dcsimg
Image of silkreed
Creatures » » Plants » » True Grasses »

Silkreed

Neyraudia reynaudiana (Kunth) Keng ex Hitchc.

Comments

provided by eFloras
The lower glume lies tight against the lowest sterile lemma and is easily overlooked.

This is an ornamental and soil-retaining grass.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 459, 460 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Description

provided by eFloras
Tall reed. Sheath-mounth densely covered with long hairs; ligule 2 mm long, truncate, shortly ciliate on dorsal side; blade 2 cm wide, apex attenuate. Panicle large, open. Spikelets 2-5-flowered, 5-6 mm long; glumes membranous,lanceolate; the lower 1.5 mm long, apex acute or rounded; the upper 2 mm long, apex acute, 1-nerved; lowest lemma 4 mm long, 3-nerved; second lemma membranousss, 5 mm logn, margins long ciliate, 3-nerved, apex sinus, middle nerve extending into a recurved awn; palea membranous, 3 mm long, 2-keeled, apex slightly cleft, minutely ciliate along keels.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
editor
Chang-Sheng Kuoh
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Description

provided by eFloras
Perennial, robust, caespitose from a short woody scaly rhizome. Culms erect, 1–3 m tall, 3–10 mm in diam., usually fasciculately branched, many-noded, internodes somewhat glaucous, nodes purple. Leaf sheaths glabrous but pilose at mouth; leaf blades flat or involute, 20–70 × 0.4–1 cm, glabrous or adaxial surface pilose, apex long acuminate; ligule 1–2 mm. Panicle ample, loose to dense, glistening, 30–70 cm, branches slender, nodding; pedicels 1–4 mm. Spikelets 6–9 mm, florets 4–10, lowest sterile, resembling glumes but somewhat longer; glumes golden-brown or purplish, glabrous, subequal, 2–3 mm, acute; lemmas purplish, ca. 4 mm, lateral veins ciliate with white, soft, ca. 2 mm hairs, awn recurved, 1–2 mm. Fl. and fr. Aug–Dec.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 459, 460 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Distribution

provided by eFloras
Nepal, E. India, Burma, China, Taiwall, Malaysia.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
author
K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Distribution

provided by eFloras
Eastern India, Burma, Malaya and China.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
editor
Chang-Sheng Kuoh
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Elevation Range

provided by eFloras
400-900 m
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ eFloras.org
author
K.K. Shrestha, J.R. Press and D.A. Sutton
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Habitat & Distribution

provided by eFloras
Streamsides, hill slopes, rocky places, old walls. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, Cambodia, NE India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 459, 460 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Synonym

provided by eFloras
Arundo reynaudiana Kunth, Révis. Gramin. 1: 275. 1830; A. henslowiana Nees; A. zollingeri Buse; Neyraudia arundinacea var. zollingeri (Buse) Henrard; N. madagascariensis (Kunth) J. D. Hooker var. zollingeri (Buse) J. D. Hooker; N. mezii (Janowsky) Veldkamp; Thysanolaena mezii Janowski.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 459, 460 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
silk reed

silk-reed

silkreed

Burma reed

Burmareed

cane grass
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Conservation Status

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Silk reed is listed as a noxious weed in Florida. Information on state-level noxious weed status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: rhizome

This description covers characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology and is not meant for identification. References to aid in the identification of silk reed include the following: [10,20].

Silk reed is a tall, perennial, large-plumed grass [26] that grows in dense clumps from a woody rhizome [20,39]. Stems and flowering stalks may reach a height of 3 to 15 feet (1-5 m) depending on soil and moisture conditions. Each clump produces an average of 40 stalks with 12 to 20 terminal panicles that may be up to 3 feet (1 m) long, each bearing hundreds of flowers [26]. It is not clear how deep silk reed roots penetrate in the soil, though one source reports that roots are "deep" [25].

license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Silk reed is native to southeastern Asia. In the early 1920s silk reed was planted at the USDA Plant Introduction Station in Coconut Grove, Florida, and it subsequently escaped from there [10]. As of this writing (2010) the distribution of silk reed in North America is limited to a few counties in Florida. Plants Database provides a distributional map of silk reed.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Fire Regime Table

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Fuels and Fire Regimes

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire exclusion, fire regime, frequency, fuel, hardwood, litter, prescribed fire, tree, wildfire

Fuels: Silk reed has the potential to alter the amount and type of fuels in plant communities where it occurs. It establishes in dense, tall clumps [26] and produces a heavy mat of leaf litter from shed stems and inflorescences [25]. In South Florida slash pine savannas, silk reed grew 3 to 7 feet (1-2 m) above surrounding vegetation. Total plant biomass in areas dominated by silk reed was more than 4 times the biomass of areas lacking silk reed (P=0.01). Litter depth was almost double in areas with silk reed compared to areas without it (P=0.01) [24].

Silk reed also alters the type of fuels available. Silk reed litter facilitates fire spread and movement at the ground's surface. Inflorescences may act as a ladder fuel, allowing fire to spread into tree canopies; one manager reports silk reed ignition during wildfire creating flames >30 feet (9 m) high, threatening nearby tree canopies. Wind may transport flaming silk reed inflorescences, increasing the potential for fire spread [26].

The alteration in quantity and type of fuels in areas with silk reed has led to concern that silk reed establishment leads to uncharacteristically severe fires in pine rocklands [22,26].

FIRE REGIMES: Though it is not known what fire regime silk reed evolved in, it appears to be favored by frequent fire [22,25,26].

Fire exclusion and silk reed establishment have both altered the typical fire regime of pine rocklands. Fire is integral to maintaining pine rocklands; historically, low-severity fires occurred every 3 to 10 years [7], consuming litter and understory vegetation. Fire exclusion has led to the lengthening of fire-return intervals, facilitating hardwood species establishment and litter accumulation. In some areas, pine rocklands are replaced by a tropical hammock plant community within 2 to 3 decades of fire exclusion [37]. In pine rocklands where silk reed establishes, the alteration of fuel characteristics by silk reed has promoted an increase in the frequency and intensity of fires, leading to abnormally high South Florida slash pine mortality [22]. Managers observed 75% mortality of mid-canopy South Florida slash pine following a mixed-severity prescribed fire in a park with dense stands of silk reed [25]. There is also concern that silk reed establishment may alter fire-return intervals and plant community composition in Florida scrub plant communities, ecosystems with longer fire-return intervals than pine rocklands [22]. See the Fire Regime Table for more information on fire regimes of vegetation communities in which silk reed may occur. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find FIRE REGIMES".

license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

More info for the term: geophyte

Raunkiaer [27] life form:
Geophyte
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fruit, rhizome, series

A weed identification guide suggests silk reed tolerates a wide range of soil, light, and water regimes [20]. Several sources report that it prefers open, sunny, dry sites with some disturbance [10,19,20]. In its native range, silk reed is found in bogs and disturbed sites, often growing on infertile soils [36]. In Florida, silk reed establishes in disturbed areas [10,20,25,40] including the edges of roadways, fields, and forests [26], vacant lots [19], and limestone spoil piles [25].

Soils: As of this writing (2010) it is not clear what soil characteristics silk reed prefers. One manager described silk reed as a colonizer of sandy soils [22]. Soils of the pine rocklands where silk reed is invasive are usually moderately well drained, with limestone bedrock at or very near the surface. Soils generally consist of small accumulations of sand, marl, and organic material in depressions and crevices in the rock surface [7].

Silk reed is tolerant of extreme soil conditions. In Hong Kong, it was a dominant of the few plants established on the peripheries of treatment lagoons 2 years after the deposition of a coal ash-seawater slurry. Substrate conditions were alkaline (pH 8.4), saline (2.18 dS/m), contained high levels of heavy metals, and surface temperatures reached 113 °F (45 °C) in summer [6]. One source suggests that silk reed may occur in areas with brackish water in Florida [10].

Elevation: In its native range, silk reed grows from 0 to 6,500 feet (0-1,900 m) [26].

Climate: Silk reed generally occurs in a warm, subtropical climate in its native range, similar to the climate where it occurs in North America. Its ability to survive at high elevations (6,500 feet (1,900 m)) in its native range suggests that it may possess some level of cold tolerance, potentially facilitating its spread farther north in North America [26]. Guala [10] observed that a transplanted silk reed rhizome fragment sprouted, grew rapidly, and set fruit after exposure to a series of light spring frosts followed by a hard frost. After a severe freeze the following December, the aboveground vegetation died but the plant sprouted "vigorously" within 2 months [10].

license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: cover

As of this writing (2010) no information is available regarding the importance of silk reed to wildlife and livestock in North America.

Palatability and/or nutritional value: Silk reed is reported as poisonous to buffalo in Bhutan [26].

Cover value: No information is available on this topic.

license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Phenology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

In Florida, silk reed may flower throughout the year [20,25].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Regeneration Processes

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Seed banking

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: seed

In Florida, one manager observed supposedly extirpated populations of silk reed sprout after 2 years, though it was unclear whether emerging plants sprouted from rhizomes or from the soil seed bank (Gann-Matzen personal observation cited in [10]).
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Seed dispersal

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Silk reed seeds are dispersed by wind [20,26]. Seeds and rhizomes may also be spread when limestone rock is removed from quarries with established silk reed populations [26].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Seed production

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
A single silk reed plant may produce hundreds of thousands of seeds in a growing season [26]. However, one source reports that many of the seeds are not viable because most plants are sterile (Noltie 1999 cited in [25]).
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Seedling establishment and plant growth

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: seed

Descriptions of silk reed establishing from seed were lacking in the available literature as of this writing (2010). One source reports that silk reed is most likely to establish in disturbed areas and establishes best in dry, disturbed areas [10]. Once established, silk reed is able to spread to marginally disturbed and undisturbed habitats [10,16,26].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The scientific name of silk reed (Kart) is Neyraudia reynaudiana (Kunth)
Keng ex A.S. Hitchc. (Poaceae) [14,40].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Vegetative regeneration

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: rhizome

A weed identification guide [20] and a flora [39] report that silk reed has a short, woody rhizome, while one source describes rhizomes as "extensive and robust" [10]. New clumps of silk reed may emerge from rhizomes embedded in sand, soil, or rubble [26]. Silk reed may sprout from rhizomes following frost [10], fire [25,26], and mechanical or chemical treatments [10].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Neyraudia reynaudiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/neyrey/all.html

Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Rhizomes present, Rhizome short and compact, stems close, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stems branching above base or distally at nodes, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 2-6 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, gl abrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades disarticulating from sheath, deciduous at ligule, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blade auriculate, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades 2 or more cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Ligule present, Ligule a fringe of hairs, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelets with 8-40 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Rachilla or pedicel hairy, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes keeled or winged, Glumes 1 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 3 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex dentate, 2-fid, Lemma mucronate, very shortly beaked or awned, less than 1-2 mm, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn less than 1 cm long, Lemma awn from sinus of bifid apex, Lemma awns straight or curved to base, Lemma straight, Callus or base of lemma evidently hairy, Callus hairs shorter than lemma, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea shorter than lemma, Palea about equal to lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Palea keels winged, scabrous, or ciliate, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
compiler
Dr. David Bogler
source
Missouri Botanical Garden
source
USDA NRCS NPDC
original
visit source
partner site
USDA PLANTS text

Neyraudia reynaudiana

provided by wikipedia EN

Neyraudia reynaudiana, commonly known as Burma reed, silk reed, cane grass, or false reed, is a tall, perennial, large-plumed grass native to subtropical Asia, but invasive in southern Florida in the United States.

Description

The stems of Burma reed, with flower stalks, are from 3 to 15 feet (0.91 to 4.57 m) tall, depending on soil and moisture conditions. The leaves are 8 to 10 inches (20 to 25 cm) long and hairless, except for a single line of horizontal hairs at the juncture of the upper and lower portions of the leaf. Stems are approximately 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) wide, round, solid, and have nodes (stem-leaf junctures) every 3 to 5 inches (7.6 to 12.7 cm) along the stem. The flower plumes, which can be up to 3 feet (0.91 m) long, are composed of many hundreds of tiny flowers and have a shimmery, silky appearance. Flowering occurs in April and October in south Florida, each clump producing an average of forty stalks and twelve to twenty flowering plumes. Burma reed resembles several other tall grasses, including common reed (Phragmites communis), giant reed (Arundo donax), pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum).

Biology and spread

Burma reed reproduces by seed and through underground stems called rhizomes. Burma reed plants flower twice each year, producing hundreds of thousands of tiny seeds that are dispersed by the wind. New clumps of Burma reed emerge from rhizomes that may be embedded in sand, soil, or rubble.

Native range

Burma reed is widely distributed in warm, subtropical habitats in Southeast Asia and Indomalaya, including portions of Japan, southern China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaya, Myanmar (Burma), Bhutan, Nepal, and eastern India. It occurs in bogs, in open savannahs, on upland cliffs, and along forest and road edges, and from sea level to altitudes of 6,500 feet (2,000 m).

Range in the United States

Neyraudia reynaudiana was first introduced into the United States 11 January 1915 (Plant Introduction # 39690 as N. madagascariensis, presented by Mr. C.C. Calder, Royal Botanic Garden) by the U.S. Department of Agriculture South of Miami. There were also later introductions, including one on 17 April 1916 (Plant Introduction # 42529 as N. madagascariensis, presented by Maj. A.T. Gage, Superintendent, Royal Botanic Garden). According to a cryptic annotation on the label, the latter introduction is apparently also the source of sheet 899975 at the US National Herbarium (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Herbarium code:US) dated Nov. 1916 from Chico, California. Both introductions were originally from Sidpur near Calcutta, India. A letter attached to (US) sheet 1385256, a collection of the species by Paul Weatherwax on 18 April 1927 from along Bay Shore Drive SE of Miami, explains that he had seen it a Chapman Field in 1925. He also states that Mr. Bissett showed him several plants of this at the bamboo farm near Savannah (another USDA facility in Georgia). Sheet 1259803 (US) is his collection from Chapman Field, 2 Nov. 1925, inscribed "Not in cultivation". Another sheet at US has a letter from noted horticulturalist Liberty Hyde Bailey to noted agrostologist Albert Spears Hitchcock on 23 January 1926 attached. In the letter he explains that he took the plant into cultivation at Chapman Field and speculates that it had been released in Coconut Grove where he found it near residences, through dumping of garden waste. Another collection at US, sheet 899980 is a collection by N.M. Bolander from San Francisco, California in 1861 with the inscription: "Collected in front of a Chinese workhouse".

Although the species has been documented in past cultivation in both Highlands and Alachua Counties in FL, and as stated above, in Georgia and California, those plants have apparently not persisted and it is now found throughout southern Florida in Miami-Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, Lee, Collier, Monroe and Hendry counties.

It initially colonizes the margins of roadways, fields, and forests, from which it can spread to undisturbed areas. The ability of Burma reed to survive at high altitudes in its native range indicates a tolerance to cold and the potential for it to spread further north in the U.S. Seeds and rhizomes are also transported inadvertently in limestone rock from infested quarries that is carried by train from Miami-Dade County to concrete manufacturers throughout the southeastern United States. This unintentional movement of Burma reed material may allow it to invade new sites in Florida and adjacent states near limestone distribution centers.

Reports of the related species, Neyraudia arundinacea, in both California and Florida are traceable to mis-identified specimens of Neyraudia reynaudiana. There are no credible records of N. arundinacea in the US.

Ecological threat

Burma reed damages native Florida ecosystems by crowding and shading out understory plant species and by creating conditions for extremely hot and destructive wildfires. In southern Florida, in Miami-Dade County, including Everglades National Park, it is a serious threat to the globally imperiled pine rocklands community whose pine canopy was largely destroyed in 1992 by Hurricane Andrew. Burma reed is a highly combustible fuel source because of its high overall plant mass, its large feathery flower plumes, and its production of dense, hay-like leaf litter. This litter enhances fire movement along the ground, while the flower plumes carry the flames high into the air. With the aid of winds, these plumes often detach and fly through the air like torches, providing the potential for additional spread. Photographs of its ignition during a wildfire show flames leaping over 30 feet (9.1 m) high, threatening nearby tree canopies.

Management options

Restoration of sites infested with Burma reed requires a long term commitment to ensure effective control and to allow native vegetation to become established. Burma reed's deep roots make mechanical removal an extremely labor-intensive and costly undertaking and causes extensive disturbance to the soil. A more effective management approach involves a combination of cutting or prescribed burning, followed by application of herbicides. After cutting, mowing or burning Burma reed plants down to the ground, a systemic herbicide like glyphosate, mixed with an acidic surfactant, can be applied to prevent new growth. Repeat treatment is likely to be necessary for a couple of years, until seed and rhizome stores are exhausted.

A successful burn of Burma reed reduces the plant's massive stalks to ash, eliminating the cost of vegetation removal. Conveniently, because Burma reed is the first plant to resprout following a fire, it can be sprayed freely with little concern about non-target kills. Burning by itself, whether through prescribed or natural wildfires, may enhance the growth and spread of Burma reed if not followed up with chemical or mechanical control.

In areas where Burma reed is dispersed among desirable native vegetation, individual plants can be cut at the base using a steel blade or string trimmer and the remaining portions sprayed with herbicide to prevent new growth. Resprouts should be treated with a second herbicide application to the new growth. This method requires highly qualified applicators who can target the herbicide to avoid damage to native plants, and may not be cost effective for extensive infestations.

Further reading

The material in this article was adapted from the public domain information from the Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group and several other sources including direct observation of specimens at the Smithsonian US National Museum of Natural History.

  • Bor, N.L. 1960. The Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan. Pergamon Press, New York, 767 pp.
  • Gordon, D.R. and K.P. Thomas. 1997. Florida’s invasion by non-indigenous plants: history, screening, and regulation. In Simberloff, D., D.C. Schmitz, and T.C. Brown (eds.), Strangers in Paradise: Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida. Island Press, Washington, DC. 467 pp.
  • Guala, G.F. 1990. Element Stewardship Abstract for Neyraudia reynaudiana. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 5 pp.
  • Guala, G.F. 2003. Neyraudia (in) Flora of North America North of Mexico Vol. 25. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Hammer, R.L. 1998. Wildland Weeds. Summer 1998. Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 9.
  • Langeland, K.A. and K. Craddock Burks, Eds. 1998. Invasive Non-native Plants of Florida’s Natural Areas. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council.
  • Lazarides, M. 1980. The Tropical Grasses of Southeast Asia. J. Cramer, Vaduz. 225 pp.
  • Maguire J. 1993. Status of Burma reed in Dade County pine rocklands. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council Newsletter
  • Noltie, H.J. 1998. Flora of Bhutan. Volume 3. Publisher Royal Botanic Garden Publications,. Edinburgh (scheduled for publication in 1999)
  • Schmitz, D.C., D. Simberloff, R.H. Hofstetter, W. Haller, and D. Sutton. 1997. The ecological impacts of nonindigenous plants. In Simberloff, D., D.C. Schmitz, and T.C. Brown (eds.), Strangers in Paradise: Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida. Island Press, Washington, DC. 467 pp.
  • The Nature Conservancy. Neyraudia reynaudiana: Element Stewardship Abstract. In: Wildland Weeds Management & Research Program, Weeds on the Web.
"
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Neyraudia reynaudiana: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Neyraudia reynaudiana, commonly known as Burma reed, silk reed, cane grass, or false reed, is a tall, perennial, large-plumed grass native to subtropical Asia, but invasive in southern Florida in the United States.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN