Comments

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The name Bromus wolgensis has been applied to a variant with pubescent spikelets.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of China Vol. 22: 374, 382 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Description

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Annual. Culms erect or geniculately ascending, 20–60 cm tall, 3–4(–5)-noded. Leaf sheaths pubescent; leaf blades flat, up to 15 cm × 2–5 mm, pubescent; ligule ca. 1 mm. Panicle lax, (5–)20 × 4–6 cm, usually 1-sided; branches few, shorter than or equaling spikelets, each bearing 1 or 2 pendent spikelets. Spikelets ovate, upper part gradually narrowed, (15–)20–50 × 5–15 mm, florets (6–)10–25; rachilla ca. 2 mm, smooth or scabrid; glumes oblong to elliptic, margins membranous, glabrous, lower glume 5–7 mm, 5-veined, apex acuminate, upper glume 6–8 mm, 9-veined, apex obtuse; lemmas obovate, 8–11 × (2–)3–6 mm in side view, 9-veined, glabrous or pubescent, margins white-membranous and angled near halfway point, apex entire or shallowly 2-toothed, awned from sinus ca. 2 mm below apex; awn 7–12 mm, longer on upper lemmas than lower lemmas, base flattened, slightly twisted, divaricate at maturity; palea 1/3 length of lemma, keels stiffly ciliate. Anthers 1–1.5 mm. Fl. and fr. May–Jul. 2n = 14.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 374, 382 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Gansu, Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia; N Africa, SW Asia, Europe; introduced in America].
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 374, 382 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Habitat

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Field margins, grasslands, waste ground; 500–3000 m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 374, 382 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Synonym

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Bromus wolgensis Fischer ex J. Jacquin; Forasaccus squarrosus (Linnaeus) Bubani; Serrafalcus squarrosus (Linnaeus) Babington.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 374, 382 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly closed, Leaf sheath hairy, hispid or prickly, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades very narrow or filiform, less than 2 mm wide, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence lax, widely spreading, branches drooping, pendulous, Inflorescence with 2-10 branches, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets lat erally compressed, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelets with 8-40 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Glumes 8-15 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn less than 1 cm long, Lemma awn 1-2 cm long, Lemma awned from tip, Lemma awn subapical or dorsal, Lemma awns straight or curved to base, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea shorter tha n lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Palea keels winged, scabrous, or ciliate, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear, Caryopsis hairy at apex.
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Dr. David Bogler
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Missouri Botanical Garden
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USDA NRCS NPDC
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USDA PLANTS text

Bromus squarrosus

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Bromus squarrosus, the rough brome, is a brome grass native to Russia and Europe. The specific epithet squarrosus is Latin, meaning "with spreading tips". The grass has a diploid number of 14.

Description

Bromus squarrosus is an annual grass, with culms growing 20–60 cm (7.9–23.6 in) high. The culms are hollow and bear four to five leaves with sheaths shorter than the blades. The leaf sheaths are pubescent and the leaf blades are typically pubescent but occasionally glabrous. The leaf blades are 5–15 cm (2.0–5.9 in) long and 4–6 mm (0.16–0.24 in) wide. The prominent ragged ligules are shaggy and 1–1.5 mm (0.039–0.059 in) long. The unilateral and lax panicles have few spreading or ascending branches that are erect in youth tend to nod at maturity. The racemose panicles are 7–20 cm (2.8–7.9 in) long and 4–8 cm (1.6–3.1 in) wide, and the branches are typically longer than the spikelets. The spikelets are typically solitary, lanceolate in youth and becoming more ovate at maturity, and are 2–4 cm (0.79–1.57 in) long and 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) broad. The densely flowered spikelets bear ten to twenty flowers each, with the base of the florets hidden at maturity. The glumes can be smooth or scabrous. The lower glumes are three to five-veined and 4.5–7 mm (0.18–0.28 in) long, and the upper glumes are seven-veined and 6–8 mm (0.24–0.31 in) long. The unequal and ovate lemmas have nine faint nerves and broad translucent margins measuring as broad as 1 mm (0.039 in), and the lemmas do not roll inwards at maturity as other Bromus species typically would. The lemmas themselves are 8–11 mm (0.31–0.43 in) long and 2–2.4 mm (0.079–0.094 in) wide. The twisted and strongly divergent awns are 6–10 mm (0.24–0.39 in) long. The small anthers are approximately 1 mm (0.039 in) long and have notches at their ends. The caryopses are just as long as the paleas, and are flat or slightly rolled inwards.[1][2]

The long nine-ribbed palea and the oblong spikelets morphologically distinguish the species from most other Bromus species.[3]

The grass flowers in June and July.

Habitat and distribution

Bromus squarrosus grows in overgrazed pastures, fields, and road verges. It prefers loamy or alluvial soils. It is native to central Russia and southern Europe, but is naturalized throughout southern Canada and the northern United States.[2][4]

References

  1. ^ Merrit Lyndon Fernald (1970). R. C. Rollins (ed.). Gray's Manual of Botany (Eighth (Centennial) - Illustrated ed.). D. Van Nostrand Company. p. 103. ISBN 0-442-22250-5.
  2. ^ a b Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1993). Flora of North America: North of Mexico. 24. Oxford University Press. p. 237. ISBN 9780195310719.
  3. ^ Richard Parnell (1845). The Grasses of Britain. William Blackwood and Sons. p. 280-281.
  4. ^ Umberto Quattrocchi (2006). CRC World Dictionary of Grasses: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. CRC Press. p. 391. ISBN 9781420003222.
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Bromus squarrosus: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Bromus squarrosus, the rough brome, is a brome grass native to Russia and Europe. The specific epithet squarrosus is Latin, meaning "with spreading tips". The grass has a diploid number of 14.

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