dcsimg

Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors
Triticum spelta, spelt, which is sometimes classified as a variety of common wheat, T. aestivum var. spelta, is an annual grass in the Poaceae (grass family) native to the Mediterranean region and southwest Asia. Spelt is one of several species and numerous varieties of cultivated wheat, which was an important grain in Europe from the Bronze Age until medieval period, when it was largely replaced by other forms of wheat (T. aestivum and T. durum, durum wheat), although it continued to be commonly used in Central Europe through the 1800s and early 1900s, and cultivated in the Mediterranean. It has received renewed attention in the past two decades due to the organic farming movement (because it requires less fertilizer and fewer pesticides than other forms of wheat) and as a health food (because it is tolerated by some people who are allergic to common wheat). Wheat is one of the most ancient of domesticated crops. Archaeological evidence of cultivated spelt has been found in the Transcaucasus region, northeast of the Black Sea, dating back to 5,000 B.C. The various species of wheat have been developed into thousands of hybrids and cultivars, including spelt, that differ in chromosome number from the primitive diploid types, which had 7 pairs of chromosomes, to various hybrid allopolyploids, with 14, 21, and 28 chromosome pairs. Spelt is a tetraploid (with 28 chromosome pairs) thought to have originated as a cross between emmer wheat (T. turgidum) and the wild goat-grass, Aegilops tauschii, possibly followed by a later cross with T. aestivum. Spelt has slender, loose spikes (grain heads), 12.5 to 20.5 cm (5 to 8 in) long. Each spikelet contains two grains, which remain enclosed in the glumes or husks after threshing (in contrast to T. aestivum, which is known as free-threshing because the grains separate easily from the husks). Spelt is very hardy and can tolerate nutrient-poor soils. Spelt is similar to other forms of wheat in its nutrient profiled--high in carbohydrates, protein, and vitamins B and E (if the grain is left whole)—but it is generally higher in B vitamins and protein, and lower in the amino acid lysine. Spelt, which has a nutty flavor, contains less gluten than common wheat, but contains enough that it is used similarly to common wheat in bread, baked goods, and breakfast cereals. It is also used like durum wheat (T. durum) to make pasta. Spelt is also rolled and sold as flakes (similar to oats) for use as a cereal. In addition it its use as a human food, spelt is sometimes cultivated as livestock feed and fodder. Spelt was brought to the U.S. in the late 1800s, and production peaked in during the early 1900s, when it was replaced by higher yielding, more productive, and easier to thresh grains including common wheat, oats (Avena sativa), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). U.S. production was revived in the 1980s by a health food company based in Michigan. (Bailey et al. 1976, Boland 2011, Hedrick 1919, USDA 2012, Stallknecht et al. 1996, University of Kentucky Extension 2000, van Wyk 2005.)
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Jacqueline Courteau
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Physical Description

provided by USDA PLANTS text
.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
compiler
Dr. David Bogler
source
Missouri Botanical Garden
source
USDA NRCS NPDC
original
visit source
partner site
USDA PLANTS text

Spelt

provided by wikipedia EN

Spelt (Triticum spelta), also known as dinkel wheat[2] or hulled wheat,[2] is a species of wheat that has been cultivated since approximately 5,000 BC.

Spelt was an important staple food in parts of Europe from the Bronze Age to medieval times. Now it survives as a relict crop in Central Europe and northern Spain, and it has found a new market as a health food. Spelt is sometimes considered a subspecies of the closely related species common wheat (Triticum aestivum), in which case its botanical name is considered to be Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta. Like common wheat, it is a hexaploid wheat, which means it has six sets of chromosomes.

 src=
Spelt, without and with husks

Evolution

Spelt has a complex history. It is a wheat species known from genetic evidence to have originated as a naturally occurring hybrid of a domesticated tetraploid wheat such as emmer wheat and the wild goat-grass Aegilops tauschii. This hybridisation must have taken place in the Near East, because this is where Aegilops tauschii grows, and it must have taken place before the appearance of common or bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, a hexaploid, free-threshing derivative of spelt) in the archaeological record about 8,000 years ago.

Genetic evidence shows that spelt wheat can also arise as the result of the hybridisation of bread wheat and emmer wheat, although only at some date following the initial Aegilops–tetraploid wheat hybridisation. The much later appearance of spelt in Europe might thus be the result of a later, second, hybridisation between emmer and bread wheat. Recent DNA evidence supports an independent origin for European spelt through this hybridisation.[3][4] Whether spelt has two separate origins in Asia and Europe, or single origin in the Near East, is currently unresolved.[3][5]

History

In Greek mythology spelt (ζειά [zeiá] in Greek) was a gift to the Greeks from the goddess Demeter.[6] The earliest archaeological evidence of spelt is from the fifth millennium BC in Transcaucasia, north-east of the Black Sea, though the most abundant and best-documented archaeological evidence of spelt is in Europe.[7] Remains of spelt have been found in some later Neolithic sites (2500–1700 BC) in Central Europe.[7][8] During the Bronze Age, spelt spread widely in central Europe. In the Iron Age (750–15 BC), spelt became a principal wheat species in southern Germany and Switzerland, and by 500 BC, it was in common use in southern Britain.[7]

References to the cultivation of spelt wheat in Biblical times (see matzo), in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and in ancient Greece are incorrect and result from confusion with emmer wheat.[9] However, spelt was known in ancient Rome and appears to have been attributed some significance; the rite of confarreatio, the most ritualized form of Roman wedding, was solemnized in part by the bride and groom sharing a spelt cake.[10]

In the Middle Ages, spelt was cultivated in parts of Switzerland, Tyrol, Germany, northern France and the southern Low Countries.[11] Spelt became a major crop in Europe in the 9th century AD, possibly because it is husked, unlike other grains, and therefore more adaptable to cold climates and is more suitable for storage.[12]

Spelt was introduced to the United States in the 1890s. In the 20th century, spelt was replaced by bread wheat in almost all areas where it was still grown. The organic farming movement revived its popularity somewhat toward the end of the century, as spelt requires less fertilizer.[13] Since the beginning of the 21st century, spelt has become a common wheat substitute for making artisanal loaves of bread, kinds of pasta, and flakes.[14] By 2014, the grain was popular in the UK with the crop being grown there as well as in Kazakhstan and Ukraine, with shortages reported.[15]

Nutrition

A 100-gram (3+12-ounce) reference serving of uncooked spelt provides 1,410 kilojoules (338 kilocalories) of food energy and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value) of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins, and numerous dietary minerals (table). Highest nutrient contents include manganese (143% DV), phosphorus (57% DV), and niacin (46% DV). Spelt contains about 70% total carbohydrates, including 11% as dietary fibre, and is low in fat (table). Its high carbohydrate content led to its being called "marching grain" by the Romans.[16]

Spelt contains gluten, and is therefore suitable for baking, but this component makes it unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders,[17] such as celiac disease,[18] non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy.[17] In comparison to hard red winter wheat, spelt has a more soluble protein matrix characterized by a higher gliadin:glutenin ratio.[19][20]

Products

 src=
Wholegrain spelt bread from Poland

In Germany and Austria, spelt loaves and rolls (Dinkelbrot) are widely available in bakeries as is spelt flour in supermarkets. The unripe spelt grains are dried and eaten as Grünkern ("green grain"). In Poland, spelt breads and flour are commonly available as health foods and easy to find in bakeries.

Dutch jenever makers distill with spelt.[21] Beer brewed from spelt is sometimes seen in Bavaria[22] and Belgium,[23] and spelt is distilled to make vodka in Poland.

See also

References

  1. ^ The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved 11 May 2016
  2. ^ a b "Triticum spelta". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  3. ^ a b Blatter, R.H.; Jacomet, S.; Schlumbaum, A. (January 2004). "About the Origin of European Spelt ( Triticum spelta L.): Allelic Differentiation of the HMW Glutenin B1-1 and A1-2 Subunit Genes" (PDF). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 108 (2): 360–367. doi:10.1007/s00122-003-1441-7. PMID 14564390. S2CID 26586515.
  4. ^ De Oliveira, Romain; Rimbert, Hélène; Balfourier, François; Kitt, Jonathan; Dynomant, Emeric; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Cattonaro, Federica; Paux, Etienne; Choulet, Frédéric (18 August 2020). "Structural Variations Affecting Genes and Transposable Elements of Chromosome 3B in Wheats". Frontiers in Genetics. 11: 891. doi:10.3389/fgene.2020.00891. PMC 7461782. PMID 33014014.
  5. ^ Ehsanzadeh, Parviz (December 1998). "Agronomic and Growth Characteristics of Spring Spelt Compared to Common Wheat (thesis)" (PDF). ecommons.usask.ca. National Library of Canada. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  6. ^ Harrison, Jane Ellen (5 September 1908). "Prolegomena to the study of Greek religion". Cambridge [Eng.] : The University press – via Internet Archive.
  7. ^ a b c Cubadda, Raimondo; Marconi, Emanuele (2002). Spelt Wheat in Pseudocereals and Less Common Cereals: Grain Properties and Utilization Potential (eds. Belton, Peter S.; Taylor, John R.N.). ISBN 9783540429395.
  8. ^ Akeret, Ö. (2005). "Plant Remains From a Bell Beaker Site in Switzerland, and the Beginnings of Triticum spelta (spelt) Cultivation in Europe". Archived from the original on 2012-12-27. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ Nesbitt, Mark (2001). "Wheat Evolution: Integrating Archaeological and Biological Evidence" (PDF). Cite journal requires |journal= (help).
  10. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Confarreatio" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 898.
  11. ^ Bakels, Corrie C. (Dec 2005), "Crops produced in the southern Netherlands and northern France during the early medieval period: a comparison," Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, pp. 394-399
  12. ^ Newfield, Timothy P. (2013), "The Contours, Frequency and Causation of Subsistence Crises in Carolingian Europe (750-950 CE)" in Crisis Alimentarian en la Edad Media, Lleida, Spain: Universidad de Lleida, p. 170
  13. ^ Sugár, Eszter; Fodor, Nándor; Sándor, Renáta; Bónis, Péter; Vida, Gyula; Árendás, Tamás (27 November 2019). "Spelt Wheat: An Alternative for Sustainable Plant Production at Low N-Levels". Sustainability. 11 (23): 6726. doi:10.3390/su11236726.
  14. ^ Smithers, Rebecca (15 May 2014). "Spelt flour 'wonder grain' set for a price hike as supplies run low". The Guardian, London, UK. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  15. ^ "Spelt shortage". Independent. 11 May 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  16. ^ "Future 50 Foods" (PDF). Knorr.com. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  17. ^ a b Tovoli F.; Masi C.; Guidetti E.; et al. (March 16, 2015). "Clinical and Diagnostic Aspects of Gluten Related Disorders". World Journal of Clinical Cases. 3 (3): 275–284. doi:10.12998/wjcc.v3.i3.275. PMC 4360499. PMID 25789300.
  18. ^ Wieser H. (2001). "Comparative Investigations of Gluten Proteins from Different Wheat Species". European Food Research and Technology. 213 (3): 183–186. doi:10.1007/s002170100365. S2CID 84523520.
  19. ^ Schober, T.J., Bean, S.R., Kuhn, M. (2006). "Gluten Proteins from Spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) Cultivars: A Rheological and Size-Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Study" (pdf). Journal of Cereal Science. 44 (2): 161–173. doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2006.05.007. Retrieved 21 November 2013.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ Kohajdová, Z., Karovičová, J. (2008). "Nutritional Value and Baking Applications of Spelt Wheat" (PDF). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria. 7 (3): 5–14. Retrieved 21 November 2013.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. ^ John N. Peragine (30 November 2010). The Complete Guide to Growing Your Own Hops, Malts, and Brewing Herbs. Atlantic Publishing Company. p. 128. ISBN 9781601383532. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
  22. ^ Dinkelbier Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine, German Beer Institute, retrieved November 2009.
  23. ^ Den Mulder, beer from Huisbrouwerij Den Tseut in Oosteeklo, retrieved September 2013.
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Spelt: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Spelt (Triticum spelta), also known as dinkel wheat or hulled wheat, is a species of wheat that has been cultivated since approximately 5,000 BC.

Spelt was an important staple food in parts of Europe from the Bronze Age to medieval times. Now it survives as a relict crop in Central Europe and northern Spain, and it has found a new market as a health food. Spelt is sometimes considered a subspecies of the closely related species common wheat (Triticum aestivum), in which case its botanical name is considered to be Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta. Like common wheat, it is a hexaploid wheat, which means it has six sets of chromosomes.

 src= Spelt, without and with husks
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN