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Description

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Sexually matured adults are 45-65mm in total length, but can reach sizes up to 75 mm (Emerson 1988; Lescure and Marty 2000). Body is short and pauchy. Head is small in comparison to the body. Short and round snout. Eyes in a dorsolateral position. Dorsal and ventral surfaces smooth. External metatarsal tubercle absent with the internal located in a prominent lateral position. Fingers free; toes completely palmate (Lescure and Marty 2000).

Iris yellow with a transverse brown bar. Dorsal surface green, throughout the anterior, brown, throughout the posterior, with dark spots. Ventral surface whitish with brown spots, with 3-4 brown lines connecting near the thighs (Lescure and Marty 2000).

Pseudis paradoxa has one of the largest tadpoles in comparison to its adult from. Tadpoles are approximately 3 ~ 4 times bigger than adult frogs, reaching sizes up to 220 mm (Emerson 1988).

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Distribution and Habitat

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This frog is found East of the Andes in river drainage systems from Venezuela to Paraguay and in Trinidad. These frogs are not found in locations with large seasonal fluctuations in temperature (Emerson 1988).

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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

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Typically found in open marshy areas with floating vegetation, in both permanent and temporary ponds (Bosch et al 1996; Cei 1980). Active both day and night, found floating on the surface in the latter (Lescure and Marty 2000). Diet consists of insects and small frogs (Cei 1980).

Mating seems to be related to sudden rainfall or other seasonal fluctuations. Eggs consist of frothy masses of greenish eggs laid along the shore among aquatic plants. Newly hatched tadpoles retain a greenish color on their venters for several days (Dixon et al 1995). In temporary ponds tadpoles transform quickly. It is in permanent habitat where the tadpoles reach their enormous proportions and transform at adult size (Cei 1980; Emerson 1988).

Males call floating on the surface, hidden among emergent vegetation (Bosch et al 1996). Call is strong (Lescure and Marty 2000), consisting of a sequence of 8-11 pulse groups (Bosch et al 1996).

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

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"Maximum longevity: 11 years (captivity) Observations: This species is also known as the "shrinking frog" because animals shrink during their lifespan. Tadpoles are at least four times larger than adults. Nothing is known about their ageing process, though."
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Pseudis paradoxa

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Pseudis paradoxa, known as the paradoxical frog or shrinking frog, is a species of hylid frog from South America.[2] Its name refers to the very large—up to 27 cm (11 in) long—tadpole (the world's longest), which in turn "shrinks" during metamorphosis into an ordinary-sized frog, only about a quarter or third of its former length. Although the recordholder was a tadpole in Amapá that belonged to this species, others in the genus Pseudis also have large tadpoles and ordinary-sized adults.[3][4][5]

Distribution and habitat

The species inhabits ponds, lakes, lagoons and similar waters from the Amazon and the Guianas, to Venezuela and Trinidad, with a disjunct distribution in the Magdalena River watershed in Colombia and adjacent far western Venezuela.[6][7] More southerly populations from the Pantanal region to northeastern Argentina have been recognized as a subspecies, but are now often considered a full species, P. platensis,[6] although the validity of this split is questionable.[4]

Appearance and behavior

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Mating pair in São Paulo, Brazil (left), models of full-grown tadpole and adult frog (right)

The adult frogs of P. paradoxa have a snout–to–vent length of 3.4–7.6 cm (1.3–3.0 in) and are green to brown coloured with dark green, olive or dark brownish stripes or mottling; the pattern and hue varies significantly.[4][8]

The female of P. paradoxa lay eggs among water plants; the eggs develop into tadpoles. They always reach a large size, but there are noticeable local variations in the final size of the tadpoles, with those in large temporary waters with plenty of food and few aquatic predators growing larger than those in smaller waters with less food or waters with more aquatic predators.[4]

The tadpoles feed mostly on algae. The adult frogs, which are active both day and night and always in or near water, eat insects and other invertebrates, and small frogs.[8][9] When threatened, the frog uses its strong toes with an extra joint to stir up the muddy bottom and hide. The frog also uses this mechanism to find food on the bottom of lakes and ponds.

Potential use in medicine

In March 2008, scientists working from the Universities of Ulster and United Arab Emirates released findings of a study on pseudin-2, a skin compound which protects the paradoxical frog from infection.[10] This work found that a synthetic version of this compound was able to stimulate the secretion of insulin in pancreatic cells under laboratory conditions without toxicity to the cells.[11] As such, this synthetic medicine could be used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes.

References

  1. ^ Angulo, Ariadne; Baldo, Diego (2010). "Pseudis paradoxa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T55904A11385563. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T55904A11385563.en.
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2013). "Pseudis paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758)". Amphibian Species of the World 5.6, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  3. ^ Emerson, S. B. (1988). "The giant tadpole of Pseudis paradoxa". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 34 (2): 93–104. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1988.tb01951.x.
  4. ^ a b c d Garda, A. A.; D.J. Santana; V.d. Avelar São Pedro (2010). "Taxonomic characterization of Paradoxical frogs (Anura, Hylidae, Pseudae): geographic distribution, external morphology, and morphometry". Zootaxa. 2666: 1–28. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2666.1.1.
  5. ^ Bokermann, W.C.A. (1967). "Girinos de anfíbios brasileiros—3: sôbre um girino gigante de Pseudis paradoxa (Amphibia, Pseudidae)". Revista Brasileira de Biologia. 27: 209–212.
  6. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2020). "Search for Taxon: Pseudis". Amphibian Species of the World, an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History, New York. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  7. ^ Solana, L.A.R.; F.V. Salinas; A.A.G. Vargas (2016). "Pseudis paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758): northward extension of the known distribution range in Colombia". Herpetozoa. 28 (3/4): 192–193.
  8. ^ a b Halliday, T. (2016). The Book of Frogs: A Life-Size Guide to Six Hundred Species from around the World. University Of Chicago Press. p. 320. ISBN 978-0226184654.
  9. ^ Franklyn, D. (2015). Pseudis paradoxa (Paradoxical Frog). The Online Guide to the Animals of Trinidad and Tobago. Retrieved 7 January 2020
  10. ^ Abdel-Wahab, Y.H.A.; Power, G.J.; Ng, M.T.; Flatt, P.R.; Conlon, J.M. (2008). "Insulin-releasing properties of the frog skin peptide pseudin-2 and its [Lys18]-substituted analogue". Biological Chemistry. 389 (2): 143–148. doi:10.1515/BC.2008.018. PMID 18163889.
  11. ^ "Health | Frog skin diabetes treatment hope". BBC News. 3 March 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2013.

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Pseudis paradoxa: Brief Summary

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Pseudis paradoxa, known as the paradoxical frog or shrinking frog, is a species of hylid frog from South America. Its name refers to the very large—up to 27 cm (11 in) long—tadpole (the world's longest), which in turn "shrinks" during metamorphosis into an ordinary-sized frog, only about a quarter or third of its former length. Although the recordholder was a tadpole in Amapá that belonged to this species, others in the genus Pseudis also have large tadpoles and ordinary-sized adults.

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