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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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Maximum longevity: 5.4 years (captivity) Observations: One specimen lived at least 5.4 years in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005). They also appear to be able to reproduce up to 5.2 years of age (Steven Austad, pers. comm.).
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Behavior

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Communication in pinyon mice hasn't been well-studied. They are likely to use visual, auditory, chemical, and tactile modes of communication.

Peromyscus species are known for their acute senses of hearing and smell, which they use to navigate, find food, and escape predation at night. Their enlarged eyes suggest they have a well-developed sense of vision in low light conditions. Their long whiskers are used for tactile perception.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Gumas, J. 2004. "Peromyscus truei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peromyscus_truei.html
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Jennifer Gumas, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Conservation Status

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Pinyon mice are not currently threatened throughout much of their range. However, since pinyon junipers are a crucial part of their habitat, destruction of such habitats can imperil these mice. The subspecies Peromyscus truei comanche, found in the pandhandle of northwestern Texas, is considered near threatened by the IUCN.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Gumas, J. 2004. "Peromyscus truei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peromyscus_truei.html
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Jennifer Gumas, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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Pinyon mice serve as an important reservoir for several types of parasites. Some have speculated that they are capable of carrying plague-infested fleas, but this has not been well documented. Members of the genus Peromyscus are capable of carrying chiggers, a common pest, as well as the ticks that transmit Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Lyme disease to humans. Peromyscus species are also important reservoirs for hantaviruses.

Negative Impacts: injures humans (carries human disease)

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Gumas, J. 2004. "Peromyscus truei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peromyscus_truei.html
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Jennifer Gumas, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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It is not known whether pinyon mice have positive affects on human populations, aside from their important ecosystem roles.

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Gumas, J. 2004. "Peromyscus truei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peromyscus_truei.html
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Jennifer Gumas, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Pinyon mice are almost always found near pinyon junipers, hence their common name. Juniper seeds are the main food source of pinon mice, making them, like other members of the genus Peromyscus, significant predators of conifer seeds. Thus they impact their communities by impacting the composition of the plant community. Their seed caching behavior may also result in germination of seeds. Pinyon mice are also an important and abundant source of prey for many avian and mammalian predators.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Gumas, J. 2004. "Peromyscus truei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peromyscus_truei.html
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Jennifer Gumas, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Trophic Strategy

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Pinyon mice are primarily frugivorous and granivorous, although they will also readily eat insects, spiders, and other invertebrates. Adults typically feed on juniper seeds (Juniperus) and berries in the winter and acorn mast (Quercus) in the summer. Pinyon mice are notorious at caching their food supply; they frequently dig holes and bury their food in various places around their territory, particularly around den sites. These cache networks may become quite extensive. Finally, pinyon mice are capable of surviving on a very limited water supply, which is crucial to their survival in the arid habitats they occupy.

Animal Foods: insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods

Plant Foods: leaves; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

Foraging Behavior: stores or caches food

Primary Diet: herbivore (Granivore )

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Gumas, J. 2004. "Peromyscus truei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peromyscus_truei.html
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Jennifer Gumas, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Distribution

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Pinyon mice can be found as far east as the panhandle of north Texas and as far west as the Pacific coast. The northern limit of their range is central Oregon, and the southern limit is southern Mexico.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

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Gumas, J. 2004. "Peromyscus truei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peromyscus_truei.html
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Jennifer Gumas, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Habitat

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Pinyon mice are terrestrial mammals that can be found at altitudes ranging from sea level to elevations of greater than 2300 meters. They frequent arid or semi-arid climates, preferring brushland and desert, and are typically found near pinyon junipers, hence their common name. However, pinyon mice can also be found in open, grassy habitats, as well as landscapes including canyons, redwoods, yellow pine belts, sagebrush, scrub oak, boulders, cacti, and rocky slopes. Pinyon mice are able to endure warm, dry summers in addition to snowy winters. They make dens under rock ledges, outcrops, stone shelves and slabs, and in live or dead trees.

Range elevation: 0 to greater than 2300 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: desert or dune ; savanna or grassland ; forest ; scrub forest ; mountains

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Gumas, J. 2004. "Peromyscus truei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peromyscus_truei.html
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Jennifer Gumas, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Life Expectancy

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The lifespan of pinyon mice and other mice in the genus Peromyscus has not been studied in detail. An individual Peromyscus maniculatus lived to be eight years old in captivity, but studies have shown that mice in this genus rarely live more than a year in the wild. Only 20% of the young in each nest will survive their first year of life, and only 2-3% of adults live long enough to breed in consecutive seasons.

Average lifespan
Status: wild:
1 years.

Average lifespan
Status: captivity:
5.4 years.

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Gumas, J. 2004. "Peromyscus truei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peromyscus_truei.html
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Jennifer Gumas, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Morphology

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Pinyon mice have long, silky fur that ranges from yellow-brown to dark gray on the back and fades to white on the under parts and feet. They may or may not have a pectoral spot. The tail is tipped with long hairs and has a dark dorsal stripe running down its length. The hind feet are large, and are typically 22 mm or more in length. Juveniles have gray pelage that changes with a series of molts, starting at 7 weeks and finishing at 10 to 11 weeks of age. Coat color matches the habitat regionally, allowing these mice to blend into vegetation and hide from predators. Males and females are similar in size, the average weight is about 20 g, and the head and body length ranges between 171 to 231 mm. Tail length varies from 76 to 123 mm. The size of pinyon mice often varies with location; pinyon mice in the western parts of their range tend to have a longer tail, smaller body size, smaller ears, and smaller hind feet than their counterparts in the east.

Average mass: 20 g.

Range length: 171 to 231 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Average mass: 25 g.

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.307 W.

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Gumas, J. 2004. "Peromyscus truei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peromyscus_truei.html
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Jennifer Gumas, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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Predation on pinyon mice has not been well studied, although predation most likely plays a role in the high mortality rate of these rodents. Their primary predators are owls, diurnal birds of prey, and snakes, especially rattlesnakes. They escape predation by remaining inactive during the day in dens, by their cryptic coloration, and by their acute senses at night.

Known Predators:

  • owls (Strigiformes)
  • diurnal birds of prey (Falconiformes)
  • rattlesnakes (Crotalus)

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

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Gumas, J. 2004. "Peromyscus truei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peromyscus_truei.html
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Jennifer Gumas, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Reproduction

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Pinyon mice have a promiscuous mating system in which females nest in small territories and males seek mating opportunities with nearby females.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Although mating can occur in all seasons, pinyon mice breed primarily from mid-February to mid-November with a peak between April and June. Females give birth to a litter of three to six pups after a gestation period of approximately 26 days, though gestation may be as long as 40 days if the female is lactating. Females first come into estrus at approximately 50 days of age, and males are capable of inseminating females at approximately 9 weeks of age.

Breeding interval: Pinyon mice breed at intervals as frequent as once monthly.

Breeding season: Pinyon mice will breed at any time between February and mid-November with a peak between April and June.

Range number of offspring: 3 to 6.

Range gestation period: 40 (high) days.

Average gestation period: 26 days.

Range weaning age: 3 to 4 weeks.

Range time to independence: 3 to 4 weeks.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 50 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 9 weeks.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 2.315 g.

Average number of offspring: 3.4.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female:
50 days.

Newborn pinyon mice weigh around 2.3 grams at birth, and they are born completely hairless with their ears and eyes folded shut. The pups are capable of squeaking at one week of age, and their bodies are covered in hair by day 14. The pups nurse for three to four weeks, at which point they become independent. Females exclusively care for their young in a nest until they are weaned.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

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Gumas, J. 2004. "Peromyscus truei" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Peromyscus_truei.html
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Jennifer Gumas, Michigan State University
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Barbara Lundrigan, Michigan State University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Pinyon mouse

provided by wikipedia EN

The pinyon mouse (Peromyscus truei) is native to the southwestern United States and Baja California in Mexico. These medium-sized mice are often distinguished by their relatively large ears. The range of this species extends from southern Oregon and Wyoming in the north, and extends south to roughly the U.S.-Mexico border, with a disjunct population designated as Peromyscus true comanche that occupies an area in the vicinity of Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas panhandle.[2]

Description

The pinyon mouse (P. truei) fur varies in color from a pale yellowish brown to a brownish black color, and their feet are a lighter color, varying between dusky and white. For this reason they can incorrectly be grouped with other "white footed mouse" (P. leucopus) but there are a few distinguishing differences. P. truei tends to have a larger size of the ear which is as large or larger than the hind foot. Larger tail size and heavier hair distribution on tail tip is also observed. They have a larger skull, auditory bullae are more inflated and possess a less robust zygomatic arch.[2]

Distribution and Habitat

P. truei can be found in a variety of habitats. Although they prefer rocky slope areas and pinyon-juniper areas, they are also found in desert, forest, and grassy plains. They tend to have a larger range than other Peromyscus, up to 2.9. For males, which can possibly be attributed to drought conditions and searching for food sources.[1] They have been shown that they are flexible in habitat elevations and able to adjust to varying climate conditions.[3]

Diet

P. truei are omnivores and have been found with insects, invertebrates and fungi,[4] but they tend to be more specialists, compared to other Peromyscus when searching for food.[5] In burned out areas they tend to stick to the edges instead of moving into the burn area.[6] Finding water is usually a challenge in most of their habitats and they adjust their diet accordingly.

References

  1. ^ a b Linzey, A.V. & Hammerson, G. (2008). "Peromyscus truei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2010.old-form url
  2. ^ a b Hoffmeister, Donald F. (1981). "Peromyscus truei" (PDF). Mammalian Species. American Society of Mammalogists. 161 (161): 1–5. doi:10.2307/3503851. JSTOR 3503851. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2005.
  3. ^ Moritz, Craig; Patton, James L.; Conroy, Chris J.; Parra, Juan L.; White, Gary C.; Beissinger, Steven R. (1 January 2008). "Impact of a Century of Climate Change on Small-Mammal Communities in Yosemite National Park, USA" (PDF). Science. 322 (5899): 261–264. Bibcode:2008Sci...322..261M. doi:10.1126/science.1163428. JSTOR 20145010. PMID 18845755. S2CID 206515224. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2020.
  4. ^ Maser, Chris; Trappe, James M.; Nussbaum, Ronald A. (1 January 1978). "Fungal-Small Mammal Interrelationships with Emphasis on Oregon Coniferous Forests" (PDF). Ecology. 59 (4): 799–809. doi:10.2307/1938784. JSTOR 1938784.
  5. ^ Llewellyn, Jeffrey B.; Jenkins, Stephen H. (1 January 1987). "Patterns of Niche Shift in Mice: Seasonal Changes in Microhabitat Breadth and Overlap". The American Naturalist. 129 (3): 365–381. doi:10.1086/284642. JSTOR 2461686. S2CID 84811908.
  6. ^ Borchert, Mark; Borchert, Sinead M. (1 August 2013). "Small Mammal Use of the Burn Perimeter Following a Chaparral Wildfire in Southern California". Bulletin, Southern California Academy of Sciences. 112 (2): 63–73. doi:10.3160/0038-3872-112.2.63. S2CID 86605701.
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Pinyon mouse: Brief Summary

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The pinyon mouse (Peromyscus truei) is native to the southwestern United States and Baja California in Mexico. These medium-sized mice are often distinguished by their relatively large ears. The range of this species extends from southern Oregon and Wyoming in the north, and extends south to roughly the U.S.-Mexico border, with a disjunct population designated as Peromyscus true comanche that occupies an area in the vicinity of Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas panhandle.

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