Description

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Culms tufted, 15-45 cm high, erect or geniculately ascending. Leaf-blades hairy or glabrous, up to 10 cm long, 1-2 mm wide. Spikes 3-6 cm long (excluding the awns), tapering towards the tip, with 1-2 vestigial spikelets at the base; rhachis sometimes breaking up at maturity. Fertile spikelets (3-)4-6, without any reduced spikelets above: glumes of lowest spikelet 7-10 mm long, usually with 3 teeth, 2-3 of which form awns; awns of terminal spikelet 3-6 cm long, distinctly longer than those of the lateral spikelets.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 596 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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Distribution

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Distribution: Pakistan (Baluchistan); southern Europe eastwards to southern USSR (Central Asia).
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 596 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly basal, below middle of stem, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath hairy at summit, throat, or collar, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blade auriculate, Leaf blades very narrow or filiform, less than 2 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence simp le spikes, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Inflorescence spikelets arranged in a terminal bilateral spike, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets distichously arranged, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Inflorescence disarticulating between nodes or joints of rachis, rachis fragmenting, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets falling with parts of disarticulating rachis or pedicel, Spikelets closely appressed or embedded in concave portions of axis, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes awned, awn 1-5 mm or longer, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Glumes 8-15 nerved, Glumes 2-5 toothed, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma coriaceous, firmer or thicker in texture than the glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex dentate, 2-fid, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 3 awns, Lemma awn less than 1 cm long, Lemma awned from tip, Lemma awns straight or curved to base, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea shorter than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Palea keels winged, scabrous, or ciliate, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear, Caryopsis hairy at apex.
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Dr. David Bogler
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USDA PLANTS text

Aegilops triuncialis

provided by wikipedia EN

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Aegilops triuncialis drawing from Manual of the grasses of the United States, Hitchcock, A.S (1950)
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Spikelets of the barbed goatgrass, containing seeds, that become attached to animals, humans, and vehicles, so aiding in the spread of the plant.[1]
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Close-up of flowering spike of Barbed Goatgrass
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Aegilops triuncialis occurring along roadsides at the base of the Carson Range, Nevada

Aegilops triuncialis, or barbed goatgrass, is a winter annual grass species of the family Poaceae.[1] It is native to many areas in Eastern and Mediterranean Europe and Western Asia.[2] It is considered an introduced, invasive species in North America, mainly in the Western coast of the United States.[3] In its native lands, the grass thrives in mainly rocky, serpentine soil, but also does well in grasslands and ruderal/disturbed ground as well as oak woodlands.[4][5]

Description

Barbed goatgrass grows to be about 8 to 16 inches (20 to 41 cm) tall with few to many rigid, loosely erect aerial stems (culms).[3] In late spring the plant produces rigid flower spikes consisting of three to six spikelets bearing long, stiff awns which assist in seed distribution. When the grass matures, the spikelets fall off in their entirety to germinate on the ground,[2] and the long awns which give the plant its name assist in dispersal by animals, wind or water.[4]

As an invasive species

Barbed goatgrass was introduced to North America in the 20th century from Mediterranean Europe and Western Asia.[2] It has been found in California, Oregon, Nevada, and the New England area, but with the greatest impact in California.[4][6] Barbed goatgrass was introduced to the California area with the trade of Mexican cattle in the early 20th century.[6] The plant's unusual ability to invade nutrient-depleted, infertile soils means that it can severely damage habitats which often serve as important refugia for endemic grassland species which most other invading grasses are unable to exploit.[4]

Barbed goatgrass is a fast-growing, rapidly spreading invasive species mainly in grasslands, pastures, and ranches. It is listed as a noxious weed by California Department of Food and Agriculture.[7] Because of its fast, invasive growing patterns, barbed goatgrass creates a monoculture, killing the other plants in its area.[2] The invasive nature of barbed goatgrass is causing a decrease in species diversity, and a decrease in forage.[2] Most grazing animals tend to avoid barbed goatgrass because they do not like the taste of it, allowing the grass to take over the other grasses and grains consumed by the animals.[6] The barbs on the flower spikelets containing the seeds become attached easily to animal fur, human clothing, and vehicles which allows the seeds to become more widely dispersed over the area.[2]

Control methods

The most important component in the control of barbed goatgrass is early detection. When found in small isolated areas, it can be taken care of more effectively.[2] A recently developed method of assessing greenness in aerial color infrared (CIR) imagery using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values to differentiate between these invasive weedy grasses and other more innocuous species may help land managers with early detection.[8] Barbed goatgrass matures in late spring after most other annual grasses have already senesced, and this method utilizes these differences in phenology to easily identify patches that require management.

Controlled burning is one method being used by the University of California in small areas to try to control the amount of barbed goatgrass.[2] To be most effective, multiple burns had to be performed in the isolated area over two years to more fully rid the area of the grass. After the burns, many native species were able to live in the small area once again.[2][7]

Another control method used by the University of California to control barbed goatgrass is the spraying of glyphosate. Used over a two-year period in small areas, glyphosate was able kill barbed goatgrass and all its seedlings.[2][9] Although the chemical is effective in killing barbed goatgrass, it also kills the other plants in the area.[2][9] Aminocyclopyrachlor, a new experimental chemical is being used to control barbed goatgrass by the University of California's Weed Science department. It has been shown to be extremely effective, however, aminocyclopyrachlor is not a registered herbicide and as such, widespread use is not yet allowed.[10]

Mowing of the grass is another control method. It allows the grass to be cut before maturing and developing seeds to reproduce, but it is not as effective as the other methods as the deep and established root system of the barbed goatgrass is still in place and can grow again.[2][9]

Impact on humans

Although there are many ways to control the growth of barbed goatgrass, a real solution has not been found in its widespread prevention. Barbed goatgrass cross breeds with different types of wheat, causing the grain to become infertile and unusable for harvest, which hurts the economy of the rural California areas.[3] It can also seriously harm grazing animals by the barbs becoming embedded in their nose, mouth, and eyes, causing farmers and ranchers extra expenses.[2] It reduces the amount of forage in the area, decreases biodiversity and overall degrades the ecosystem it resides in.[2] Studies of the University of California also show that if climate change increased the amount of precipitation in the area, the amount of barbed goatgrass may increase, destroying even more of its ecosystem.[11] Its rapid growth and resiliency against control methods prove that barbed goatgrass is an invasive species that could cause many more problems to the agriculture of California and possibly many other areas if it is not taken care of soon.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b California Invasive Plant Council. "Aegilops triuncialis (barb goatgrass)". Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Davy, Josh (October 2008). "Barbed Goatgrass" (PDF). ANR Publication. 8315: 1–5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Oregon Department of Agriculture. "barbed goatgrass (aegilops triuncialis L.)". Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d "Aegilops triuncialis (grass)". Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
  5. ^ Rice, Kevin (November 1, 2013). "Evolutionary ecology along invasion fronts of the annual grass Aegilops triuncialis". Biological Invasions. 15 (11): 2531–2545. doi:10.1007/s10530-013-0471-6. S2CID 10393646.
  6. ^ a b c French, Ken (2010). "Plant Pest Risk Assessment for Barbed and Ovate Goatgrass, Aegilops triuncialis, A. geniculata" (PDF). Plant Pest Risk Assessment, ODA: 1–11. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  7. ^ a b Merenlender, Adina. "Successful Burning Strategy to Control Barbed Goatgrass". University of California, Oak Woodland Management. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  8. ^ Malmstrom, C.M., H.S. Butterfield, L. Planck, C.W. Long, and V.T. Eviner. (2017). Novel fine-scale aerial mapping approach quantifies grassland weed cover dynamics and response to management. PLOS ONE 12(10): e0181665.
  9. ^ a b c Aigner, Paul (2011). "Herbicides and Mowing to Control Barb Goatgrass". Invasive Plant Science and Management. 4 (4): 448–457. doi:10.1614/IPSM-D-11-00027.1. S2CID 84215887.
  10. ^ Kyser, Guy. "Selective control of barb goatgrass with aminocyclopyrachlor". UC Weed Science. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  11. ^ Morrison, Elise. "The effects of climate change on the growth of barbed goatgrass" (PDF). University of California. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014.

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Aegilops triuncialis: Brief Summary

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 src= Aegilops triuncialis drawing from Manual of the grasses of the United States, Hitchcock, A.S (1950)  src= Spikelets of the barbed goatgrass, containing seeds, that become attached to animals, humans, and vehicles, so aiding in the spread of the plant.  src= Close-up of flowering spike of Barbed Goatgrass  src= Aegilops triuncialis occurring along roadsides at the base of the Carson Range, Nevada

Aegilops triuncialis, or barbed goatgrass, is a winter annual grass species of the family Poaceae. It is native to many areas in Eastern and Mediterranean Europe and Western Asia. It is considered an introduced, invasive species in North America, mainly in the Western coast of the United States. In its native lands, the grass thrives in mainly rocky, serpentine soil, but also does well in grasslands and ruderal/disturbed ground as well as oak woodlands.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
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Wikipedia authors and editors
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visit source
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wikipedia EN