believed to contribute to the very vocal nature of this species.

Range mass: 15 to 25 kg.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Average basal metabolic rate: 33.165 W.

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Ingmarsson, L. 1999. "Pecari tajacu" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pecari_tajacu.html
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Lisa Ingmarsson, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Reproduction

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A designated or specific breeding season does not prevail in Collared Peccary herds; rather, mating reflects climate, especially rain, and occurs throughout the year. More young are raised in rainy years. The dominant male does virtually all the breeding. Subordinate males do not have to leave the herd, but are not allowed to approach females in estrus. As a result, bachelor herds do not exist. 1 to 3, but rarely 4, young are born after a gestation period of 141 to 151 days. Birthing mothers retreat from the group; the newborn might otherwise be eaten by other group members. However, mothers rejoin the herd 1 day after giving birth. Only the older sisters of the newborn are tolerated with the young; these often become nursemaids for the new mother. Weaning occurs at 2 to 3 months. Males reach sexual maturity at 11 months; females, at 8 to 14 months. Despite the high mortality rate in this species, members have a life span of up to 24 years, which was observed in captivity.

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

Average birth mass: 700 g.

Average gestation period: 145 days.

Average number of offspring: 2.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male:
358 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female:
329 days.

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Ingmarsson, L. 1999. "Pecari tajacu" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pecari_tajacu.html
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Habitat

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it prefers desert,subdesert,prairie grasslands and open areas.

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Collared peccary

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The collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) is a species of artiodactyl mammal in the family Tayassuidae found in North, Central, and South America. They are commonly referred to as javelina, saíno, or báquiro, although these terms are also used to describe other species in the family. The species is also known as the musk hog. In Trinidad, it is colloquially known as quenk.

Taxonomy

Although somewhat related to true Old World pigs and frequently referred to as one, this species and the other peccaries are no longer classified in the pig family, Suidae. It had recently been placed in the genus Dicotyles, based on an unequivocal type-species selection;[2] however, the IUCN and other taxonomic databases still place it in the genus Pecari.

Description

 src=
Dentition, as illustrated in Knight's Sketches in Natural History

The collared peccary stands around 510–610 mm (20–24 in) tall at the shoulder and is about 1.0–1.5 m (3 ft 3 in–4 ft 11 in) long. It weighs between 16 and 27 kg (35 and 60 lb).[3] The dental formula is: 2/3,1/1,3/3,3/3.[4] The collared peccary has small tusks that point toward the ground when the animal is upright. It also has slender legs with a robust or stocky body. The tail is often hidden in the coarse fur of the peccary.[5]

Range and habitat

The collared peccary is widespread throughout much of the tropical and subtropical Americas, ranging from the Southwestern United States to northern Argentina in South America. They have been reintroduced to Uruguay in 2017, after 100 years of extirpation there.[6] The only Caribbean island where it is native, however, is Trinidad. Until fairly recently, it was also present on the nearby island of Tobago, but is now exceedingly rare (if not extirpated) due to overhunting by humans. An adaptable species, it inhabits deserts, xeric shrublands, tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, shrublands, flooded grasslands and savannas, tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, and several other habitats; it is also present in habitats shared by humans, merely requiring sufficient cover. Peccaries can be found in cities and agricultural land throughout their range, where they consume garden plants. Notable populations are known to exist in the suburbs of Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona.[7][8]

Due to the lack of fossil material or even specimens from archeological sites, it was assumed that javelinas only recently crossed into the US by way of Mexico. However, a fossil jaw of this species was discovered in Florida ("Collared peccary (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae, Pecari) from the late Pleistocene of Florida", Richard C. Hulbert, Gary S. Morgan & Andreas Kerner), proving that at some point in the late Pleistocene the species had already inhabited part of the Southern US.

Diet

Collared peccaries are classified as herbivores. They normally feed on cactus, mesquite beans, fruits, roots, tubers, palm nuts, other green vegetation. However, they will also eat lizards, dead birds, and rodents if the opportunity presents itself.[9] In areas inhabited by humans, they also consume cultivated crops and ornamental plants, such as tulip bulbs.[7][8]

Predators

The main predators of the collared peccary are cougars (Puma concolor), Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi), coyotes (Canis latrans), jaguars (Panthera onca), and bobcats (Lynx rufus).[10]

Behaviour

Collared peccaries are diurnal creatures that live in groups of up to 50 individuals, averaging between six and 9 members. They sleep in burrows, often under the roots of trees, but sometimes can be found in caves or under logs.[5] However, collared peccaries are not completely diurnal. In central Arizona, they are often active at night, but less so in daytime.

Although they usually ignore humans, they will react if they feel threatened. They defend themselves with their tusks. A collared peccary can release a strong musk or give a sharp bark if it is alarmed.[5]

They will also rub their scent on rocks and tree stumps to mark their territory, and rubbing the scent on each other to help with identification.[9]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Gongora, J.; Reyna-Hurtado, R.; Beck, H.; Taber, A.; Altrichter, M. & Keuroghlian, A. (2011). "Pecari tajacu". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T41777A10562361. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T41777A10562361.en. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern.
  2. ^ Acosta, Luis E.; Garbino, Guilherme S. T.; Gasparini, Germán M.; Dutra, Rodrigo Parisi (9 September 2020). "Unraveling the nomenclatural puzzle of the collared and white-lipped peccaries (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla, Tayassuidae)". Zootaxa. 4851 (1): 60–80. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4851.1.2. PMID 33056737.
  3. ^ "Collared Peccary: Javelina ~ Tayaussa ~ Musk Hog". Digital West Media Inc. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  4. ^ Reid, Fiona (2006). Peterson Field Guide: Mammals of North America (4th ed.). New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-395-93596-5.
  5. ^ a b c Reid, Fiona (2006). Peterson Field Guide: Mammals of North America (4th ed.). New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 488. ISBN 978-0-395-93596-5.
  6. ^ "A un año de su liberación, los pecaríes ya se adaptaron y tienen cría". ecos.la (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2020-04-22. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  7. ^ a b Friederici, Peter (August–September 1998). "Winners and Losers". National Wildlife Magazine. National Wildlife Federation. 36 (5).
  8. ^ a b Sowls, Lyle K. (1997). Javelinas and Other Peccaries: Their Biology, Management, and Use (2nd ed.). Texas A&M University Press. pp. 61–68. ISBN 978-0-89096-717-1.
  9. ^ a b "Animal Fact Sheet: Collared Peccary or Javelina". Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  10. ^ Ingmarsson, Lisa. "Pecari tajacu (collared peccary)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2020-10-28.

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Collared peccary: Brief Summary

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The collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) is a species of artiodactyl mammal in the family Tayassuidae found in North, Central, and South America. They are commonly referred to as javelina, saíno, or báquiro, although these terms are also used to describe other species in the family. The species is also known as the musk hog. In Trinidad, it is colloquially known as quenk.

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