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Caucasian Bluestem

Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S. T. Blake

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This is a good fodder grass.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
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Comments

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Bothriochloa bladhii hybridizes easily and frequently with some other species of Bothriochloa, and also with Capillipedium parviflorum and Dichanthium annulatum, blurring the boundaries between these genera and leading to a host of intermediates. New, apomictic races have arisen from among these products of introgression, causing much taxonomic difficulty. The name B. glabra has been applied to hybrids between B. bladhii and C. parviflorum.

Bothriochloa bladhii is most practicably treated in a broad sense to include all forms with an elongate inflorescence axis. Additionally, the habit is usually not stoloniferous, and the racemes are less obviously hairy than in B. ischaemum and B. pertusa.

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 607, 608 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Comments

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Much of the taxonomic difficulty in this genus arises from the promiscuous habits of Bothriochloa bladhii whose rapacious introgression has vastly increased its own variability, blurred the boundaries with adjacent species to the point of extinction, and led to the emergence of new races from among the introgression products (DeWet & Harlan in Am. J. Bot. 53: 94-98. 1966; and Faruqi in Phyton (Austria) 13:285-303. 1969). The species is here treated in a wide sense to include all specimens with an elongated inflorescence. The only exception is the hybrid with Dichanthium annulatum which is sufficiently distinct from Bothriochloa to warrant a hybrid formula.

In some accounts (e.g. Bor, Grasses Burma Ceyl. Ind. Pak. and in Fl. Iran; Rozhev & Shishkin in Fl. URSS) Bothriochloa caucasica is recognised at species level. Its ancestry is complicated, but according to DeWet & Harlan (in Taxon 19:339. 1970) it probably arose from tetraploid races of Bothriochloa intermedia and Capillipedium parviflorum hybridising and then backcrossing to Capillipedium parviflorum, Although it does form a small, reasonably compact subpopulation of Bothriochloa bladhii, with the lower lemma of the sessile spikelet only about half as long as the lower glume, the distinction is not sufficient for it to warrant species rank. It is a better species from the cytogeneticist’s point of view than it is from the morphologist’s. It is not in fact a caucasian endemic, but occurs at least as far east as Chitral and doubtless could arise spontaneously wherever its parents grow together.

The various hybrids of Bothriochloa intermedia, according to DeWet & Harlan (1970), are as follows:

Bothriochloa intermedia x Bothriochloa ischaemum = Bothriochloa taiwanensis (included in Bothriochloa bladhii)

Bothriochloa intermedia x Dichanthium annulatum = " Dichanthium grahamii” (here kept apart from Bothriochloa)

Bothriochloa intermedia x Capillipedium parviflorum = Bothriochloa glabra (included in Bothriochloa bladhii)

(Bothriochloa intermedia x Capillipedium praviflorum ) x Capillipedium parviflorum = Bothriochloa caucasica (included in Bothriochloa hladhii)

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 284 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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Description

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Culm stout, about 45 cm long and 3 mm across. Blade about 7 mm wide; ligule about 1 mm long, ciliate on upper part and backside. Inflorescence a narrow panicle, about 10 cm long. Spikelets paired, dimorphic; the upper pedicellate, pedicel with a translucent longitudinal groove; the lower sessile and fertile, about 3.4 mm long, excluding the long awn. Lower glume subcoriaceous, lanceolate, acute, 3-nerved, about 3.2 mm long, margins inrolled; upper glume subcoriaceous, lanceolate, as long as the lower, 5-7-nerved, upper margins 2-keeled, hispid; upper lemma aristate, the awn 5 times the length of the lemma, flexuous, linear, 1-nerved, about 1.5 mm long; upper palea chartaceous, lanceolate, about 2.5 mm long, 2-nerved; anther about 1.2 mm long.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
editor
Chang-Sheng Kuoh
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Perennial, tufted. Culms erect or decumbent at base, fairly robust, up to 130 cm tall, many-noded, nodes glabrous or appressed bearded. Leaf sheaths glabrous; leaf blades linear, 10–40 × 0.2–1 cm, hairy with tubercle-based hairs on both surfaces or abaxial surface glabrous, apex finely acuminate; ligule 0.5–1.5 mm. Inflorescence 9–20 cm, composed of many racemes borne in loose whorls along an elongate central axis, axis usually longer than lowest raceme, sometimes paniculate with branchedpeduncles; racemes 2–5 cm, often purplish, not obviously hairy; rachis internodes and pedicels thinly ciliate, shortly bearded at apex. Sessile spikelet 3–4 mm; lower glume narrowly oblong-lanceolate, herbaceous or cartilaginous and glossy, 5–7-veined, back slightly concave, glabrous or pubescent below middle, sometimes with a pit, margins keeled and scabrid near apex; awn of upper lemma 1–2.5 cm. Pedicelled spikelet barren or rarely staminate, narrower than sessile spikelet, sometimes pitted. Fl. and fr. Jul–Oct. 2n = 40, 60, 80.
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copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 607, 608 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Tufted perennial; culms 50-150 cm high, erect from a shortly rhizomatous base, often robust. Leaf-blades 10-55 cm long, 2-12 mm wide. Inflorescence with a central axis 4-20 cm long, the racemes numerous and borne loosely or densely in irregular whorls upon simple or branched peduncles; racemes 2-5 cm long (the lowest shorter than the central axis), pubescent. Sessile spikelet narrowly elliptic, 3-4 mm long; lower glume chartaceous, ± hairy below the middle, usually not glossy, with or without a pit; awn 10-25 mm long. Pedicelled spikelet glabrous, with 0-3 pits.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 284 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Distributed in tropical Asia and Pacific Islands to Australia and and tropical Africa.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
editor
Chang-Sheng Kuoh
project
eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, SW Asia, Australia; introduced in America].
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 607, 608 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Distribution

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Distribution: Pakistan (Punjab, N. W. F. P, Gilgit & Kashmir); Old World tropics.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 284 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
project
eFloras.org
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Habitat

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Exposed slopes, waste ground; 400–1600 m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 22: 607, 608 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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Synonym

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Bothriochloa intermedia (R. Br.) A. Camus in Ann. Soc. L. Lyon n. s. 76: 164. 1931; Hsu, Fl. Taiwan 5: 623. 1978; Koyama, Grass. Jap. Neighb. Reg. 441. 1987.
Andropogon intermedius R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 202. 1810;Honda 1. c. 341. 1930.
Andropogon intermedius var. punctatus sensu Honda, l. c. 342. 1930.
Bothriochloa haenkei (Presl) Ohwi, 1. c. 11: 168. 1942.
Bothriochloa glabra (Roxb.) A. Camus var. perfectior (Hook. & Arn.) Ohwi, I. c. ll: 167. 1942.
Bothriochloa intermedia var. punctata (Roxb.) Keng, Clav. Gram. Prim. Sin, 244. 1957.
Bothriochloa blahdii var. punctata (Roxb.) Steward, Kew Bull. 29(2): 444. 1974.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
editor
Chang-Sheng Kuoh
project
eFloras.org
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Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Rhizome short and compact, stems close, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stems branching above base or distally at nodes, Stem nodes bearded or hairy, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence with 2 or more spikes, fascicles, glomerules, heads, or clusters per culm, Inflorescence a panicle with narrowly racemose or spicate branches, Inflorescence a panicle with digitately arranged spicate branches, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Inflorescence branches paired or digitate at a single node, Inflorescence branches paired racemes, V-shaped, Peduncle or rachis scabrous or pubescent, often with long hairs, Rachis dilated, flat, central axis to which spikelets are attached, Rachis grooved, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Sp ikelets paired at rachis nodes, Spikelets in paired units, 1 sessile, 1 pedicellate, Pedicellate spikelet well developed, staminate, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Spikelets falling with parts of disarticulating rachis or pedicel, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes 3 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 1 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn 1-2 cm long, Lemma awned from tip, Lemma awn once geniculate, bent once, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler
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USDA PLANTS text

Bothriochloa bladhii

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Bothriochloa bladhii (commonly called, variously, Australian bluestem, Caucasian bluestem, forest-bluegrass, plains bluestem, and purple plume grass)[2] is a neotropic grass in the family Poaceae, found primarily in tropical Africa, and tropical and temperate Asia, and Australia. The type specimen was collected from China by Finnish botanist Peter Johan Bladh.[3][4] The name of Bladh is honored in the specific epithet.

Distribution

Bothriochloa bladhii is native to northeast, west, west-central, and south tropical, and southern Africa (in Angola; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Ethiopia; Ghana; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Senegal; the provinces of Eastern Cape, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West, and Northern Cape of South Africa; Swaziland; Tanzania (including the Zanzibar Archipelago); Uganda; Zambia; and Zimbabwe); much of temperate and tropical, southern and eastern Asia, eastern Eurasia, Malesia, and the Middle East (in Afghanistan; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bhutan; Burma; Cambodia; the provinces of Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, and Yunnan of China; India; Iran; Japan (including the Ryukyu Islands); southern Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Malaysia; Nepal; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Ciscaucasian Russia; Sri Lanka; Taiwan; Thailand; and Vietnam); and the states of New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia of Australia.[2]

Bothriochloa bladhii has also become naturalized elsewhere in the neotropics.[2]

Uses

Bothriochloa bladhii is used as stored food for local livestock, and as a grazing plant by both livestock and wild ruminants.[2] It is sometimes planted as a revegetator, to restore disturbed land.[2]

References

  1. ^ Under it treatment as Bothriochloa bladhii (from its basionym Andropogon bladhii), this plant name was first published in Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 80(6): 62–64. 1969. "Name - Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S.T.Blake". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved November 9, 2011. Basionym: Andropogon bladhii Retz.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Bothriochloa bladhii". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved November 9, 2011.
  3. ^ a b Andropogon bladhii (the basionym of B. bladhii) was originally described and published in Observationes Botanicae 2: 27. 1781. "Name - Andropogon bladhii Retz". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved November 9, 2011. Type-Protologue: Collector: Bladh; Distribution: China
  4. ^ "Entry for Peter Johan Bladh". Index of Botanists. Harvard University Herbarium. May 21, 2009. Retrieved November 9, 2011.

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Bothriochloa bladhii: Brief Summary

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Bothriochloa bladhii (commonly called, variously, Australian bluestem, Caucasian bluestem, forest-bluegrass, plains bluestem, and purple plume grass) is a neotropic grass in the family Poaceae, found primarily in tropical Africa, and tropical and temperate Asia, and Australia. The type specimen was collected from China by Finnish botanist Peter Johan Bladh. The name of Bladh is honored in the specific epithet.

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