dcsimg

Description

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Plants cespitose. Culms straight, 10–75 cm. Leaves of flowering stems shorter than to slightly exceeding culms, 5–30 cm × 1.6–4.7(–5.8) mm; ligules on distal cauline leaves truncate or rounded. Inflorescences: peduncles of terminal spikes 0.4–5(–9) mm; bracts to 18.5 cm × (0.7–)2–4.5 mm; inner band of sheaths truncate or concave. Spikes: proximal pistillate spikes (1–)2–5, contiguous or approximate, globose to elliptic, 8–22 × 7.5–12.7 mm; terminal staminate spikes sessile or pedunculate, 9–22 × 1.1–3 mm. Scales: pistillate scales reddish brown, 2.3–3.9 × 0.9–1.4 mm; staminate scales reddish brown, ovate, margins narrowly whitish hyaline, apex obtuse. Anthers 1–2.1 mm. Perigynia reflexed, bright yellow at maturity, 4–6.3 × 1–1.9 mm, apex gradually narrowed; beak 1.3–2.7 mm, forming angle of (15–)26–72° with body, scabrous. Achenes 1.3–1.7 × 0.9–1.2 mm. 2n = 60.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 521, 523, 524, 525 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Distribution

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St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Alaska, Conn., Idaho, Ind., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Ohio, Pa., R.I., Vt., Wis.; Europe; Asia (Iran).
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 521, 523, 524, 525 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Fruiting Jun–Aug.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 521, 523, 524, 525 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Habitat

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Moist to wet habitats, such as open meadows, fens, partially shaded shrub carrs, swamps, on lime-rich soils; 0–2000m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 521, 523, 524, 525 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Synonym

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Carex flava var. fertilis Peck; C. flava var. gaspensis Fernald; C. flava var. laxior (Kükenthal) Gleason; C. laxior (Kükenthal) Mackenzie
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 521, 523, 524, 525 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Carex laxior (Kukenth.) Mackenzie
Carex lepidocarpa var. laxior Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4 20 : 673. 1909. (Type from Maine.)
Densely cespitose, the rootstock very short-prolonged, the culms 5-8 dm. high, slender, erect, leafy, exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, obtusely triangular below, sharply triangular above, smooth, dark-brown and fibrilllose at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous ; sterile shoots elongate, conspicuous ; leaves several to a fertile culm, the lower bunched, not septate-nodulose, the blades flat, yellowish-green, not stiff, 1.5-3.5 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, attenuate, the sheaths dull-white ventrally, thin and truncate at mouth, the ligule short, mostly wider than long; terminal spike staminate, sessile or nearly so, linear, 12-25 mm. long, mm. wide, the scales oblanceolate, obtuse, reddish with narrow hyaline margins and 3nerved lighter center; pistillate spikes 3 or 4, erect, the upper aggregated and sessile, the lowest more or less strongly separate and short-exsert-peduncled, oblong or subglobose, 5-15 mm. long, 6-8 mm. wide, very closely 15-30-flowered in several to many rows, the perigynia squarrose-spreading, the lower obliquely attached and deflexed; bracts leaf-like, more or less divaricate, the lowest strongly sheathing, the upper short-sheathing, concave at mouth ; scales ovate, acute or obtuse, narrower and much shorter than perigynia but not hidden, strongly reddish with narrow hyaline margins and 3-nerved greenish center; perigynia 4 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, the body obovoid, little inflated, obtusely triangular, membranaceous, dull-green, becoming yellowish-green, puncticulate, severalto many-ribbed, rounded at base and sessile, abruptly and obliquely contracted into a slender, serrulate, bidentate beak about as long as the body, the tip reddish-tinged, the teeth subserrulate within; achenes minute, broadly obovoid, mm. long, 1 mm. wide, triangular with concave sides, somewhat loosely enveloped, brownish, substipitate, abruptly apiculate, jointed with the straight slender style; stigmas 3, reddish-brown, slender.
Type locality (of C. lepidocarpa var. laxior Kiikenth., on which C. laxior is based): Maine (Fernald 169).
Distribution: Swampy meadows in calcareous districts, Nova Scotia and Quebec to Maine and New York. (Specimens examined from Quebec, including Anticosti, Nova Scotia, Maine, New York.)
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bibliographic citation
Kenneth Kent Mackenzie. 1935. (POALES); CYPERACEAE; CARICEAE. North American flora. vol 18(5). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Comprehensive Description

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Carex flava L. Sp. PI. 975. 1753
Carex foliosa All. Fl. Ped. 2: 270. 1785. (Based on Haller, Hist. Stirp. Indig. Helv. No. 1384, 2: 1768 (type from Mt. Uetliberg); and Scheuchzer, Agrost. 435. 1719 (type from Mt. Utliaca).
Carex viridis Honck. Syn. 1: 372. 1792. (Type from Switzerland, based primarily on Haller no. and scheuchzer, Agrost. 435.)
Carex echinala Lam. Fl. Fr. ed. 2. 2: 177. 1793. (Based on C. flava L.)
Carex patula Host, Gram. Austr. 1 : 48. pi. 64. 1801. (Type from Austria.) Carex uetliaca Suter, PI. Helv. 2: 251. 1802. (Type from Switzerland, based primarily on Hallex
no. 1384 and Scheuchzer, Agrost. 435. See Gaudin, PI. Helv. 6: 97-99. 1830 ) Trasus Jlavus S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2:60. 1821. (Based on Carex flava L.) Trasus flavus var. scaber S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 60. 1821. (Type from Great Britain) Trasius jlavus var. duplex S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 60. 1821. (Type from Great Britain.) Carex demissa Hornem.; Spreng. Syst. 3: 822. 1826. (Type from or ■ Carex Jlava var. densa Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 6: 97. 1830. (Type from Switzerland.) Carex flava var. reclirostra Gaudin, Fl. Heiv. 6: 97. 1830. (Type from Switzerland.) Carex Jlava var. polyslachya Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 6: 97. 1830. (Type from Switzerland.) Anilhista Jlava Raf. Good Book 26. 1840. (Based on Carex Jlava L.) Carex Jlava (a) vulgaris Doll, Rhein. Fl. 147. 1843. (Based on C. flava L.) Carex Jlava var. rectirostris Peterm. Flora 27: 338. 1844. (Type from Germany.) Carex Jlava var. genuina Peterm. Flora 27: 338. 1844. (Based on C. Jlava L.) Carex Jlava var. deficiens Peterm. Flora 27: 339. 1844. (Type from Germany.) Carex Jlava var. elatior Anderss. Cyp. Scand. 25. 1849. (Type from Scandinavia.) Carex Jlava var. elatior f. acrogyna Anderss. Cyp. Scand. 25. 1849. (Type from Scandinavia.) Carex Jlava var. patula Schur, Enura. PI. Transsilv. 711. 1866. (Based on C. patula Host.) Carex Jlava var. remotiuscula Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 711. 1866. (Type from Kronstadt.) Carex Jlava var. macrorrhyncha Celak. Prodr. Fl. Bohm. 71. 1867. Carex Jlava f. androgyna Olney, Caric. Bor.-Am. 5, name only. 1871.
Carex polyslachya Czetz, Erd. Mag. 6: 12. 1872. (Based on C. Jlava var. polyslachya Gaudin.) Carex Jlava var. Jertilis Peck, Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Mus. 48: 197. 1897. (Type from Dutchess
County, New York.) Carex Jlava f. umbrosa Kneucker, Allg. Bot. Zeits. 5: 8. 1899. (Type from Germany.) Carex Jlava a congesta Neuman, Sv. Fl. 696. 1901. Carex Jlava dispersa Neuman, Sv. PI. 696. 1901.
Carex Jlava A. eu-flava Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2*: 199. 1902. (Based on C. flava L.) Carex Jlava f. uetliaca Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2*: 200. 1902. (Based on C. uetliaca
Suter.) Carex flava f. brevirostris Junge, Schr. Nat. Ver. Schlesw. 13: 288. 1906. (Type from Germany.) Carex Jlava var. gaspensis Fernald, Rhodora 8: 200. 1906. (Type from Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec.
Apparently a plant distorted by a fungus.) Carex flava f. patula "Schur" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4 20 : 671. 1909. (Based on C. flava
var. patula Schur.) Carex flava f. deficiens "Peterm." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4 20 : 671. 1909. (Based on C.
flava var. deficiens Peterm.) Carex flava f. densa "Gaudin" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4 20 : 671. 1909. (Based on C.
flava var. densa Gaudin.) Carex flava f. remotiuscula "Schur" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4 20 : 671. 1909. (Based on
C. flava var. remotiuscula Schur.) Carex flava f. rectirostris "Peterm." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4 20 : 672. 1909. (Based on
C. flava var. rectirostris Peterm.) Carex flava f. demissa "Hornem." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4 20 : 672. 1909. (Based on C
demissa Hornem.)
Densely cespitose, the rootstock very short-prolonged, the clumps small or medium-sized, the culms 1-8 dm. high, stiff, erect, leafy, occasionally shorter than but usually exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, obtusely triangular below, more sharply triangular above, not roughened or but little so, light-brown and more or less fibrillose at base; sterile shoots elongate, conspicuous; leaves (not bracts) with well-developed blades usually 4-8 to a fertile culm, toward the base but not strongly clustered, not septate-nodulose, the blades flat or somewhat canaliculate at base, yellowish-green, thickish, stiff, 0.5-2.5 dm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, somewhat roughened toward the apex, attenuate, the sheaths dull-white ventrally, thin and truncate at mouth, the ligule mostly longer than wide; terminal spike staminate or occasionally partly pistillate, sessile or short-peduncled (rarely strongly peduncled, linear, 0.5-2 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, the scales oblong-oblanceolate, closely appressed, obtuse to acute, reddish-brown with narrow hyaline margins and 3-nerved lighter center; pistillate spikes 2-5, occasionally staminate at apex, erect, contiguous or the lower more or less separate, the uppermost nearly sessile, the lower more or less strongly exsert-peduncled, short-oblong or suborbicular, 7-18 mm. long, about 1 cm. wide, closely flowered, usually with 15-35 perigynia in several to many rows, obliquely attached, their conspicuous beaks deflexed in all except the very uppermost; bracts conspicuous, leaf-like, erect to abruptly divergent, strongly exceeding the inflorescence, the lower sheath from short (2 mm. long) to strongly developed (2 cm. long), more or less prolonged ventrally at mouth ; scales ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute to short-cuspidate, narrower than and one third to one half the length of the perigynia, reddish with narrow hyaline margins and 3-nerved lighter center; perigynia 4.5-6 mm. long, the body obovoid, 1.25-2 mm. wide, yellowish-green, becoming yellow, membranaceous, puncticulate, strongly severalto manyribbed, little inflated, rounded at base, obliquely contracted into a slender, conic, serrulate, bidentate beak of about its own length, the teeth slender, reddish-tinged; achenes small, obovoid, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, triangular with concave sides, loosely enveloped, yellowishbrown, substipitate, abruptly strongly apiculate, jointed with the slender style; stigmas 3, reddish-brown, slender, short; anthers reddish-brown, 2 mm. long, obtusish.
Type locality: "Habitat in Europae paludibus."
Distribution: Wet meadows in calcareous districts, Newfoundland to British Columbia, and southward to northwestern New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Indiana and Montana. Widely distributed in Europe. (Specimens examined from Newfoundland, St. Pierre, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ontario, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Alberta, Montana, British Columbia, including Vancouver Island.)
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bibliographic citation
Kenneth Kent Mackenzie. 1935. (POALES); CYPERACEAE; CARICEAE. North American flora. vol 18(5). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Carex flava

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Carex flava, called hedgehog grass, is a widespread species of sedge (genus Carex), native to the northern United States, Canada, Iceland, Europe, the Atlas Mountains in Africa, the Transcaucasus area, and parts of Siberia.[2][3] It is the namesake of the Carex flava species complex.[4]

References

  1. ^ Sp. Pl.: 975 (1753)
  2. ^ a b "Carex flava L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  3. ^ "Carex flava hedgehog grass". The Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 31 December 2020. Other common names; marsh hedgehog grass, yellow sedge, large yellow sedge
  4. ^ Jiménez-Mejías, Pedro; Benítez-Benítez, Carmen; Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Martín-Bravo, Santiago (2017). "Cut from the same cloth: The convergent evolution of dwarf morphotypes of the Carex flava group (Cyperaceae) in Circum-Mediterranean mountains". PLOS ONE. 12 (12): e0189769. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1289769J. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0189769. PMC 5744957. PMID 29281689.
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Carex flava: Brief Summary

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Carex flava, called hedgehog grass, is a widespread species of sedge (genus Carex), native to the northern United States, Canada, Iceland, Europe, the Atlas Mountains in Africa, the Transcaucasus area, and parts of Siberia. It is the namesake of the Carex flava species complex.

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