Life Expectancy

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Annual.

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Bibliotheca Alexandrina
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Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Description

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Annual; culms 5-50 cm high, tufted or solitary, erect or geniculately ascending. Leaf-blades up to 20 cm long, 2-8 mm wide, glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Spike oblong, strongly compressed, 2-7 (-12) cm long, green or tinged with purple; rhachis sparsely ciliate on the margins, fragile. Central spikelet sessile or with a pedicel up to 1.8 mm long; glumes lanceolate, long-awned, up to 26 mm long including the awn, fringed with hairs below; lemma lanceolate, 7-12 mm long, scabrid towards the tip; awn 18-50 torn long, anthers 0.2-1.4 mm long. Lateral spikelets well-developed, male or barren, pedicellate, glumes slightly dissimilar, the inner lanceolate, ciliate below, the outer setaceous, both long-awned, 16-30 mm long including the awn; lemma 7-11 mm long, with an awn 10-40 mm long; rhachilla extension slender or stout.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 635 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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Physical Description

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Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Lea f sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath hairy, hispid or prickly, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blade auriculate, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Leaf blades glaucous, blue-green, or grey, or with white glands, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Inflorescence spikelets arranged in a terminal bilateral spike, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Inflorescence or spikelets partially hidden in leaf sheaths, subtended by spatheole, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets 3 per node, Spikelets distichously arranged, Spikelets bisexual, Inflorescence disarticulating between nodes or joints of rachis, rachis fragmenting, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets falling with parts of disarticulating rachis or pedicel, Spikelets closely appressed or embedded in concave portions of axis, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes awn-like, elongated or subulate, Glumes awned, awn 1-5 mm or longer, Glume surface hairy, villous or pilose, Glumes 1 nerved, Glumes 3 nerved, Glume margins or apex erose-ciliate, Lemma coriaceous, firmer or thicker in texture than the glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma mucronate, very shortly beaked or awned, less than 1-2 mm, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn 1-2 cm long, Lemma awn 2-4 cm long or longer, Lemma awned from tip, Lemma awn from sinus of bifid apex, Lemma awns straight or curved to base, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemm a straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea about equal to lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear, Caryopsis hairy at apex.
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USDA PLANTS text

Hordeum murinum

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Hordeum murinum, commonly known as wall barley or false barley, is a species of grass.

Overview

Hordeum murinum is quite widespread and common. It flowers during May through July in mainly coastal areas. In the British Isles it is absent throughout most of Ireland and Scotland but is common in England and Wales.

It can grow to 30 cm in height, and its unbranched spikes can reach 10 cm long. It produces small, dry nutlets and its leaves can be 8 mm wide with short, blunt ligules.

It is an annual winter species whose seeds germinate and develop in the spring.[1] It is also referred to as wall barley and are tetraploids.[2] It is distinct from other species of the genus because of its morphology and molecular genetics.[3] It is also distinct because of the barriers it has with the Hordeum taxa when it comes to its ability to cross with other species.[3]

Among its subspecies is included H. m. ssp. leporinum, known as hare barley.

Growth requirements

Hordeum murinum complex is the most widespread of all the other Hordeum species.[3] The center of distribution of H. murinum is in the Mediterranean area, Central Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa.[3] A greater quantity of dry material is produced with medium precipitation and better distribution.[1] Precipitation is the most important factor in the production of seeds for this species. In the years that are more dry with early or late rainfalls, there is no chance of re-seeding for this species.[2] The species uses a greater part of its reproductive resources for seed production, allowing it to adapt to different water conditions.[1] Controlling the seeding rate favors high-quality strand of barley. The sowing rate for wall barley increases when seed production and forage increases.[4] This helps to obtain ideal and sustainable forage and seed yield in rangelands of Jordan. The height of the plant and protein content does not respond to seeding rates, but the height of the plant and protein content does vary with years.[4] Anatomical characteristics of leaf blades differ between the taxa.[5] This weedy species along with hare barley and smooth barley can be hard to control.[2]

Subspecies

One subspecies is Hordeum murinum ssp. leporinum, known as hare barley,[6] mouse barley,[7] and barley grass.[8] In Chinese it's known as màiqīng (麦青) and is a common ingredient in the spring snack qīngtuán (青糰). This subspecies grows in tufts from 10 to 40 cm (4 to 16 in) in height,[8][9] and its flowers are attached to branches rather than to the main axis.[5] It is native to the Mediterranean region near continental, oceanic, and colder climates,[3] as well as northern Africa and temperate Asia, and it is widely naturalised elsewhere.[7] It was first published as the full species H. leporinum by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link in 1834. In 1882 it was redescribed as a subspecies of H. murinum by Giovanni Arcangeli, though today some authorities maintain it at the species level.[8][9]

Another subspecies is H. m. ssp. glaucum.[3] It appears in warmer climates of the Mediterranean region.

The above subspecies differ primarily because of their chromosome numbers, spikelet morphology, and geographical distribution.[3] H. leporinum is more dominant in areas where the rainfall is greater than 425 mm (17 in).[2] H. glaucum is more dominant in semiarid regions where rainfall is less than 425 mm (17 in).[2]

Within Hordeum, there are 2 subgenera and 4 sections with 4 different genotypes.[5] The clade that is the sister taxon to H. murinum is H. bulbosum and H. vulgare.[5]

Uses

Although H. murinum is considered a difficult weed in cereal crop fields,[2] it is useful for feeding grazing animals.[2] It is also the main source of forage for cattle production in areas with water deficits.[1]

Cultural significance

In England in the late 20th century among children the plant was referred to colloquially as the 'Flea Dart', from the aerodynamic shape of its seedhead, and the aphids that are often present within it in its immature state.[10]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Johnston, Myra (2009). "Effect of quality and distribution of rainfall of rainfalls on Hordeum murinum L. growth and development". Chilean Journal of Agriculture Research. doi:10.4067/S0718-58392009000200008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Fleet, Benjamin; Gill, Gurjeet (2012-07-01). "Seed Dormancy and Seedling Recruitment in Smooth Barley (Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum) Populations in Southern Australia". Weed Science. 60 (3): 394–400. doi:10.1614/WS-D-11-00203.1. ISSN 0043-1745. S2CID 86638266.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Mizianty, M. (2006-07-20). "Variability and structure of natural populations of Hordeum murinum L. based on morphology". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 261 (1–4): 139–150. doi:10.1007/s00606-006-0437-6. ISSN 0378-2697. S2CID 11413.
  4. ^ a b El-Shatnawi, M. K. J.; Turk, M.; Saoub, H. M. (2003-03-01). "Effects of sowing rate on growth and protein contents of wall barley (Hordeum murinum L.) grown under Mediterranean conditions". African Journal of Range & Forage Science. 20 (1): 53–57. doi:10.2989/10220110309485798. ISSN 1022-0119. S2CID 86767635.
  5. ^ a b c d Mavi, O. (2010). "Comparative leaf anatomy of the genus Hordeum L. (Poaceae)" (PDF). Tubitak. doi:10.3906/bot-1003-14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-13.
  6. ^ "Sorting Hordeum names". Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. Retrieved 2009-01-06.
  7. ^ a b "Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum (Link) Arcang". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
  8. ^ a b c "Hordeum leporinum Link". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife.
  9. ^ a b Link. "New South Wales Flora Online: Hordeum leporinum". Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust, Sydney, Australia.
  10. ^ 'Wall Barely' entry in the 'Plant-Lore' website (2019). https://www.plant-lore.com/wall-barley/
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Hordeum murinum: Brief Summary

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Hordeum murinum, commonly known as wall barley or false barley, is a species of grass.

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