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Caribbean Pine

Pinus caribaea Morelet

Description

provided by eFloras
Trees to 40 m tall; trunk to 1 m d.b.h. in native range; bark gray or pale reddish brown, fissured and shed in large, flat, wide plates; crown ovoid or irregularly shaped; branchlets initially green and glaucous, aging orange-brown, producing a few short nodes each year; winter buds cylindric, scales white fringed at margin. Needles (2 or)3 per bundle, usually 4 or 5 per bundle on young trees, dull green or pale yellow-green, 15-30 cm × ca. 1.5 mm, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, resin canals (2 or)3 or 4(-8), internal, base with persistent sheath 1-1.5 cm, margin serrulate. Seed cones almost terminal, ovoid-cylindric, 5-10(-12) × 3-6 cm, often leaving a few basal scales. Seed scales reflexed or spreading; apophyses lustrous, tan or reddish brown, swollen, cross keeled; umbo slightly projecting, ending in a straight, minute prickle. Seeds usually narrowly mottled gray or light brown, rhombic-ovoid, 6-7 mm; wing dull gray, 2-2.5 cm, usually remaining attached.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 20 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Habitat & Distribution

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Cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangsu, Jiangxi [native to Caribbean region, Central America]
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 20 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Caribbean pine

provided by wikipedia EN

The Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) is a hard pine species native to Central America and the northern West Indies (in Cuba, the Bahamas, and the Turks and Caicos Islands). It belongs to subsection Australes in subgenus Pinus. It inhabits tropical and subtropical coniferous forests such as Bahamian pineyards, in both lowland savannas and montane forests.

Taxonomy

As of 2013, the species has three accepted varieties:[2]

Distribution

It has been proposed that the pines of Australes subsection (of which Caribbean pine is part) arrived to the Caribbean basin from Southeastern USA.[3] Regarding the population on the Bahamas, it has been proposed that this species emigrated into the region from Florida four or five thousand years ago, long after the end of the Ice Age, as the climate became wetter. Based on fossil species assemblages it is believed that the environment on the Bahamas was much less forested and a dry savannah during the glacial maxim some 18,000 years ago when the sea level was some 120m lower than it is today.[4][5]

Paleoclimatic[6] and genetic data[7] have been used to propose that Pinus caribaea ultimately originated in Central America. According to chloroplast genetic data, Pinus caribaea lineages colonized the Caribbean islands from populations in Central America at least twice (one leading to Cuban populations and another leading to the populations on the Bahamas).[7]

Ecology

Periodic wildfires play a major role in the distribution of this species; this tree regenerates quickly and aggressively, replacing broadleaf trees after fires. In zones not subject to periodic fires, the succession continues and the pine forest is replaced by tropical broadleaf forest. The young pines require extensive amounts of sunlight to grow, and are resistant to fire once they become adults.[8][9]

Uses

Lumber and pulpwood from this tree shipped to Florida is the main export of the Abaco Islands.[10]

Conservation

According to the IUCN, this species as a whole is considered of least concern,[11][12] but two of the three varieties are considered endangered (var. caribaea)[13] or vulnerable (var. bahamensis).[14]

References

  1. ^ Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus caribaea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42348A2974430. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42348A2974430.en. Downloaded on 10 June 2021.
  2. ^ "The Plant List: Pinus caribaea". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2013.
  3. ^ Adams, D.C., Jackson, J.F. (1997). A phylogenetic analysis of the southern pines (Pinus subsect. Australes Loudon): biogeographical and ecological implications. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 110: 681–692.
  4. ^ Olson, Storrs L.; Pregill, Gregory K. (1982). "Fossil Vertebrates from the Bahamas — Introduction to the Paleontology of Bahaman Vertebrates" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 48: 1–7. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  5. ^ Pregill, Gregory K. (1982). "Fossil Vertebrates from the Bahamas — Fossil Amphibians and Reptiles from New Providence Island, Bahamas" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 48: 19–20. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  6. ^ Dvorak, W. S., Hamrick, J. L. &Gutierrez E. A. (2005). The origin of Caribbean pine in the seasonal swamps of the Yucatán. International Journal of Plant Sciences 166: 985-994.
  7. ^ a b Jardón-Barbolla, L., Delgado-Valerio, P., Geada-López, G., Vázquez-Lobo, A., & Pinero D. (2011). Phylogeography of Pinus subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin. Annals of Botany 107: 229-241.
  8. ^ Vázquez-Yanes, C.; A. I. Batis Muñoz; M. I. Alcocer Silva; M. Gual Díaz & C. Sánchez Dirzo (1999). "Árboles y arbustos potencialmente valiosos para la restauración ecológica y la reforestación" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2002. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  9. ^ "Ecosystems Of The Bahamas". The Commonwealth of The Bahamas. Retrieved 2009-01-15.
  10. ^ Bower, Paul (1997). "Abaco Islands". In Johnston, Bernard (ed.). Collier's Encyclopedia. I A to Ameland (First ed.). New York, NY: P.F. Collier. p. 4.
  11. ^ "Pinus caribaea (Caribbean Pine, Nicaragua Pine, Pitch Pine)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2018-08-23.old-form url
  12. ^ "Pinus caribaea (pino macho) description - The Gymnosperm Database". www.conifers.org. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  13. ^ "Pinus caribaea var. caribaea (Caribbean Pine, Nicaragua Pine, Pitch Pine)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2018-08-23.old-form url
  14. ^ "Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis (Bahamas Pine, Caicos Pine , Caribbean Pine)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2018-08-23.old-form url
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Caribbean pine: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) is a hard pine species native to Central America and the northern West Indies (in Cuba, the Bahamas, and the Turks and Caicos Islands). It belongs to subsection Australes in subgenus Pinus. It inhabits tropical and subtropical coniferous forests such as Bahamian pineyards, in both lowland savannas and montane forests.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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