Comments

provided by eFloras
Trees having acorns with broad, distinctly warty cups are sometimes classified as Quercus coccinea var. tuberculata Sargent.

Quercus coccinea reportedly hybridizes with Q . imbricaria , Q . ilicifolia (= Q . × robbinsii Trelease), Q . laevis , and Q . palustris (E. J. Palmer 1948) and with Q . phellos , Q . rubra , and Q . velutina (= Q . × fontana Laughlin).

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Trees , deciduous, to 30 m; lower trunk without stubs of dead branches. Bark dark gray to dark brown, irregularly fissured with scaly ridges, inner bark orangish pink. Twigs reddish brown, (1-)2-3.5 mm diam., glabrous. Terminal buds dark reddish brown, conic to ovoid, 4-7 mm, noticeably 5-angled in cross section, usually silvery- or tawny-pubescent distal to middle. Leaves: petiole 25-60 mm, glabrous. Leaf blade elliptic to ovate or obovate, 70-160 × 80-130 mm, base obtuse to truncate, margins with 5-9 deep lobes and 18-50 awns, lobes distally expanded, sinuses usually extending more than 1/2 distance to midrib, apex acute; surfaces abaxially glabrous except for minute axillary tufts of tomentum, adaxially glossy light green, glabrous, secondary veins raised on both surfaces. Acorns biennial; cup turbinate to hemispheric, 7-13 mm high × 16.5-31.5 mm wide, covering 1/3-1/2 nut, outer surface light to dark reddish brown, glossy, glabrous to puberulent, inner surface light brown, glabrous, occasionally with ring of pubescence around scar, scales often tuberculate, base broad, glossy, margins strongly concave with tips tightly appressed, acute to attenuate; nut oblong to subglobose, 12-22 × 10-21 mm, glabrous, with 1 or more rings of fine pits at apex, scar diam. 6.5-13.5 mm. 2 n = 24.
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copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Distribution

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Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering spring.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Habitat

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Poor soils, well-drained uplands, dry slopes, and ridges, occasionally on poorly drained sites; 0-1500m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Synonym

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Quercus coccinea var. tuberculata Sargent
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire use, prescribed fire

The following Research Project Summaries
provide information on prescribed

fire use and postfire response of plant
community species, including scarlet

oak, that was not available when this
species review was originally

written:

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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
scarlet oak
Spanish oak
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Conservation Status

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
In Maine's Official List of Endangered and Threatened Plants, scarlet
oak is listed under the administrative category, Special
Concern-Possibly Extirpated [13].
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: monoecious, tree

Scarlet oak is a medium-sized, monoecious, native, deciduous tree with
an open, rounded crown [24,43].  At maturity, scarlet oak is usually 60
to 80 feet (18-24 m) tall and 24 to 36 inches (61-91 cm) in d.b.h., but
it can reach a maximum size of 100 feet (30 m) in height and 48 inches
(122 cm) in d.b.h. on good sites.  Seedlings have a strong taproot and
relatively few lateral roots.  Scarlet oak is one of the fastest growing
upland oak species [24] and is short-lived [38].
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Scarlet oak is distributed from southwestern Maine west to New York,
Ohio, southern Michigan and Indiana; south to southern Illinois,
southeastern Missouri, and central Mississippi; east to southern Alabama
and southwestern Georgia; and north along the western edge of the
Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Virginia Coast.  Scarlet oak is abundant
in the Piedmont and in the Appalachian Mountains [24,30].
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Ecology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: basal area, density, fire regime, frequency, litter, root crown, seed, severity

The fire resistance of scarlet oak is rated as low.  It has thin bark,
and even low severity surface fires can result in severe basal damage
and high mortality.  Top-killed scarlet oaks sprout vigorously from the
root crown after fire [24].

A thick litter covering is unfavorable for scarlet oak acorn germination
[24].  Fire removes litter and may facilitate scarlet oak regeneration
[39].  However, no study documenting increased scarlet oak regeneration
from seed after fire was found in the literature.  The primary mode of
regeneration after fire appears to be sprouting.

The prevalent presettlement upland oak forests in the eastern and
central United States were associated with recurring fire.  These
forests probably burned at an intermediate frequency (50 to 100 year
intervals), which promoted the dominance and stability of oak [1].
Oak-hickory forests are not usually conducive to high-severity fires,
but surface fires are easily ignited and spread rapidly under favorable
conditions [9].  In the absence of fire or other disturbance, the
short-lived scarlet oak is replaced by later successional species.
Periodic fire opens the canopy and provides an opportunity for upland
oaks to regenerate and maintain dominance [1].  Fifty-five years after a
late summer fire in south-central Connecticut, a burned area had higher
absolute and relative amounts of oak (scarlet, black, white, chestnut,
and northern red) than an adjacent unburned area [60].

In Missouri, nearly all trees were top-killed after a spring fire in a
23-year-old white oak-black oak-hickory stand in which 79 percent of the
stems larger than 0.6 inches (1.5 cm) in d.b.h. were oak and hickory.
Ten years later, 64 percent of the stems were oak and hickory,
indicating that a stand can replace itself.  Scarlet oak increased from
a prefire density of 253 stems per acre (625 stems/ha) to a postfire
density of 329 stems per acre (813 stems/ha).  Scarlet oak basal area
decreased from (2.7 m sq/ha) prefire to (0.6 m sq/ha) postfire.
However, scarlet oak maintained its position as the third most frequent
overstory species behind white oak and black oak.  New stems were
primarily from basal sprouting [37].

Scarlet oak is restricted from the pine-scrub oak communities of the New
Jersey Pine Barrens because it does not produce viable seed at a young
enough age to become established in areas that burn every 8 to 12 years
[31,32].  In the Pine Barrens, scarlet oak is usually restricted to the
later successional forests along with white, black, and chestnut oaks
[19].

FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find FIRE REGIMES".
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: hardwood, tree

Prescribed fire is often used to control hardwoods and promote
establishment of pine.  In a study on the South Carolina Piedmont,
spring felling of leafed-out residual oaks (scarlet, chestnut, and
black) followed by summer burning produced greater reductions of
dominant sprout height and sprout clump crown diameters at the end of
the first postfire growing season than did winter felling followed by
summer broadcast burning.  Spring felling was probably more effective
because carbohydrate root reserves are low after leaves emerge [17].

Because of the prolific sprouting of scarlet oak, prescribed burning
without additional use of herbicides or mechanical removal may not
adequately control this species.  Prescribed burning is not recommended
for hardwood control, including scarlet oak, for shortleaf pine (Pinus
echinata) regeneration on the Cumberland Plateau in Kentucky [63].

Equations have been developed to estimate the fire-caused mortality of
scarlet oak.  In order to predict mortality, a manager needs to know the
tree d.b.h., the height of bark blackening, the width of bark blackening
1 foot (0.3 m) above the ground, and the season of fire.  The equation
should be applied to trees between 3 and 16 inches (7.6-40.6 cm) in
d.b.h. [35].  Equations have also been developed to predict lumber value
losses due to fire wounding of scarlet oak [36].  An equation has been
developed to predict the size of a fire wound on a scarlet oak from the
area of the exterior discolored bark and the diameter of the damaged
tree [45].

Scarlet oak is a preferred species for shelterbelts around farms and
houses to protect them from fire in open country.  The row of trees
reduces wind velocity, filters out air borne debris, slows ground fires,
and readily regenerates after fire [52].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

  
   Phanerophyte
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat characteristics

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: hardwood, shrub, tree

Scarlet oak, an upland xerophytic species, commonly occurs on ridges and
slopes in hilly to mountainous terrain.  It occurs up to 5,000 feet
(1,520 m) in the southern Appalachian Mountains but is most common below
3,000 feet (910 m) [24].  In the Smoky Mountains, scarlet oak is most
frequent in middle and lower slope positions centered around 2,500 feet
(760 m) in elevation [61].  Scarlet oak will also grow in valley sites
on generally coarser soils than white oak [46].

Scarlet oak grows in a wide variety of soils, but especially in dry
sandy or gravelly soils [20,24].  It is most common on lower quality
sites [56].  In 51 upland hardwood stands on the Virginia Piedmont,
scarlet oak was significantly associated with low soil clay content
(p less than 0.05), low soil calcium (p less than 0.01), low soil magnesium (p less than 0.05), and
low pH (p less than 0.05) [15].

Common small tree and shrub associates of scarlet oak not mentioned in
Distribution and Occurrence include sassafras (Sassafras albidum),
flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), redbud (Cercis canadensis), sourwood
(Oxydendrum arboreum), sumacs (Rhus spp.), hawthorns (Crataegus spp.),
eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), greenbriers (Smilax spp.),
blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), and huckleberries (Gaylussacia spp.).
Mountain-laurel (Kalmia latifolia) is an associate on very dry sites
[24,56].
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Cover Types

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: hardwood

    14  Northern pin oak
    40  Post oak - blackjack oak
    43  Bear oak
    44  Chestnut oak
    45  Pitch pine
    51  White pine - chestnut oak
    52  White oak - black oak - northern red oak
    53  White oak
    75  Shortleaf pine
    76  Shortleaf pine - oak
    78  Virginia pine - oak
    79  Virginia pine
    82  Loblolly pine - hardwood
   110  Black oak
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Ecosystem

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

   FRES10  White - red - jack pine
   FRES13  Loblolly - shortleaf pine
   FRES14  Oak - pine
   FRES15  Oak - hickory
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Habitat: Plant Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: forest

   K095  Great Lakes pine forest
   K100  Oak - hickory forest
   K104  Appalachian oak forest
   K110  Northeastern oak - pine forest
   K111  Oak - hickory - pine forest
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: fire interval, litter, surface fire

Small scarlet oak are easily top-killed by low-severity surface fires,
and larger scarlet oak may suffer severe basal damage [24].  Scarlet oak
is less resistant to basal injury than black oak, white oak, or chestnut
oak.  Scarlet oak is often severely wounded even when the area of
discolored bark is comparatively small.  Fire wounds often extend far
beyond the region of bark discoloration [45].

Because bark thickens with age, the longer the fire interval, the
greater the chance a thin-barked species will develop bark thick enough
to protect it from a low-severity surface fire.  Scarlet oak is reduced
in number by short-interval fires because of its thin bark and slow
growth [22].

Almost all scarlet oak in a 23-year-old mixed oak-hickory stand in
Missouri were top-killed by a spring fire [37].

Acorns cannot withstand the amount of heat usually generated in leaf
litter fires [28].  Acorns buried in the soil by animals may survive,
although documentation of this possibility with respect to scarlet oak
was not found in the literature.
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Scarlet oak acorns are an important food source for numerous upland
wildlife species including squirrels, chipmunks, mice, wild turkeys,
white-tailed deer, blue jays, and woodpeckers [24].  White-tailed deer
occasionally browse young oak sprouts.  The deer only take the top few
inches of the sprout unless it is extremely succulent or other food is
scarce [33].

Small mammals and birds use scarlet oak for nesting sites, both in the
canopy and in cavities [2,56]. 
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Key Plant Community Associations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: codominant, cover, cover type, forest

Scarlet oak is a common component of many eastern and central dry upland
forests.  Nearly pure stands of scarlet oak grow in areas of the Ozark
Plateau in Missouri [24].  A chestnut oak (Quercus prinus)-scarlet oak
variant of the chestnut oak SAF cover type is found on upper slopes and
ridges in the central Appalachians.  Scarlet oak is also prominent in
several variants of the white oak (Q. alba)-black oak (Q.
velutina)-northern red oak (Q. rubra) SAF cover type [14].

At middle and lower elevations in the Appalachian Mountains, scarlet oak
is often a major component of pine (Pinus spp.) forests and pine heaths
[61].  Scarlet oak constitutes an important component of the subcanopy
and canopy layers of Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens) forest [62].

The following published classifications list scarlet oak as a codominant
species:

Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains [61]
Old growth forests within the Piedmont of South Carolina [25]
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: tree

Tree
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bibliographic citation
Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Management considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: density, forest, frequency, mesic, top-kill, tree

Forest managers have noticed a decrease in upland oak frequency in newly
regenerated stands after clearcutting, especially on good sites.  The
reason for the decrease is the inability of oak seedlings to compete
successfully with late successional, fast-growing species that have
invaded the oak forest understory in the absence of fire [51].

Oak seedlings that are occasionally top-killed will sprout from the
stump.  These sprouts, known as advance regeneration, have
well-developed root systems.  They grow faster than true seedlings and
are better able to compete successfully.  To regenerate upland oaks
successfully, advance regeneration must be 4 to 5 feet (1.2-1.5 m) tall
before the overstory is removed.  Regeneration of a mixed oak forest
after clearcutting can be successful only if there are adequate numbers
of older advance regeneration or saplings [51].  Sanders [50] recommends
there be at least 433 well-distributed oak sprouts and saplings per acre
(1,070/ha).  Otherwise, a shelterwood silviculture system is needed to
give oak regeneration time and partial light to grow [24,51,59].  For
best results, the shelterwood cut should leave a 60 to 70 percent
stocking density.  All nonoak stems in the understory larger than 4 to 6
feet (1.2-1.8 m) tall should be killed [51].

The season of clearcutting appears to have an effect on the regeneration
of upland oaks stands.  On medium quality sites in south-central Ohio,
upland oaks (chestnut, scarlet, black and white) were more favored over
mixed hardwoods after summer clearcutting than after winter
clearcutting.  The season of harvest (dormant season versus growing
season) did not affect regeneration on good sites [59].

Site quality affects the ability of upland oaks to regenerate.  In the
above study in south-central Ohio, medium quality sites had higher
absolute and relative oak densities 18 to 20 years after clearcutting
than did good sites.  The oaks showed good early establishment on both
medium and good sites but were later unable to compete with the faster
growing, mesic hardwoods on good sites [59].

Information on storage, seeding, and planting techniques for upland oaks
is detailed [49].  A method for increasing the growth rate of northern
red oak seedlings in nurseries has been developed and may be applicable
to scarlet oak [55].

Once scarlet oak stands are established, thinning increases the growth
rate of remaining trees.  Thirty-two-year-old scarlet oaks showed 12
years of increased differential diameter growth beginning 6 to 7 years
after thinning.  The reason for the delayed response is unknown [10].
Information on thinning, stocking, growth and yields of upland oaks is
detailed [18].  Thinning upland oak stands to retain the best acorn
producers for wildlife habitat enhancement did not improve acorn yields
enough to justify the efforts [13].

Scarlet oak is susceptible to a number of insects and diseases.  Gypsy
moth (Lymantria dispar), an introduced species, defoliates scarlet oak,
and successive defoliations can kill a tree.  Other insects that
defoliate scarlet oak include oak leaftier (Croesia semipurpurana), fall
cankerworm (Alsophila pometaria), forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma
disstria), and walkingstick (Diapheromera femorata).  Insects that bore
into the trunk include twolined chestnut borer (Agrilus bilineatus), red
oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus), oak timberworm (Arrhenodes minutus),
Ambrosia beetles (Platypus spp. and Xyleborus spp.), and the larvae of
carpenterworms (Prionoxystus spp.).  Egg-laying activity of the gouty
oak gall wasp (Callirhytis quercuepuntata) results in galls on smaller
twigs and limbs, and the oak-apple gall wasp (Amphibolips confluenta)
causes gall growth on leaves and petioles.  Black carpenter ants
(Camponotus pennsylvanicus) sometimes nest in standing trees [24].

Scarlet oak is susceptible to oak wilt caused by the fungus Cerotocystis
fagacearum, and infected trees may die within 1 month.  Cankers are
caused by Nectria spp. and Strummella coryneoidea.  Fungi, such as
Stereum gausapatum, cause heart rot and enter the bole through branch
stubs and fire wounds.  Scarlet oak does not self-prune well, and old
branch stubs facilitate fungi entry [24].  Pruning a scarlet oak stand
results in better timber quality [7].  Sprouts are susceptible to heart
rot; sprouts from large diameter stumps are more susceptible than those
from small diameter stumps [24].

Scarlet oaks that are stressed from drought, gypsy moth defoliation,
spring frost defoliation, old age, fire, poor site conditions, or other
factors often succumb to secondary agents such as twolined chestnut
borer and shoestring root rot (Armillaria mellea).  This scenario, in
which a primary agent stresses the tree and a secondary agent kills it,
is known as "oak decline" and is responsible for considerable scarlet
oak mortality.  For instance, from 1968 to 1972, 27 percent of scarlet
oak in the Newark Watershed in New Jersey died from gypsy moth
defoliation followed by twolined chestnut borer and shoestring root rot
attack [42].  Based on site factors, a general stand classification of
mortality risk from oak decline has been developed [53].

Herbicides have been used to control scarlet oak on sites where pine
regeneration is desired.  In order to convert a North Carolina
Appalachian site to white pine (Pinus strobus), picloram was applied in
May as 10 percent acid equivalent pellets at the rate of 4.5 pounds acid
equivalent per acre (5.0 kg ae/ha).  One year later, 19 percent of the
scarlet oaks showed complete crown kill or defoliation; 72 percent showed
leaf curling, crown biomass reduction, and/or chlorosis; and 9 percent
exhibited no effect from the herbicide treatment [44].

In Georgia, three herbicides were tested on scarlet oak.  Each tree
received one incision for every 3 inches (7.6 cm) in d.b.h.; each
incision was injected with 0.06 ounces (2 ml) of herbicide.  One year
after injection, scarlet oaks injected with Arsenal at two different
concentrations (1 and 2 pounds AC 252,925 per gallon [120 and 240 g/l])
had 100 percent top-kill and no sprouting.  Garlon 3A (1.5 pounds
triclopyr per gallon [180 g/l]) resulted in 50 percent top-kill.
Scarlet oak injected with 3,6-dichloropicolinic acid at two
concentrations (1.5 and 3 pounds XRM-3972 per gallon [180 and 360 g/l])
resulted in 0 percent and 20 percent top-kill, respectively [41].

When managing forests for cavity-nesting species, scarlet oak should be
selected over hickories (Carya spp.) and white oak because of its high
number of cavities.  In southeastern Missouri, 21.2 percent of scarlet
oaks had cavities.  The average d.b.h. of cavity trees was 12.2 inches
(31.0 cm) with bigger trees having larger cavities [2].  In the Great
Smoky Mountains National Park, dead standing scarlet oak decays at a
rate of 5.7 percent per year [21].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Nutritional Value

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Scarlet oak acorns are on average 14.6 percent crude fat, 35.6 percent
total carbohydrates, 4.2 percent total protein, 0.18 percent calcium,
0.07 percent phosphorus, and 0.07 percent magnesium [4].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Occurrence in North America

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     AL  CT  DE  GA  IL  IN  KY  ME  MD  MA
     MI  MS  MO  NH  NJ  NY  NC  OH  PA  RI
     SC  TN  VA  VT  WV
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Other uses and values

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More info for the term: tree

Scarlet oak is widely planted in the United States and Europe as a shade
tree and ornamental.  It has brilliant red foliage in autumn [24].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Palatability

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The sprouts of scarlet oak are more palatable to white-tailed deer than
the sprouts of bear oak [34].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

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Scarlet oak flowers in April or May, depending on latitude, elevation,
and weather.  Acorns mature in two growing seasons.  They ripen and drop
in the fall and germinate in the spring [24].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Plant Response to Fire

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More info for the terms: density, fire frequency, forest, frequency, moderate-severity fire, root crown, severity

Scarlet oak individuals, including seedlings, sprout from the root crown
when top-killed.  Individuals that survive fire often have basal fire
wounds.

Fire-wounded scarlet oaks sometime suffer a reduction in the rate of
diameter growth.  A severe fire in the Bent Creek Experimental Forest in
North Carolina resulted in larger reductions in growth than a
moderate-severity fire.  While unwounded scarlet oaks grew on average of
0.20 inch per year (0.50 cm/yr) in diameter, scarlet oak with 1 to 25
percent, 25 to 50 percent, and more than 50 percent of the base wounded
grew 0.17 inch per year (0.43 cm/yr), 0.14 inch per year (0.36 cm/yr),
and 0.09 inch per year (0.23 cm/y), respectively [23].

The mortality of oak trees from fire is often delayed.  Six months after
two surface fires of different severity in southern New York, living
butt-scorched trees (larger than 1 inch [2.5 cm] in d.b.h.) were tagged
for future study.  In the less severely burned area, 23 percent of the
tagged scarlet oak were dead 1.5 years after the fire.  Smaller diameter
trees, especially those less than 5 inches (12.7 cm), had the highest
mortality.  In the other area that burned more severely because of a
dense understory of mountain-laurel, 100 percent of the tagged scarlet
oaks were dead 1.5 years after the fire.  The authors concluded that at
least one postfire growing season must elapse before fire damage to oaks
can be accurately determined [54].

The density of scarlet oak stems generally increases after fire because
of sprouting.  Two growing seasons after two annual fires in an oak-pine
stand in the Cumberland Plateau in Kentucky, scarlet oak and black oak
stems increased from a prefire density of approximately 1,250 stems per
acre (3,090 stems/ha) to a postfire density of approximately 1,750 stems
per acre (4,320 stems/ha) [63].

If high fire frequency is continued, however, scarlet oak density will
eventually decrease as rootstocks weaken and die.  After 27 years of
annual burning in a Tennessee upland oak forest, both overstory and
understory stem densities of scarlet oak were considerably reduced [11].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Post-fire Regeneration

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More info for the terms: secondary colonizer, tree

   Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/root sucker
   Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Regeneration Processes

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More info for the terms: competition, cover, density, forest, frequency, hypogeal, litter, root crown, seed, shrubs, tree, xeric

Sexual:  Seed production begins when the tree is about 20 years old,
with maximum production occurring after 50 years of age.  Seed
production is irregular and unpredictable, but good crops generally
occur every 3 to 5 years [24].  Seeds are disseminated by animals and
gravity.

Germination is hypogeal.  A light covering of forest litter is ideal for
germination [24].  In oak-pine forests in the New Jersey Pine Barrens,
scarlet oak seedlings occurred more frequently in areas with moss-lichen
cover and shallow litter layers than in areas with deep litter.  The
mean litter depth of 1-year-old seedlings was 0.9 inch (2.2 cm) [7].  In
another study, the density of scarlet oak seedlings was negatively
correlated with deep litter coverage on some sites.  However, this
negative correlation may be related to light availability because more
litter accumulated near shrubs [39].

A moderately open overstory canopy provides a favorable environment for
germination [24].  In the Pine Barrens of New Jersey, scarlet oak
seedlings occurred on sites with a higher percent (37.6) of full sun
than did chestnut oak or white oak.  In addition, scarlet oak seedlings
occurred on sites with less competition, determined by distance to
closest neighbor in the ground layer.  However, because acorns have
large energy reserves, 1-year-old seedlings may not be highly site
specific [7].

Vegetative:  If top-killed, scarlet oak sprouts from dormant buds at or
above the root crown.  Nearly 100 percent of stumps smaller than 4
inches (10 cm) in d.b.h. sprout, and about 18 percent of trees 24 inches
(61 cm) in d.b.h. sprout [24].  In a study on the Virginia Piedmont, the
season of harvest did not affect the the sprouting frequency of scarlet
oak stumps [27].

Scarlet oak stumps initially produce large numbers of sprouts [24], but
over time, sprout clumps tend towards the survival of one or two stems.
In one study, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 years after cutting, the average
number of sprouts per stump was 9.0, 4.6, 2.7, 1.9, 1.5, and 1.3,
respectively [40].  Between the ages 4 and 8, stem-to-stem competition
within a scarlet oak clump is a more dominating interaction than
competition between clumps [8].

Scarlet oak sprouts grow faster in the first 5 years than the sprouts of
most associated oak species, but height growth falls off rapidly after
20 years [24].  The sprouts concentrate on stem growth during the first
and second growth flushes.  A third flush does not show nearly as much
growth which may be because this species is adapted to xeric sites where
moisture stress limits growth later in the growing season [57].

Juveniles often die back and sprout numerous times, thus becoming
advance regeneration.  Seedling sprouts grow faster than seedlings, with
the sprout growth rate dependent on the thickness of the stem [24].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Successional Status

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More info for the terms: association, climax, codominant, forest

Scarlet oak is intolerant of shade [24].  Seeds can germinate in the
shade, but seedlings do not exhibit long-term survival or growth under a
closed canopy [11].  Scarlet oak is usually found in dominant and
codominant positions, since suppressed individuals eventually die [24].

Scarlet oak tends to be better represented in forests with a history of
disturbance such as fire, logging, grazing, or disease [24,38].  In a
study of long-term forest composition in North Carolina, scarlet oak
regeneration was low for over 30 years, suggesting population
recruitment of this species is episodic and probably dependent on
disturbance.  In the absence of disturbance, codominant scarlet oak
declines in importance in mixed oak stands [47].

Scarlet oak may be climax on dry sites with adequate light because of
its drought tolerance [24].  Little [32] suggests mixed oak forests of
black, white, chestnut, and scarlet oaks may represent a physiographic
climax association on upland sites in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Synonyms

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Quercus richteri Baenitz
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The currently accepted scientific name of scarlet oak is Quercus coccinea
Muenchh. (Fagaceae)[24,30]. Scarlet oak has been placed within the the
subgenus Erythrobalanus, or red (black) oak group [20]. A rarely recognized
variety, Quercus coccinea var. tuberculata Sarg., is distinguished by
thickened tuberculate scales of the cup [5].

Scarlet oak hybridizes with the following species [24,30]:

x Q. ilicifolia (bear oak): Q. X robbinsii Trel.
x Q. velutina (black oak): Q. X fontana Laughlin
x Q. palustris (pin oak)
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Wood Products Value

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Although scarlet oak wood is of inferior grade, it is cut and utilized
with other red oaks as red oak lumber [20].
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Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Associated Forest Cover

provided by Silvics of North America
Scarlet oak is recognized as an important component of 14 forest cover types in North America (8). It is a major component of two variants of Chestnut Oak (Society of American Foresters Type 44). The chestnut oak-scarlet oak variant is found on upper slopes and ridge tops in the central Appalachians; the chestnut oak-black oak-scarlet oak variant is common in the Southeast. It is also a major component of three variants of White Oak-Black Oak-Northern Red Oak (Type 52): black oak-scarlet oak, black oak-scarlet oak-chestnut oak, and scarlet oak-chestnut oak. Nearly pure stands of scarlet oak grow in areas of the Ozark Plateau in Missouri.

Other forest types that include scarlet oak as an associate are Northern Pin Oak (Type 14), Post Oak-Blackjack Oak (Type 40), Black Oak (Type 110), Bear Oak (Type 43), White Oak (Type 53), Shortleaf Pine-Oak (Type 76), Loblolly Pine-Hardwood (Type 82), Pitch Pine (Type 45), Shortleaf Pine (Type 75), Virginia Pine (Type 79), Virginia Pine-Oak (Type 78), and White Pine-Chestnut Oak (Type 51).

Common less important trees and shrubs associated with scarlet oak include flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), mountain-laurel (Kalmia latifolia), sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum), and vacciniums (Vaccinium spp.).

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Climate

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The range of scarlet oak is within the humid region. Average annual precipitation ranges from 760 mm (30 in) along the western edge of the region to 1400 mm (55 in) in the southeast and at the higher elevations. Mean annual temperatures and growing season lengths range from about 10° C (50° F) and 120 days in New England to 18° C (65° F) and 240 days in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina. Actual temperatures range from a minimum of -33° C (- 28° F) in the north to a maximum near 41° C (105° F) in the south.

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Damaging Agents

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Because of its thin bark, scarlet oak is very susceptible to fire damage. If not killed outright, the tree is usually injured so that sap or heart rots enter (4). This weakness, coupled with a dry environment, helps explain the high mortality or severe damage to trees even from light ground fires. Nevertheless, basal sprouting from fire-killed scarlet oaks may be prolific.

Heart rots of scarlet oak can enter the bole through branch stubs even at an early age and cause severe damage. Heart rots are especially common in stump sprouts that originate high on the stump (4). In one study, decay in scarlet oak sprouts that originated at or below ground line was only 9 percent, whereas decay in sprouts originating 2.5 cm (I in) or more above ground was 44 percent (22). The fungus Stereum gausapatum, which is transmitted from stump to sprout, was the most common cause of decay.

Scarlet oak is also susceptible to oak wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearum). Trees attacked by this fungus may die within a month after the first symptoms appear. This oak is also subject to cankers of Nectria spp. and Strummella coryneoidea. These diseases are especially severe from Virginia northward (4).

The major insect defoliators in scarlet oak include the oak leafteater (Croesia semipurpurana), fall cankerworm (Alsophila pometaria), forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria), gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), and orangestriped oakworm. (Anisota senatoria) (19). Coupled with defoliation by spring frosts, repeated defoliation by these insects either individually or in combination is thought to be the primary cause of "decline" and mortality of scarlet oak and other oaks in the red oak group in Pennsylvania. Similarly, in the Missouri Ozarks, scarlet oak decline has been linked to a complex of factors including insects, disease, drought, and soil-site relations (13).

The walkingstick (Diapheromera femorata) may severely defoliate scarlet oak, particularly in the northern portion of the scarlet oak range. The twolined chestnut borer (Agrilus bilineatus) is a secondary pest of scarlet and other oaks following drought, fire, frost damage, or defoliation by other insects. Larvae of carpenterworms (Prionoxystus sp.) can damage scarlet oak by tunneling into heartwood and sapwood. They prefer open grown trees or trees growing on poor sites. Ambrosia beetles (Platypus sp. and Xyleborus sp.) and the oak timberworm (Arrhenodes minutus) can invade and damage freshly cut or wounded trees (4). The red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus) breeds in trunks of living trees greater than 5 cm (2 in) d.b.h. Larvae bore into phloem and cause serious defect and degrade; ants and fungi may then enter wounds and cause further injury (1). The black carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus) sometimes nests in standing trees. Ants may enter the tree through stem cracks, scars, and holes and may extend their galleries into sound wood (1). The gouty oak gall wasp (Callirhytis quercuepunctata) can produce galls on twigs and smaller limbs of scarlet oak, and heavy infestations may kill the entire tree. Also, the large oak-apple gall wasp (Amphibolips confluenta) may cause gall on the leaves or leaf petioles of scarlet oak (1).

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Flowering and Fruiting

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Scarlet oak is monoecious. It flowers in April or May, depending on latitude, elevation, and weather. Two growing seasons are required for the acorns to mature (20).

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Genetics

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Scarlet oak hybridizes with black oak (Quercus velutina), producing Q. x fontana Laughlin, and with bear oak (Quercus ilicifolia), producing Q. x robbinsii Trel.; it also hybridizes with pin oak (Q. palustris).

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Growth and Yield

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Scarlet oak is a medium-sized tree, normally maturing when 18 to 24 m (60 to 80 ft) tall and 61 to 91 cm (24 to 36 in) d.b.h. Maximum size is about 30 m (100 ft) in height and 122 cm (48 in) in d.b.h. The tree grows rapidly and matures early. Economic maturity is reached at 46 to 58 cm (18 to 23 in) d.b.h., depending on vigor class (4).

In diameter growth, scarlet oak ranks ahead or equal to that of associated oaks. Among 11 species compared in pole-size stands in the Central States, average 10-year diameter growth for scarlet oaks was exceeded only by yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and black walnut (Juglans nigra) (9). However, on poor sites, scarlet oak probably grows more rapidly than any of its associates (4). Yields of fully stocked unthinned oak stands in which scarlet oak is present range at age 80 from about 75.6 m³/ha (5,400 fbm/acre) for site index 55 to 175.0 m³/ha (12,500 fbm/acre) for site index 75 (10). Thinning scarlet oak stands can greatly increase growth and quality of individual trees (7,12).

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Reaction to Competition

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Scarlet oak is classed as very intolerant of shade. Except for reproduction under older stands, it is usually found only as a dominant or codominant (4). Its absence in suppressed or intermediate positions is indicative of its intolerance. It probably maintains its dominance on dry sites because of its rapid growth and drought tolerance, and because of light conditions that are adequate for the establishment and development of reproduction (4,21).

When site index is equal, scarlet oak tends to be better represented in forests with a fire history than in forests with little or no evidence of past burning (3). Its better representation on burned sites may be related to its vigorous sprouting ability after burning, together with the elimination of more fire-sensitive competitors.

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Rooting Habit

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Scarlet oak seedlings develop a strong taproot with relatively few lateral roots. Difficulties in transplanting this species may be related to its coarse root system plus its relatively slow rate of root regeneration (16).

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Seed Production and Dissemination

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Minimum seed-bearing age is 20 years, but maximum production does not occur until after 50 years of age. Seed production increases with tree size up to a diameter of 51 cm (20 in), then levels off. On the average, good seed crops occur every 3 to 5 years, although actual seed production may be irregular and unpredictable from year to year. In Missouri, scarlet oak acorn crops tend to be more variable than those of black oak (Quercus uelutina), white oak (Q. alba), post oak (Q. stellata), and blackjack oak (Q. marilandica) (4,5).

Maximum annual production of mature scarlet oak acorns in Missouri for a 4-year period was about 25 acorns per square meter (2 or 3/ft²) of crown area (18). In contrast, maximum annual production of black oak and white oak acorns was 70 to 75/m² (about 7/ft²)during the same period. In the Southeast, scarlet oak acorn production has averaged 14.6 kg/m² (3.0 lb/ft²) of basal area of scarlet red oak trees for a 12-year period (2). This production rate was about 25 percent of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and about 36 percent of white oak during the same period; however, scarlet oak acorn production exceeded that of black oak and chestnut oak (Q. prinus).

More than 80 percent of mature scarlet oak acorns may be destroyed by insects. Most insect damage occurs after acorn fall. The most important insect pests are nut weevils (Curculio spp.), moth larvae (Lepidoptera), and cynipid gall wasps (Cynipidae) (18). The proportion of uninfested acorns is usually highest in years of greatest seed production.

Scarlet oak acorns are a choice food for eastern gray squirrels, chipmunks, mice, wild turkey, deer, and birds, especially blue jays and red-headed woodpeckers (4). One-third to one-half of acorn losses have been attributed to removal by birds and squirrels while the acorns were still on the tree.

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Seedling Development

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A light covering of forest litter is beneficial to the germination of scarlet oak acorns; no litter or a deep litter is less favorable. A moderately open overstory canopy provides a more favorable environment for acorn germination than does a completely closed or very open canopy (4). Germination is hypogeal.

Shoots of scarlet oak seedlings commonly die back and resprout, thus forming seedling sprouts; resprouting occurs from dormant buds at or above the root collar. As a result of recurrent shoot dieback, root systems of scarlet oaks may be many years older than shoots. The potential rate of annual height growth of this reproduction increases with increasing basal diameter of sprouts (23). Young stump sprouts may produce up to three flushes of shoot growth per growing season (6). However, individual flush lengths get progressively shorter as the season progresses. Despite the initial rapid height growth of scarlet oak stump sprouts, a comparison of site index curves for sprouts with conventional curves indicated that the height growth of sprouts falls off rapidly after 20 years (26).

A two-cut shelterwood method has been recommended to regenerate scarlet oaks with the first cut made to provide a favorable germination environment (4). The second cut is made to release the advanced regeneration as soon as sufficient numbers of stems are large enough to successfully compete with the other vegetation that will develop when the remaining overstory is removed (24).

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Soils and Topography

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Scarlet oak is found on a wide variety of soils. The soil groups with which it is most frequently associated in the northern portion of its range include Fragiudalfs, Hapludalfs, and Paleudalfs of the order Alfisols (much of these formerly classified as gray-brown podzolic soils). In the northeastern portion of the species range, the predominant soil group is the Dystrochrept of the order Inceptisols (which includes soils formerly classified as brown podzolic). In the south, the species range lies within the area of soil groups that include Fragiudults, Hapludults, and Paleudults of the order Ultisols (much of these formerly classified as red-yellow podzolic soils).

The site index of scarlet oak at base age 50 years ranges from 11.3 to 27.7 in (37 to 91 ft) in the Missouri Ozarks (4,15). In the southern Appalachians, it regenerates and competes best on middle to upper slopes of southern exposure (17). However, site index increases with increasing depth of the A horizon, decreasing amounts of sand in the A horizon, and lower position on the slope. In the northern Appalachians, position on the slope, slope gradient, aspect, and soil depth to bedrock are also important site factors (4).

Although its successional position has not been defined, scarlet oak is probably a climax tree on dry soils. Because of its hardiness, it can be planted on a wide variety of soils.

Maximum elevation for scarlet oak is about 1520 in (5,000 ft) in the southern Appalachians; it is common at elevations less than 910 in (3,000 ft).

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Special Uses

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In addition to its value as a timber and wildlife species, scarlet oak is widely planted as an ornamental. Its brilliant red autumn color, open crown texture, and rapid growth make it a desirable tree for yard, street, and park.

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Vegetative Reproduction

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Scarlet oak stumps produce sprouts at greater ages and larger sizes than most other oaks (4). They also produce a larger number of sprouts per stump and these sprouts grow faster than those of most associated oaks, hickories (Carya spp.), and red maple (Acer rubrum) during the first 5 years (25). However, the percent of stumps that sprout decreases from near 100 percent for trees 10 cm (4 in) d.b.h. and smaller to about 18 percent for trees 61 cm (24 in) d.b.h. (11).

In a study of scarlet oak sprouts in the Appalachians, 28 percent had butt rot, and sprouts from large stumps were more subject to butt rot than sprouts from small stumps (22). As the sprouts grow older, the rot spreads and may weaken the trees to a point where they break off during high winds. Because of poor natural pruning, only one-third of scarlet oak crop trees originating from sprouts produce stems with desirable bole quality, even on good sites, i.e., oak site index 23 in (75 ft) (27). However, in coppice stands, thinning sprout clumps to one stem can increase growth and survival of the remaining stem (14).

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Distribution

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Scarlet oak is found from southwestern Maine west to New York, Ohio, southern Michigan, and Indiana; south to southern Illinois, southeastern Missouri, and central Mississippi; east to southern Alabama and southwestern Georgia; and north along the western edge of the Coastal Plain to Virginia.


-The native range of scarlet oak.


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Brief Summary

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Fagaceae -- Beech family

Paul S. Johnson

Scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), also called black oak, red oak, or Spanish oak, is best known for its brilliant autumn color. It is a large rapid-growing tree of the Eastern United States found on a variety of soils in mixed forests, especially light sandy and gravelly upland ridges and slopes. Best development is in the Ohio River Basin. In commerce, the lumber is mixed with that of other red oaks. Scarlet oak is a popular shade tree and has been widely planted in the United States and Europe.

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Quercus coccinea

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Quercus coccinea, the scarlet oak, is an oak in the red oak section Quercus sect. Lobatae. The scarlet oak can be mistaken for the pin oak, the black oak, or occasionally the red oak. On scarlet oak the sinuses between lobes are "C"-shaped in comparison to pin oak (Q. palustris), which has "U"-shaped sinuses and the acorns are half covered by a deep cap.[3]

Scarlet oak is mainly native to the central and eastern United States, from southern Maine west to Wisconsin, Michigan and Missouri, and south as far as Louisiana, Alabama, and Georgia.[4] It occurs on dry, sandy, usually acidic soils. It is often an important canopy species in an oak–heath forest.[5][6]

Description

Quercus coccinea is a medium-large deciduous tree growing to 20–30 m (67–100 feet) tall with an open, rounded crown.

The leaves are glossy green, 7–17 cm (2.8–6.8 inches) long and 8–13 cm (3.2–5.2 inches) broad, lobed, with seven lobes, and deep sinuses between the lobes. Each lobe has 3–7 bristle-tipped teeth. The leaf is hairless (unlike the related pin oak, which has tufts of pale orange-brown down where the lobe veins join the central vein). The common English name is derived from the autumn coloration of the foliage, which generally becomes bright scarlet; in contrast, pin oak foliage generally turns bronze in autumn.

The acorns are ovate, 7–13 mm broad and 17–31 mm long, a third to a half covered in a deep cup, green maturing pale brown about 18 months after pollination; the kernel is very bitter.[7]

Uses

Scarlet oak is sometimes planted as an ornamental tree, popular for its bright red fall color. The cultivar 'Splendens' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[8][9]

References

  1. ^ Wenzell , K.; Kenny, L. (2015). "Quercus coccinea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T194079A2296706. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T194079A2296706.en. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Quercus coccinea Münchh.". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – via The Plant List.
  3. ^ University of Connecticut Plant Database: Quercus coccinea
  4. ^ "Quercus coccinea". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.
  5. ^ The Natural Communities of Virginia Classification of Ecological Community Groups (Version 2.3), Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, 2010 Archived January 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Schafale, M. P. and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina: third approximation. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation.
  7. ^ Nixon, Kevin C. (1997). "Quercus coccinea". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 3. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  8. ^ "Quercus coccinea 'Splendens': scarlet oak 'Splendens'". RHS Gardening. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  9. ^ "AGM Plants – Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 83. Retrieved 23 September 2018.

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Quercus coccinea: Brief Summary

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Quercus coccinea, the scarlet oak, is an oak in the red oak section Quercus sect. Lobatae. The scarlet oak can be mistaken for the pin oak, the black oak, or occasionally the red oak. On scarlet oak the sinuses between lobes are "C"-shaped in comparison to pin oak (Q. palustris), which has "U"-shaped sinuses and the acorns are half covered by a deep cap.

Scarlet oak is mainly native to the central and eastern United States, from southern Maine west to Wisconsin, Michigan and Missouri, and south as far as Louisiana, Alabama, and Georgia. It occurs on dry, sandy, usually acidic soils. It is often an important canopy species in an oak–heath forest.

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