dcsimg

Comprehensive Description

provided by North American Flora
Dicaeoma glumarum (Schmidt) Arthur & Fromme
Uredo glumarum Schmidt, Nat. Landw. Schadl. Pilze. 1819; Fries, Om Brand och Rost 23. 1821. Uredo glumarum Rab.; Desmaz. PL Crypt. France 1476, 1846; Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 8: 10. 1847. Puccinia neglecta Westend. Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 2: 248. 1863. Trichobasis glumarum. JAv.; Cooke, Micr. Fungi 208. 1865. Puccinia glum.arum Erikss. & Henn. Zeits. Pflanzenkr. 4: 197. 1894.
O and I. Pycnia and aecia unknown.
Uredinia chiefiy epiphyllous and on the sheaths and inflorescence, arranged in long lines, on golden-yellow streaks, sometimes narrow, but frequently forming broad stripes and sometimes affecting the entire leaf or other organ, narrowly oblong, small, up to 1 mm. long, but usually 0.5 mm. or les's, orange-yellow, opening by a longitudinal slit, ruptured epidermis inconspicuous; paraphyses sometimes present, few, hyphoid, peripheral, incurved, 7-9 by 2024 fjL, the wall colorless, 1.5-3 fi thick on convex side, less than 1 ft thick on concave side, colorless, smooth; urediniospores ellipsoid or spheroid, somewhat angular, 16-26 by 19-30 m» with paleyellow contents; wall colorless, thin, about 1-2 ju, very finely and inconspicuously echinulate, the pores scattered, small, 10-15, usually very indistinct.
III, Telia hypophyllous and culmicolous, in long fine lines, similar to the uredinia in size, grayish-black, long covered by the epidermis, surrounded by stromal hyphae; teliospores oblong-clavate, 13-24 by 32-56 m, truncate or rounded above, narrowed below, slightly constricted at septum, germinating at maturity; wall chestnut-brown above, paler below, thin, about 1 fi, slightly thickened at apex, 3-6 n ; pedicel short, concolorous with sporewall ; mesospores sometimes present, 12-16 by 26-32 fx.
On Poaceae:
Agropyron cristatum Beauv., Idaho.
Bromus carinatus Hookerianus (Thurb.) Shear, Washington. Bromus m<iygi^o,tus Nees {B. breviaristatus Buckl.), Washington. Bromus pacificus Shear, Washington. Bromus sitchensis Bong., Washington. Elymus canadensis L., Washington.
Elymus glaucus Buckl. {E. americanus Vasey & Scribn.), California, Oregon, Utah, Washington. Hordeum depressum (Scribn. & Smith) Rydb., California. Hordeum Gussoneanum Pari., Oregon. Hordeum jubatum I,., Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Washington, Wyoming; Alberta;
Mexico (state). Hordeum. murinum. ti., California. Hordeum nodosum I/., Colorado. Hordeum pusillum Nutt., Utah. Hordeum vulgare L. {H. sativum Pers.), Oregon, Washington.
Secale cereale L., Idaho.
Siianion Hystrix (Nutt.) J. G. Smith (5. brevifoUum J. G. Smith, S. elymotdes Raf., 5.
longifolium J. G. Smith), Colorado, Oregon.
Sitanion jubatum J. G. Smith, Oregon, Washington.
Triticum aestivum L. (T. vulgare Vill.), Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washmgton.
Triticum compactum Host, Oregon.
Triticum dicoccum Schrank, Oregon.
Triticum durum Desf., Idaho.
Triticum Spelta L., Idaho. Type locality: Sweden, on Triticum sp. . , . t?
Distribution: Montana to Washington and southward to southern Mexico; also m t,urope,
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
bibliographic citation
Joseph Charles Arthur, Fred. Denton Fromme, Frank Dunn Kern. 1920. (UREDINALES); AECIDIACEAE (continuatio); DICAEOMA ON POACEAE (continuatio), DICAEOMA ON CAREX. North American flora. vol 7(5). New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY
original
visit source
partner site
North American Flora

Barley stripe rust

provided by wikipedia EN

Barley stripe rust is a fungal disease of barley caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei. a forma specialis of Puccinia striiformis. It was first detected in the United States in 1991, in northern and eastern Idaho in 1993, In 1995 it was detected for the first time in western Washington and western Oregon and is currently considered to be well established there.[1] The disease initially develops at a small loci within a field and spreads rapidly and has caused significant losses in areas where climatic conditions are cool and wet.

Symptoms

Infections produce linear, orange-yellow pustules appear on leaves and/or heads. As the disease progresses, pustules coalesce to form long stripes between leaf veins. On susceptible cultivars, entire leaf blades may be covered with pustules. The black spore stage develops as linear black pustules covered by the leaf epidermis.

Disease cycle

Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, is an obligate parasite that overseasons on volunteer barley or rye, certain wild barleys such as Hordeum jubatum (foxtail barley), wheat, and numerous perennial grass species.[2]

The disease begins from a very small number of infections that are difficult or impossible to detect in the field. Spread of the pathogen can be explosive and cause significant losses, especially in the Pacific Northwest where cool, wet weather greatly favors disease development.

Management

The disease can be managed by growing disease resistant cultivars. Foliar fungicides may be required when growing a susceptible cultivars.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Barley stripe rust: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Barley stripe rust is a fungal disease of barley caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei. a forma specialis of Puccinia striiformis. It was first detected in the United States in 1991, in northern and eastern Idaho in 1993, In 1995 it was detected for the first time in western Washington and western Oregon and is currently considered to be well established there. The disease initially develops at a small loci within a field and spreads rapidly and has caused significant losses in areas where climatic conditions are cool and wet.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis

provided by wikipedia EN

Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis is a plant pathogen. It causes stripe rust on wheat, but has other hosts as well. The species is common in Europe and in more recent years has become a problem in Australia.[1] Infection can cause losses of up to 40%, and the fungus will infect both winter wheat and spring wheat.[2] The taxonomy of Puccinia striiformis was revised in 2010. The commonly called stripe rusts on wheat and grasses were separated into four species based on molecular and morphological studies: Puccinia striiformis sensu stricto (on Aegilops, Elymus, Hordeum and Triticum spp.), Puccinia pseudostriiformis (on Poa spp.), Puccinia striiformoides (on Dactylis spp.) and Puccinia gansensis (on Achnatherum spp.)[3]

The stripe rust, Puccinia striiformis, can greatly decrease wheat yield in northern Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (NWFP).[4]

 src=
Lifecycle

See also

References

  1. ^ Roelfs, A. P. and W. R. Bushnell (1984). The Cereal Rusts: Origins, Specificity, Structure and Physiology, Academic Press.
  2. ^ Cereal Disease Laboraty, ARS
  3. ^ M. Liu and S. Hambleton (2010) Taxonomic study of stripe rust, Puccinia striiformis sensu lato, based on molecular and morphological evidence. Fungal Biology 114:881-899.
  4. ^ AFZAL1, SYED NADEEM; et al. (2008). "IMPACT OF STRIPE RUST ON KERNEL WEIGHT OF WHEAT VARIETIES SOWN IN RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN" (PDF). Pakistan Journal of Botany. 40 (2): 923–929. Retrieved 16 April 2012.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis is a plant pathogen. It causes stripe rust on wheat, but has other hosts as well. The species is common in Europe and in more recent years has become a problem in Australia. Infection can cause losses of up to 40%, and the fungus will infect both winter wheat and spring wheat. The taxonomy of Puccinia striiformis was revised in 2010. The commonly called stripe rusts on wheat and grasses were separated into four species based on molecular and morphological studies: Puccinia striiformis sensu stricto (on Aegilops, Elymus, Hordeum and Triticum spp.), Puccinia pseudostriiformis (on Poa spp.), Puccinia striiformoides (on Dactylis spp.) and Puccinia gansensis (on Achnatherum spp.)

The stripe rust, Puccinia striiformis, can greatly decrease wheat yield in northern Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (NWFP).

 src= Lifecycle
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Wheat yellow rust

provided by wikipedia EN

 src=
Yellow rust distribution in winter triticale

Wheat yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici), also known as wheat stripe rust, is one of the three major wheat rust diseases, along with stem rust of wheat (Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici) and leaf rust (Puccinia triticina f.sp. tritici).

History

As R.P. Singh, J. Huerta-Espino, and A.P. Roelfs say in their 2002 comprehensive review of literature on the wheat rusts for UN FAO:[1]

Although Gadd first described stripe rust of wheat in 1777, it was not until 1896 that Eriksson and Henning (1896) showed that stripe rust resulted from a separate pathogen, which they named P. glumarum. In 1953, Hylander et al. (1953) revived the name P. striiformis.

Symptoms

 src=
Stripe rust on wheat

Yellow rust, or stripe rust, takes its name from the appearance of yellow-colored stripes produced parallel along the venations of each leaf blade. These yellow stripes are actually characteristic of uredinia that produce yellow-colored urediniospores. Primary hosts of yellow rust of wheat are Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), Triticum turgidum (durum wheat), triticale, and a few Hordeum vulgare (barley) cultivars.

Other cereal rust fungi have macrocyclic, heteroecious life cycles, involving five spore stages and two phylogenetically unrelated hosts. The alternate host of stripe rust had been unknown until 2009, when a team of scientists at the USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Lab led by Dr. Yue Jin confirmed that barberry (Berberis spp.) is an alternate host.[2] Barberry was known as an alternate host of the closely related stem rust (Puccinia graminis) and for many years, when infection was observed on barberry, it was assumed to be stem rust.[3] Scientists observed rust infection on various barberry species, and inoculated spores onto grass hosts.[2] Kentucky Bluegrass showed infection characteristic of stripe rust. Later, infected wheat plants bearing teliospores were soaked in water and suspended over barberry species.[2] Infection was produced, thus solving a "century-old mystery" of plant pathology.[2]

The disease usually occurs early in the growth season, when temperature ranges between 2 and 15 °C (36 and 59 °F); but it may occur to a maximum of 23 °C (73 °F). High humidity and rainfall are favorable conditions for increasing the infection on both leaf blade and leaf sheath, even on spikes when in epidemic form. Symptoms are stunted and weakened plants, shriveled grains, fewer spikes, loss in number of grains per spike and grain weight. Losses can be 50%, but in severe situations 100% is vulnerable. Since yellow rust can occur whenever the wheat plants in green and the environmental condition conducive for the spore infection, yellow rust is a severe problem in the wheat-producing regions worldwide. Temperatures during the time of winter wheat emergence and the coldest period of the year are crucial for epidemic development in winter-habit wheat crops.[4]

Worldwide population structure

Both the spatial genetic structure and the spatial dissemination of this disease have been investigated.[5] Population genetic analyses indicate a strong regional heterogeneity in levels of recombination, with clear signatures of recombination in the Himalayan and near-Himalayan regions and a predominant clonal population structure in other regions. The existence of a high genotypic diversity, recombinant population structure, high sexual reproduction ability, and the abundance of the alternate host (Berberis spp.) in the Himalayan and neighboring regions suggest the region as a plausible Pst center of origin or at least very close to its centre of origin. However, further exploration may be useful from Central Asia to East Asian regions.[5]

Disease management

Breeding resistant varieties is the most cost-effective method to control this rust. Fungicides are available but vary in availability depending on their registration restrictions by national or state governments.[6][7] Development of varieties resistant to the disease is always an important objective in wheat breeding programs for crop improvement. This has been done in the past, however as normal, these resistance genes became ineffective due to the acquisition of virulence to that particular resistance gene rendering the variety susceptible - necessitating ongoing variety development.[8]

Resistance genes

These genes are abbreviated Yr and Yr1, Yr24, etc.

Lebanon

Although Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr10, Yr17, Yr24, Yr25, and Yr27 are no longer effective in Lebanon, Yr1, Yr3, Yr4, Yr5, Yr15 are still effective against yellow rust pathotypes prevalent there.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Singh, R.P.; Huerta-Espino, J.; Roelfs, A.P. "The wheat rusts". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2018-08-25.
  2. ^ a b c d Jin, Yue; Szabo, Les J.; Carson, Martin (2010-04-07). "Century-Old Mystery of Puccinia striiformis Life History Solved with the Identification of Berberis as an Alternate Host". Phytopathology. 100 (5): 432–435. doi:10.1094/PHYTO-100-5-0432. ISSN 0031-949X. PMID 20373963.
  3. ^ Stakman, E. C. (1918). The black stem rust and the barberry /. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.135472.
  4. ^ Aslanov, Rufat; Moussa El Jarroudi; Mélanie Gollier; Marine Pallez-Barthel; Marco Beyer (2019-01-04). "Yellow rust does not like cold winters. But how to find out which temperature and time frames could be decisive in vivo?". Journal of Plant Pathology. online first (1): 539–546. doi:10.1007/s42161-018-00233-y. S2CID 91716438.
  5. ^ a b Ali, Sajid; Pierre Gladieux; Marc Leconte; Angélique Gautier; Annemarie F. Justesen; Mogens S. Hovmøller; Jérôme Enjalbert; Claude de Vallavieille-Pope (2014-01-23). "Origin, Migration Routes and Worldwide Population Genetic Structure of the Wheat Yellow Rust Pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici". PLOS Pathogens. 10 (1): e1003903. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003903. PMC 3900651. PMID 24465211.
  6. ^ "Stripe Rust - Washington State University". wsu.edu. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  7. ^ http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/factsheet/wheat-stripe-rust08.pdf
  8. ^ de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude; Ali, Sajid; Leconte, Marc; Enjalbert, Jérôme; Delos, Marc; Rouzet, Jacques (1 January 2012). "Virulence Dynamics and Regional Structuring of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in France Between 1984 and 2009". Plant Disease. 96 (1): 131–140. doi:10.1094/pdis-02-11-0078. PMID 30731861.
  9. ^ Rola El Amil (Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Lebanon) (2020-11-09). (DAY 2) - Phytosanitary Safety for Transboundary pest prevention - Yellow and Black rust population variability. CGIAR Germplasm Health Webinar series. Phytosanitary Awareness Week. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture / CGIAR. Slide at 00:44:37.
  • Ali S. (2012) Population biology and invasion history of Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici at worldwide and local scale, Ph.D. dissertation. Université Paris-Sud 11.
  • Chen, X. M. 2005. Epidemiology and control of stripe rust [Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici] on wheat. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 27:314-337.
  • Doodson, J.K., Manners, J.G. and Myers, A. (1964). Some effects of yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis) on the growth and yield of spring wheat. Ann. Bot. 28: 459–472.
  • Eriksson, J. and E. Henning. 1896. Die Getreideroste. Ihre Geschichte und Natur sowie Massregein gegen dieselben. P. A. Norstedt and Soner, Stockholm. 463 pp.
  • Hogg, W.H., C.E. Hounam, A.K. Malik, and J.C. Zadoks. 1969. Meteorological factors affecting the epidemiology of wheat rusts. WMO Tech Note 99. 143 pp.
  • Hovmøller, M. S., Sørensen, C. K., Walter, S., Justesen, A. F. (2011) Diversity of Puccinia striiformis on cereals and grasses. Annual Review of Phytopathology 49, 197–217.
  • Hylander, N., I. Jorstad and J.A. Nannfeldt. 1953. Enumeratio uredionearum Scandinavicarum. Opera Bot. 1:1-102.
  • Jin, Y., Szabo, L.J., and Carson, M. 2010. Century-old mystery of Puccinia striiformis life history solved with the identification of Berberis as an alternate host. Phytopathology 100:432-435.
  • Poehlman J.M. and D.A. Sleper. 1995. Breeding Field Crops. 4th Ed. Iowa State Press/Ames, Iowa 50014.
  • Robbelen, G. and Sharp, E. L., 1978. Mode of inheritance, interaction and application of genes conditioning resistance to yellow rust. Adv. Plant Breeding, 9, 88 pp.
  • Saari, E. E. and Prescott, J. M., 1985. World distribution in relation to economic losses. Pages 259–298, in: The Cereal Rusts Vol. II: Diseases, distribution, epidemiology and control, A. P. Roelfs and W. R. Bushnell eds., Academic Press, Orlando, Fl.
  • Stubbs, R. W., 1985. Stripe rust. Pages 61–101 in: The Cereal Rusts Vol. II: Diseases, distribution, epidemiology and control, A. P. Roelfs and W. R. Bushnell eds., Academic Press, Orlando, Fl. Zadoks, J. C. and Bouwman, J. J., 1985. Epidemiology in Europe. Pages 329–369 in: The Cereal Rusts Volume II: Diseases, distribution, epidemiology and control, A. P. Roelfs and W. R. Bushnell eds., Academic Press, Orlando, Fl.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Wheat yellow rust: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
 src= Yellow rust distribution in winter triticale

Wheat yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici), also known as wheat stripe rust, is one of the three major wheat rust diseases, along with stem rust of wheat (Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici) and leaf rust (Puccinia triticina f.sp. tritici).

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN