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Carex caryophyllea Latourr.

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Carex caryophyllea is widely distributed in Eurasia and was first recorded in North America in 1826. Carex caryophyllea may escape notice because it somewhat resembles C. pensylvanica in size, habit, scale color, perigynia pubescence, and flowering time. Carex caryophyllea is distinguished by awned scales, perigynia with thick conical beaks, mitrate achenes, and enlarged persistent style bases.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 23: 553, 554 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Culms trigonous, angles obtuse, 4–35 cm, scabrous distally. Leaves basal; sheath fronts with apex concave to V-shaped, glabrous; blades 7–25 cm × 1.5–3 mm, shorter than culm. Inflorescences 2–4 cm; proximal bracts to 5 × 1 mm; spikes crowded; lateral spikes 0.5–1.5 cm × 4–5 mm; terminal spikes 1–2 cm × 4 mm. Scales brown with yellow-brown midrib, 3-veined, equaling perigynia, apex acuminate to retuse, with scabrous awn to 2 mm. Anthers 2–3 mm. Perigynia yellow-brown, often red-brown at apex, sides convex, 2.5–2.8 × 1.5 mm, hairs purple-brown (hair-base bulbous); beak red-brown, conic, thickened. Achenes brown, sessile, mitrate, obovoid, 2–2.2 mm. 2n = 58, 62, 64, 66, 68 (Europe, Japan).
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 553, 554 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Distribution

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introduced; D.C., Maine, Mass.; Eurasia.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 553, 554 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Fruiting Jun.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 553, 554 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Habitat

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Dry pastures, graveyards; 0–100m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 553, 554 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Synonym

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Carex praecox Jacquin 1778, not Schreber 1771
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 23: 553, 554 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Carex caryophyllea Latourr. Chlor. Lugd. 27. 1785
"Corex saxatilis L." Huds. Fl. Angl. 351. 1762. (Plant from England.)
"Carex filiformis L." Leers, Fl. Herborn. 200. pi. 16, f. 5. 1775. (Plant from Germany.)
Carex filiformis var. minor Leers, Fl. Herborn. 200. 1775. (Type from Germany.)
Carex filiformis var. major Leers, Fl. Herborn. 200. 1775. (Type from Germany.)
Carex filiformis var. media Leers. Fl. Herborn. 200. 1775. (Type from Germany.)
"Carex monlana L." Lightf. Fl. Scot. 551. 1777. (Plant from Scotland.)
"C"ar« prof coi Schreb." Jacq. Fl. Austr. 5: 23. pi. 446. 1778. (Plant from Austria.)
"Carex glohularis L." I.,eysser. Fl. Hal. 235. 178.1. (Plant from Germany.)
CarfxfCT-na Chaix, in Vill. Hist. PI. Dauph. 1: 312. 1786; 2: 204. 1787. (Type from France.)
Carex slolonifera Ehrh. Beitr. 6: 83, name only. 1791. (Type from Sweden.)
Car« rf/rac/a Roth, Fl. Germ. 2": 451. 1793. (Type from Germany.)
"Carex pilulifera L." Genersich, Fl. Seep. Elench. no. 868. 1798. (Plant from Hungary.)
Carex subvillosa Bieb. Fl. Taur.-Cauc. 2: 386, in part. 1808. (Type from Caucasus.)
Car« moHij Host, Gram. Austr. 4: 46. pi. S2. 1809. (Type from Tyrol.)
Trasus praecox S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 57. 1821. (Based on Jacquin's misidentified
Carex praecox.) Carex refUxa Hoppc, Caric. Germ. 65. 1826. (Type from Oldenburg, Germany.) Not C. reflexa
Gaudin, 1804. Carex praeceps Borkh.; Reichenb. Fl. Germ. Exc. 64, as synonym. 1830. Carex praecox var. pygmata Fleischer, Riedgr. WUrtcmb. 18. 1832. (Type from Germany.) Carex praecox var. umbrosaeformis Fleischer, Riedgr. Wtirtemb. 18. 1832. (Type from Germany.) Carex praecox var. caespitosa Fleischer, Riedgr. Wurtcmb. 18. 1832. (Type from Germany.) Olamblis verna Raf. Good Book 26. 1840. (Based on Carex verna Chaix.) "Carex umbrosa Host" Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. ed. 2. 877, as synonym. 1844. Carex praecox var. refUxa Reichenb. Ic. FI. Germ. 8: 26. pi. 261, f. 635. 1846. (Ba.sed on C. reflexa
Hoppe.) Carex sicyocarpa I.,ebcl. Rech. PI. Manchc 18. 1848. (Type from France.) Carex praecox var. elatior Bogenh. Tasch. Fl. Jena 378. 1850. (Type from Germany.) Carex anomala Janka, Linnaea 30: 609. 1860. (Type f'om Transylvania.) Not C annmala Pall.
1808. Carex praecox var. dumetorum BIytt, Norgcs Fl. 225. 1861. (Type from Norway.) Carex praecox var. magna Schur, Enum. PI. Tran.ssilv. 716. 1866. (Type from Transylvania.) Seilreichia umbrosa Kotula, Spraw. Kom. Fizyogr. Krak6w 17: 136. 1883. (In part; as to plant
only; not as to Carex umbrosa Host.) Carex pratox var, insularis Christ, in Barbey, Fl. Sard. Comp. 64. 1885. (Type from Sardinia.) Carex praecox var. diastachya Callm^, Deuts. Bot. Monats. 6; 2, 1888. (Type from Sweden.) Carex verna var. typica G. Beck, Fl. Nicder-Oestcrr. 138. 1890. (Based on C. verna Cliaix.) Carex verna var. longebractcala G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 138. 1890. (Type from Austria.) Carex verna var. pedunculata G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 138. 1890. (Type from Austria.) Carex verna var. minor G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 138. 1890. (Type from Austria.) Carex verna var. abnormis G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 138. 1890. (Type from Austria.) Carex verna var. caespiliformis Waisb. Oesterr. Bot. Zeits. 43: 281. 1893. (Type from Austria.) Carex caryophyllea f. pallescens Kneucker, Allg. Bot. Zeits. 2: 104. 1896. (Type from Baden, Germany.) Carex verna f. glomerata Waisb. Oesterr. Bot. Zeits. 47: 4. 1897. (Type from Germany.) Carex praecox f. fissa Kiikenth. Mitth. Thur. Bot. Ver. II. 10: 37. 1897. (Type from Germany.) Carex praecox var. subpolyrrhiza Kukenth. Mitth. Thiir. Bot. Ver. II. 10: 37. 1897. (Type from
Germany.) Carex praecox f. longevaginala Kukenth. Mitth. Thiir. Bot. Ver. II. 10: 37. 1897. (Type from Germany.) Carex praecox var. tongifrons Waisb. & Kiikenth; Kukenth. Mitth. Thiir. Bot. Ver, II. 10: 37. 1897.
(Type from Germany.) Carex praecox var. luxurians Kiikenth. Mitth. Thur. Bot. Ver. II. 10: 38. 1897. (Type from Germany.) Carex verna f. laxiflora Waisb. Oesterr. Bot. Zeits. 47: 430. 1897. (Type from Germany.) Carex verna var. globuliflora Waisb. Oesterr. Bot. Zeits. 47: 430. 1897. (Type from Germany.) Carex verna f. argyrata Waisb. Oesterr. Bot. Zeits. 47: 430. 1897. (Type from Germany.) Carex verna f. chlorantha Waisb. Oesterr. Bot. Zeits. 47: 430. 1897. (Type from Germany.) Carex verna var. oxycarpa Waisb. Oesterr. Bot. Zeits. 47: 430. 1897. (Type from Germany.) Carex caryophyllea var. mollis Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2': 126. 1903. (Based on C.
mollis Host.) Carex caryophyllea var. anguslifolia Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-'. 126. 1903. (Type from
central Europe.) Carex caryophyllea f. pygmaea "Fleischer" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-°: 464. 1909. (Based
on C. praecox var. pygmaea Fleischer.) Carex caryophyllea f. umbrosaeformis "Fleischer" Kiikenth. in Engler. Pflanzenreich 4'°: 464. 1909.
(Based on C. praecox var. umbrosaeformis Fleischer.) Carex caryophyllea f. luxurians Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4'»: 464. 1909. (Based on C.
praecox var. luxurians Kiikenth.) Carex caryophyllea f. refracla Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=": 465. 1909. (Based on C.
refracta Roth.) Carex caryophyllea f. subpolyrrhiza Kiikenth. in. Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-": 465. 1909. (Based on C.
praecox var. subpolyrrhiza Kukenth.) Carex caryophyllea f. glomerala "Waisb." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4'°: 465. 1909. (Based
on C verna f. glomerata Waisb.) Carex caryophyllea f. globuliflora "Waisb." Kiikenth. in Engler. Pflanzenreich 4": 465. 1909. (Based
on C. verna var. globuliflora Waisb.) Carex caryophyllea f. laxiflora "Waisb." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4''»; 465. 1909. (Based
on C. verna f. laxiflora Waisb.) Carex caryophyllea f. pedunculala "G. Beck" Kukenth. in Engler. Pflanzenreich 4=»: 465. 1909.
(Based on C. verna var. pedunculata G. Beck.) Carex caryophyllea i. longebracteata "G. Beck" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=": 465. 1909.
(Based on C. verna var. longebracteata G. Beck.) Carex caryophyllea f. longevaginala Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4''": 465. 1909. (Based on C.
praecox f. longevaginala Kiikenth.) Carex caryophyllea f. argyrata "Waisb." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4'°: 465. 1909. (Based
on C. verna f. argyrata Waisb.) Carex caryophyllea f. chlorantha "Waisb." Kiikenth. in Engler. Pflanzenreich 4"' : 465. 1909. (Based
on C. verna f. chlorantha Waisb.) Carex caryophyllea var. caespilosa "Fleischer" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=": 465. 1909.
(Based on C. praecox var. caespilosa Fleischer.) Carex caryophyllea var. oxycarpa "Waisb." Kukenlh. in Engler. Pflanzenreich 4=": 465. 1909. (Based
on C. verna var. oxycarpa Waisb.)
Stoloniferous, the stolons long, horizontal, slender but tough, dark-brown, scaly, the culms one to few together, 0.5-4.5 dm. high, slender but stiff and erect, smooth, obtusely triangular, much exceeding the leaves, dark-brown and fibrillose at base, phyllopodic, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous with long blades; leaves on fertile culms all with well-developed blades, clustered at base, numerous, the blades canaliculate below, flat above, somewhat attenuate and triangular towards apex, thickish and rather stiff, deep-green, becoming lightergreen, recurved-spreading, 2-12 cm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, roughened towards the apex, the sheaths tight, hyaline and slightly yellowish-tinged ventrally, thin and concave at mouth, the ligule very short; stamina te spike solitary, terminal, sessile or nearly so, linear or ellipticoblong, clavate, 10-15 mm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, brown, reddish-brown, or yellowish-brown, with green midrib and narrowly hyaline apex; pistillate spikes 2 or 3, contiguous or slightly separate, erect, the lower short-peduncled, the upper sessile or nearly so, closely flowered, oblong, 6-10 mm. long, 3-6 mm. wide, with from about 5 to 20 ascending perigynia; bracts nearly sheathless or short-sheathing, squamiform, acute to setaceous-prolonged, shorter than or little exceeding the subtended spike, the hyaline margins usually strongly tinged with yellowish-brown; scales oblong-ovate, about as long and as wide as the perig>-nia. chestnut or purplish-brown with 3-nerved green center, the midrib excurrent as a short cusp: perig'nia obovoid, obtusely triangular, 2.5-3 mm. long, 1.25-1.5 mm. wide, thinly short-hirsute-pubescent, 2-keeIed, few-nerved at base, membranaceous, dull, whitish below, brown above, completely filled by achene, tapering to a short-stipitate base, abruptly minutely beaked, the beak 0.2 mm. long, bidentulate; achenes triangular with convex sides and conspicuous rounded blunt angles, brown with green angles, obovoid, 2 mm. long, about 1.25 mm. wide, tapering at base, short-annulate at apex and depressed in the center; style verjshort and slightly enlarged at base, black, conic, jointed with achene, deciduous; stigmas three, dark-reddish-brown, slender, spreading, rather short.
Type locality: Switzerland (Haller 13S1).
Distribution': Dry fields. Maine to District of Columbia; locally naturalized from Eurasia, where widelv distributed. (Specimens examined from Massachusetts, New York.)
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Kenneth Kent Mackenzie. 1935. (POALES); CYPERACEAE; CARICEAE. North American flora. vol 18(4). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
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Carex caryophyllea

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Carex caryophyllea is a species of plant in the family Cyperaceae first described by Marc Antoine Louis Claret de La Tourrette. Two varieties are listed in the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families:[1]

  • Carex caryophyllea var. caryophyllea — temperate regions of the Old World
  • Carex caryophyllea var. microtricha (Franch.) Kük. — Far East, Korea, North and Central Japan

References

  1. ^ "Carex caryophyllea Latourr., Chlor. Lugd.: 27 (1785)". wcsp.science.kew.org. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  • E. Foerster: Seggen, Binsen, Simsen und andere Scheingräser des Grünlandes – Ein Schlüssel zum Bestimmen im blütenlosen Zustand. Manuskript, Kleve-Kellen März 1982.
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Carex caryophyllea: Brief Summary

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Carex caryophyllea is a species of plant in the family Cyperaceae first described by Marc Antoine Louis Claret de La Tourrette. Two varieties are listed in the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families:

Carex caryophyllea var. caryophyllea — temperate regions of the Old World Carex caryophyllea var. microtricha (Franch.) Kük. — Far East, Korea, North and Central Japan
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