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Brief Summary

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The subkingdom Dikarya was proposed by Hibbett et al. (2007) for the large clade of fungi composed of the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, with the name Dikarya reflecting the shared characteristic of having at least some dikaryotic hyphae (i.e., hyphae in which cells contain a haploid nucleus from each parent rather than a single haploid or diploid nucleus).

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Dikarya

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Dikarya is a subkingdom of Fungi that includes the divisions Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, both of which in general produce dikaryons, may be filamentous or unicellular, but are always without flagella. The Dikarya are most of the so-called "higher fungi", but also include many anamorphic species that would have been classified as molds in historical literature.[1] Phylogenetically the two divisions regularly group together.[3][4] In a 1998 publication, Thomas Cavalier-Smith referred to this group as the Neomycota.[5]

Phylogeny

Unikonta

Amoebozoa

Opisthokonta; Holozoa

Animalia

   

    Holomycota

Nucleariids

      Fungi

Microsporidia

     

Chytridiomycota

   

Neocallimastigomycota

     

Blastocladiomycota

   

Zoopagomycotina

   

Kickxellomycotina

   

Entomophthoromycotina

   

Mucoromycotina

   

Glomeromycota

Dikarya

Ascomycota

   

Basidiomycota

            Phylogeny of the Dikarya and upper-level taxa in Kingdom Fungi.[1]

The 2007 classification of Kingdom Fungi is the result of a large-scale collaborative research effort involving dozens of mycologists and other scientists working on fungal taxonomy.[1] It recognizes seven divisions within the Fungi, two of which—the Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota—are contained within a branch representing subkingdom Dikarya. The cladogram depicts the major fungal taxa and their relationship to opisthokont and unikont organisms. The lengths of the branches in this tree are not proportional to evolutionary distances.

Sexual reproduction

Ascomycota

The phylum Ascomycota or sac fungus is characterized by formation of meiotic spores called ascospores enclosed in a special sac called an ascus. The genetic components for sexual reproduction appear to be produced by all members of this group.[6]

Basidiomycota

The phylum Basidiomycota can be divided into three major lineages: mushrooms, rusts and smuts. Fusion of haploid nuclei (karyogamy) occurs in the basidia, club-shaped end cells. Shortly after formation of the diploid cell, meiosis occurs and the resulting four haploid nuclei migrate into four, usually external cells called basidiospores.

Adaptive function

Sexual reproduction has been proposed to have evolved in both the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota as an adaptation for repair of DNA damage via homologous recombination under stressful conditions.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Hibbett, D.S.; et al. (March 2007). "A higher level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi". Mycological Research. 111 (5): 509–47. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.626.9582. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004. PMID 17572334.
  2. ^ Hibbett, DS; Blackwell, M; James, TY; Spatafora, JW; Taylor, JW; Vilgalys, R (July 2018). "Phylogenetic taxon definitions for Fungi, Dikarya, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota". IMA Fungus. 9 (2): 291–298. doi:10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.02.05. PMC 6317587. PMID 30622884.
  3. ^ Lutzoni, F.; et al. (2004). "Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1446–80. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1446. PMID 21652303.
  4. ^ James, T.Y.; et al. (2006). "Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny" (PDF). Nature. 443 (7113): 818–22. Bibcode:2006Natur.443..818J. doi:10.1038/nature05110. PMID 17051209. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-11.
  5. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T. (1998). "A revised six-kingdom system of life". Biological Reviews. 73 (3): 203–66. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1998.tb00030.x. PMID 9809012.
  6. ^ a b Wallen RM, Perlin MH (2018). "An Overview of the Function and Maintenance of Sexual Reproduction in Dikaryotic Fungi". Front Microbiol. 9: 503. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.00503. PMC 5871698. PMID 29619017.

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Dikarya: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Dikarya is a subkingdom of Fungi that includes the divisions Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, both of which in general produce dikaryons, may be filamentous or unicellular, but are always without flagella. The Dikarya are most of the so-called "higher fungi", but also include many anamorphic species that would have been classified as molds in historical literature. Phylogenetically the two divisions regularly group together. In a 1998 publication, Thomas Cavalier-Smith referred to this group as the Neomycota.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN