Polynoidae

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Polynoidae is a family of marine Polychaete worms known as "scale worms" due to the scale-like elytra on the dorsal surface. Almost 900 species are currently recognised belonging to 9 subfamilies and 167 genera.[1] They are active hunters, but generally dwell in protected environments such as under stones. The group is widely distributed from shallow intertidal waters to hadal trenches.[2] They are the most diverse group of polychaetes in terms of genus number and second most diverse in terms of species number which is almost 8% of all segmented worm species.[1]

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A scale worm moving along the substrate at a depth of 20m in the Lembeh Strait

Description

Most Polynoidae species are short and flattened, but can reach as much as 20 cm in length and 10 cm width in Eulagisca gigantea and Eulagisca uschakovi. Individuals are usually covered almost entirely by elytra, which can be shed and regenerated in many species. The elytra of some species are faintly bioluminescent, and leave glowing traces around the mouthparts of their predators, making those predators more likely to be attacked in turn.[3]

Deep sea

The first deep-sea species of Polynoidae was collected at 1230m during the Challenger Expedition and several a number of subfamilies appear to be restricted to the deep sea below 500m.[2] Species have colonised submarine caves and hydrothermal vents. Deep sea species are characterised by a partial or complete loss of antennae, fewer segments, a reduction in jaws and delicate elytra.[2][4]

Phylogenetic relationships

The Polynoidae has recently been shown to be monophyletic,[5] however relationships within the family are unclear and hence the number of valid subfamilies has been repeatedly revised in recent years. One of the main deep sea subfamilies, the Macellicephalinae has been consistently recovered as paraphyletic[6] and Bonifácio & Menot found that ten Polynoid subfamilies could be synonymized with it to create a homogeneous clade characterised by a lack of lateral antennae.[2] More recently, however, one of the synonymized subfamilies was reinstated.[4]

Genera

The following Polynoidae genera are recognised as valid as of June 2020:[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c Read, G; Fauchald, K. "World Polychaeta database. Polynoidae Kinberg, 1856". World Register of Marine Species.
  2. ^ a b c d Bonifácio, Paulo; Menot, Lénaïck (14 November 2018). "New genera and species from the Equatorial Pacific provide phylogenetic insights into deep-sea Polynoidae (Annelida)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 185 (3): 555–635. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zly063.
  3. ^ Frost, Emily; Waters, Hannah (1 July 2015). "14 Fun Facts About Marine Bristle Worms". Smithsonian.com. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  4. ^ a b Hatch, Avery S.; Liew, Haebin; Hourdez, Stéphane; Rouse, Greg W. (5 December 2020). "Hungry scale worms Phylogenetics of Peinaleopolynoe (Polynoidae, Annelida), with four new species". ZooKeys. 932: 27–74. doi:10.3897/zookeys.932.48532. ISSN 1313-2989.
  5. ^ Gonzalez, Brett C.; Martínez, Alejandro; Borda, Elizabeth; Iliffe, Thomas M.; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Worsaae, Katrine (2018). "Phylogeny and systematics of Aphroditiformia". Cladistics. 34: 225–259. doi:10.1111/cla.12202. ISSN 1096-0031.
  6. ^ Norlinder, E; Nygren, A; Wiklund, H; Pleijel, F (2012). "Phylogeny of scale-worms (Aphroditiformia, Annelida), assessed from 18SrRNA, 28SrRNA, 16SrRNA, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and morphology". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 65 (2): 490–500. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.07.002. PMID 22789762.
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Polynoidae: Brief Summary

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Polynoidae is a family of marine Polychaete worms known as "scale worms" due to the scale-like elytra on the dorsal surface. Almost 900 species are currently recognised belonging to 9 subfamilies and 167 genera. They are active hunters, but generally dwell in protected environments such as under stones. The group is widely distributed from shallow intertidal waters to hadal trenches. They are the most diverse group of polychaetes in terms of genus number and second most diverse in terms of species number which is almost 8% of all segmented worm species.

 src= A scale worm moving along the substrate at a depth of 20m in the Lembeh Strait
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Classification

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Remarkable for the number of small subfamilies which have been erected. The total is twenty one, or twenty two including the nominal subfamily (Polynoinae), and Hanley (1989) lists 17 to that date. As an example Pettibone (1985) had established subfamily Branchinotogluminae for a single new genus Branchinotogluma with three new species, and earlier (1976) she had created five new subfamilies (Macellicephaloidinae, Macelloidinae, Bathyedithinae, Polaruschakovinae, Bathymacellinae). She has created 12 subfamilies in Polynoidae. The latest subfamily is Uncopolynoinae Wehe, 2006, for one genus, with one species imperfectly known. The validity of all these subfamilies needs re-evaluation. Polynoidae sub-families in chronological order (updated from Hanley, 1989) Polynoinae Kinberg, 1856 [nominal] Iphioninae Baird 1865 Lepidonotinae Willey 1902 Harmothoinae Willey 1902 [= Polynoinae Kinberg] Macellicephalinae Hartmann-Schroder 1971 Bathyedithinae Pettibone 1976 Polaruschakovinae Pettibone 1976 Macelloidinae Pettibone 1976 Macellicephaloidinae Pettibone 1976 Bathymacellinae Pettibone 1976 Admetellinae Uschakov 1977 Polyodontinae Muir 1982 [= family Acoetidae] Gesiellinae Muir 1982 Lepidonotopodinae Pettibone 1983 Branchipolynoinae Pettibone 1984 Branchiplicatinae Pettibone 1985a Branchinotogluminae Pettibone 1985b Lepidastheniinae Pettibone 1989 Acholoinae Pettibone, 1996 [= Polynoinae Kinberg] Eulagiscinae Pettibone, 1997 Vampiropolynoinae Marcus & Hourdez, 2002 Uncopolynoinae Wehe, 2006
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bibliographic citation
Hanley, J. Russell 1989. Revision of the scaleworm genera Arctonoe Chamberlin and Gastolepidia Schmarda (Polychaeta: Polynoidae) with the erection of a new subfamily Arctonoinae. The Beagle, Records of the Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences, 6(1): 1-34.
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Read, Geoffrey, G.B.