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Asiya şiri ( Azerbaijani )

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Asiya şiri — (aslan) (lat. Panthera leo persica) - panter cinsinə aid heyvan yarımnövü.

Nəsli kəsilmə həddindədir.

Ölçüləri

Ölçüləri iridir. Erkəklərin bədən quruluşu massivdir, dişilər daha incədir. Növün nümayəndəsi üçün 204 sm. uzunluğu səciyəvidir. Quyruğun uzunluğu 90 sm. Asiya aslanı Afrika aslanından kiçikdir. Erkəklər dişilərdən iridir. Başı uzunsovdur, iridir. Əzaları nisbətən alçaqdır. Tük örtüyü alçaqdır, bədəninə bitişikdir. Qyruğunun ucunda uzun fırça var. Erkəklərin boynunda, çiyinlərində və sinəsində az sezilən yal var. Tük örtüyünün rəngi qonurtraq-sarıdır.

Areal

Təxminən yüz il əvvəl arealı İranın qərbindən, Hindistanın şərqinə qədər idi. Tam aydın deyil, Ərəbistan yarımadasında olub, ama bir sıra tətqiqatçı belə hesab edir olub. XX-ci əsrin əvvəlinə doğru, Hindistanın Qucarat ştatındakı, 1450 kv. km. sahəsi olan Qir milli parkından başqa bütün arealda yox oldu(İranda sonuncu şir 1923 yaxud 1930-cu ildə öldürülüb). 1955-ci ildə bu şirin yayılma xəritəsi hazırlandı, özüdə qeyd olunurdu ki, tapılan izlərin yarısı yasaqlıqdan kənarda idi və yasaqlıqdan 25 km. şimalda Qirnar təpələrinə çatırdı. İzlərin ən çox sıxlığı yasaqlığın cənub-qərbində qeyd olunmuşdu. 1968-ci ildə ikinci xəritə hazırlandı, və bu dəfə izlərin ancaq 17% yasaqlıqdan kənarda qeyd olunmuşdu, Qirnar təpələri rayonunda isə şirlərin izi artıq tapılmamışdı. Yasaqlığın cənub-qərb hissəsində kənd təsərrüfatı istehsalı intensivləşdikcə şirlərin izlərinin sayı kəskin azalmağa başladı. 1971-ci ildə də eyni azalma qeyd edilmişdi.

Qarışıq tropik meşələrdə məskunlaşırlar.

Qidalanması

Əsasən iri dırnaqlılarla, qaban, eləcə də nilqay, zambar və aksislərlə qidalanırlar. Nadir hallarda ev heyvanlarına hucum edirlər.

Çoxalması

Çoxalmasında tam müəyyənlik yoxdur. Poliqamiya səciyəvidir. Boğaz olma vaxtı - 100-119 gündür. Dişi iki ildən bir balalayır. Adətən 1-6, nadir hallarda 7 bala gətirir.

Sayı

Asiya şirlərinin sayı 1955-ci ildəki 290-dan, 1968-ci ildə 177 endi və 1977-ci ildə 180 çatdı. Sayının azalması ovla və əsasən məskunlaşma mühitinin insan tərəfindən pozulması ilə bağlıdır.

Qorunması

Qir milli parkında qorunması çox çətin başa gəlirdi, çünki bu yasaqlıqda 20 min malqarası olan 7 min kəndli yaşayırdı, yağış mövsümü vaxtı isə yasaqlığın hüdudlarında otlayan malqaranın sayı 20 min də artırdı. 1971-ci ildən qorunması xeyli yaxşılaşdı. Malqaranı artıq yasaqlıq ərazisinə buraxmırlar, və ətrafına bir metr hündürlükdə hasar çəkilib. Yerli əhalinin bir hissəsi yasaqlıqdan köçürülüb. 1957-ci ildə üç asiya şiri Uttar-Pradeş ştatındakı Çandraprabxa rezervatına köçürülüb.

Qanunla qorunur.

Mənbə

В.Е Соколов. Редкие и исчезающие животные. Млекопитающие. Москва "Высшая школа" 1986 səh. 336-337

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Asiya şiri: Brief Summary ( Azerbaijani )

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Asiya şiri — (aslan) (lat. Panthera leo persica) - panter cinsinə aid heyvan yarımnövü.

Nəsli kəsilmə həddindədir.

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Lleó asiàtic ( Catalan; Valencian )

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El lleó asiàtic (Panthera leo persica) és l'única subespècie de lleó que actualment es pot trobar fora d'Àfrica en llibertat. És un dels felins més amenaçats del món. Actualment només queden 350 lleons en llibertat en el bosc de Gir a l'estat de Gujarat, a l'Índia. La seva distribució històrica era des de l'Índia fins a la península dels Balcans.

Descripció

Encara que és molt semblant als lleons africans té algunes diferències amb ells. És més petit que els seus cosins africans. Els mascles fan entre 1.7 - 2.2 metres i pesen entre 150 i 225 kg, i les femelles fan entre 1.4 - 1.7 metres i pesen entre 100 - 150 kg.

Els mascles tenen crinera, però més curta i més rogenca que els arriba fins al pit igual que el seu parent més proper, el lleó de l'Atles, amb qui compartia algunes característiques cranials absents en els lleons africans. També forma manades, però més petites formades normalment per 2 femelles en lloc de 4–6 com els lleons africans.

Hàbitat i distribució

En els inicis de la història hi havia lleons als Balcans, a Anatòlia, al Caucas, a l'Orient Pròxim, a l'Afganistan, al Pakistan i a l'Índia.

Entre el 80 i el 100 es van extingir a Grècia. Al segle X es van extingir a Armènia I al XII de Palestina. Fins a finals del segle XVIII i començaments del XIX la seva distribució no va sofrir més canvis significatius.

Es van extingir de Turquia cap al 1800. Al Pakistan i l'Afganistan cap al 1810. A la vall del riu Narmada (Índia)el 1848. A la dècada de 1850 es van extingir a Delhi. Van desaparèixer del Kurdistan el 1870, de Síria el 1891, el 1918 a Iraq, i a l'Iran el 1941. Cap al 1900 es van protegir els últims lleons indis encara que quan va haver-hi una sequera poc després que va deixar sense preses els lleons fet que els va obligar a atacar als humans que els van perseguir contundentment, això va fer que el 1913 tan sols hi hagués 13 lleons a l'Índia.

Estat actual

La població ha ant augmentant fins als 360 lleons actuals, però com que tots són descendents de 13 hi ha problemes d'endogàmia. Com que la població de lleons ha anat augmentant, l'espai protegit s'ha tornat insuficient fent que els lleons i els humans entrin en conflicte. Per intentar solucionar-ho hi ha un projecte per reintroduir els lleons a Kuno d'on es van extingir l'any 1873.

Vegeu també


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Lleó asiàtic: Brief Summary ( Catalan; Valencian )

provided by wikipedia CA

El lleó asiàtic (Panthera leo persica) és l'única subespècie de lleó que actualment es pot trobar fora d'Àfrica en llibertat. És un dels felins més amenaçats del món. Actualment només queden 350 lleons en llibertat en el bosc de Gir a l'estat de Gujarat, a l'Índia. La seva distribució històrica era des de l'Índia fins a la península dels Balcans.

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Lev perský ( Czech )

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Lev perský (dříve Panthera leo persica, od roku 2017 Panthera leo leo), též zvaný lev indický či lev asijský je označení pro asijskou populaci lva pustinného. Historické rozšíření tohoto lva se táhlo v pásu území od Turecka na západě až po střední Indii na východě. V současnosti (2019) žije pouze v Indii ve státě Gudžarát a Mezinárodním svazem ochrany přírody (IUCN) je veden jako ohrožený. Jeho populace od 70. let 20. století pomalu vzrůstá a podle sčítání z roku 2017 dosahuje celkem 650 kusů. Nicméně snaha o reintrodukci na jiná místa Indie se zatím nepodařila.

Ve srovnání s africkými populacemi lva mají lvi perští několik zvláštností. Dosahují v průměru poněkud menšího vzrůstu a hříva samců bývá méně rozsáhlá (především na temeni hlavy). Na břiše mají podélný lalok volně visící kůže, jenž africkým lvům chybí. Z hlediska sociální organizace je hlavním rozdílem to, že jejich smečky nejsou tak početné a málokdy zahrnují i dospělé samce. Ti se ke lvicím připojují většinou jen v době páření nebo občas také při konzumaci větší kořisti.

Nejdůležitější kořistí lvů perských jsou různé druhy kopytníků (především jelenů a divokých turů), přičemž poměrně často zabíjejí i domácí zvířata.

Taxonomie

Lev perský byl vědecky popsán v roce 1826 rakouským zoologem Johannem Meyerem pod trinomickým jménem Felis leo persicus čili jako poddruh lva pustinného. V průběhu 19. století pak několik vědců popsalo pod různými názvy lvy z rozličných oblastí Asie. Šlo o Felis leo bengalensis, Felis leo goojratensis, Leo asiaticus a Felis leo indicus. Britský zoolog a taxonom Reginald Innes Pocock tomuto poddruhu v roce 1930 přidělil na dlouhou dobu validní název Panthera leo persica.[2] Ve 20. století zůstávala taxonomie nejistá, obvykle se asijské formy lva přiřazovaly do jednoho samostatného poddruhu. Nicméně český zoolog Vratislav Mazák dělil asijské lvy na dva poddruhy – lvy perské (Panthera leo persica) a lvy indické (Panthera leo goojratensis).[3] Kristin Nowellová a Peter Jackson ve své kompilaci čeledi kočkovitých, vydanou vědeckým institutem IUCN ve Švýcarsku v roce 1996, uznávali jen jeden asijský poddruh.[4] V roce 2017 prošla většina kočkovitých šelem rozsáhlou taxonomickou revizí sepsanou odborníky z SSC Cat Specialist Group (spadá pod IUCN), která přinesla mnohdy velmi razantní změny dosavadního členění. Počet subspecií lva byl zredukován z dosavadních jedenácti na pouhé dvě. Za prvé jde o nominátní poddruh Panthera leo leo, který zahrnuje severoafrické, západoafrické, středoafrické a veškeré asijské lvy. Druhým poddruhem je Panthera leo melanochaita, kam se řadí lvi jihoafričtí a východoafričtí. Hranicí mezi oběma poddruhy je Etiopie, bez přesnějšího vymezení.[5]

Evoluce, historie

Lev perský je morfologicky i geneticky odlišný od prehistorického jeskynního lva (Panthera spelaea), který obýval Eurasii v pleistocénu.[6] Fosilní zbytky lvů byly nalezeny v západním Bengálsku a fosilní zuby poddruhu nazvaného Panthera leo sinhaleyus byly objeveny na Srí Lance. Má se za to, že tato forma, jež byla rovněž odlišná od moderního lva perského, vyhynula asi před 39 000 lety, ještě před příchodem moderního člověka do oblasti.[7]

Fylogenetická analýza z roku 2006 založená na zkoumání mitochondriální DNA lvů z různých oblastí výskytu ukázala, že subsaharská populace lvů je bazální v poměru ke všem moderním lvům. Tato zjištění podporují teorii o východoafrickém či jihoafrickém původu lva. Zdá se pravděpodobné, že lvi odtud následně migrovali do západní a severní Afriky, poté na Arabský poloostrov, do Turecka, jižní Evropy, jihozápadní a jižní Asie. Došlo k tomu pravděpodobně v průběhu posledních 20 000 let.[8] Další navazující studie z roku 2008 provedená na 347 vzorcích tato tvrzení poněkud upravila. Podle ní se bazální populace moderního lva objevila v Africe asi před 169 000 až 324 000 lety. Odtud se ve dvou vlnách rozšířila do zbytku areálu. První vlna proběhla asi před 100 000 lety, druhá na přelomu pleistocénu a holocénu, tedy zhruba před 7 000 až 14 000 lety.[9]

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Umírající lev - asyrský reliéf z Ninive ze 7. století př. n. l.

Rozšíření a populace

Ještě do 18. století žil lev perský v rozsáhlé oblasti západní a jižní Asie táhnoucí se od Turecka po střední Indii. Z naprosté většiny tohoto území ale do konce 19. století, především kvůli intenzivnímu lovu, vymizel.[4] Ve 20. století přežíval už jen v Indii, Iráku a Íránu. Z posledně jmenovaných států vymizel do roku 1942.[4] V Indii zbývala začátkem 20. století jen gudžarátská populace, která byla místní šlechtou chráněná jako součást soukromého loveckého teritoria.[10] Jednalo se zpočátku o 20 (zřejmě záměrně podhodnocený odhad) až 100 (reálný odhad) jedinců,[4] nicméně populace pod ochranou pomalu rostla. V 70. letech 20. století šlo o asi 180 kusů, v roce 2010 o 411 a v roce 2015 o 523. V současnosti (2018) žije lev perský ve volné přírodě nadále pouze v Indii ve státě Gudžarát a to v rezervaci Gírský les a jejím okolí. Celková populace dosahuje počtu asi 650 jedinců (2017).[11] Přímo v Gírském lese žilo v roce 2010 asi 3/4 lvů, zbytek osídlil okolí rezervace.[12] Předpokládá se, že kapacita rezervace je okolo 300 kusů, pokud je lvů více, musejí migrovat pryč.[13]

Popis

Barva srsti asijských lvů má načervenale hnědý, pískový až šedý odstín. Samci mají méně hustou hřívu než jejich afričtí příbuzní (až na jedince chované v zoo), jejich uši jsou vždy dobře viditelné. Poměrně spolehlivým rozlišovacím znakem od afrických lvů je přítomnost laloku visící kůže na břiše jak u samců tak u samic. Další odlišnosti jsou ve tvaru lebky (například výraznější sagitální hřeben) a stavbě některých jejích kostí, a také v tom, že asijští lvi mají obvykle větší střapec na konci ocasu. Délka lebky u samců dosahuje 330 až 340 mm, u samic je to 292 až 302 mm. Délka těla a ocasu se nejčastěji pohybuje od 267 do 292 cm.[2] Samci dosahují hmotnosti 160–190 kg, samice 110–120 kg. V kohoutku měří 80 až 120 cm. Celkově je perský lev nepatrně menší než průměrní lvi afričtí.[4][14]

 src=
Samec lva perského s dobře viditelným lalokem visící kůže

Ekologie, chování

Samci lvů perských se sdružují do malých volných skupin několika málo jedinců (nejčastěji 2, maximálně 4 najednou). Loví, značkují a hlídají si teritorium a odpočívají spolu. Panuje mezi nimi jasná hierarchie. Samice s mláďaty tvoří ucelenější smečky, počet jejich členů může dosáhnout až 12, ale obvykle je podstatně menší. Nejčastěji jde o dvě samice s mláďaty, výjimečně může být samic až pět. Samci se se samicemi druží převážně jen v období páření, zřídka společně hodují na kořisti nebo cestují.[4][15] Teritorium samců měří od 100 do 150 km2, území samic je výrazně menší a měří asi 30 až 80 km2. Teritorium samic z jedné smečky se samozřejmě překrývá.[4][16] V období sucha a tepla vyhledávají lvi hustou vegetaci a stín ideálně v okolí řek. Populační hustota je odhadována na 1 lva na 7 km2, což je zhruba dvakrát více, než je běžné u tygrů (1 tygr na 11 až 17 km2).[4][16]

Potrava

Obecně lvi preferují velkou kořist ve váhovém rozsahu 190 až 550 kg, nicméně v Gírském lese se mnohdy musejí spokojit i s menšími zvířaty (jedna z jejich hlavních kořistí jelen axis indický váží v průměru okolo 50 kg). Hovězí dobytek v podobě skotu a vodních buvolů patřil v minulosti mezi hlavní kořist perských lvů v Gírském lese a okolí a i nadále tvoří významnou složku potravy (cca 25 až 30 %).[4][12] Z divoce žijících zvířat loví lvi především různé kopytníky jako je axis (čital), sambar, nilgau, buvol a méně často také divoké prase.[12] Výjimečně napadnou i velblouda či antilopu. Loví většinou v blízkosti vodních zdrojů a snaží se zvíře dostihnout prudkým výpadem z co nejkratší vzdálenosti. Dominantní samci si z kořisti nárokují podstatně větší část než jejich níže postavení partneři.[15]

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Páření lvů v Gírském lese

Rozmnožování, život

Období rozmnožování probíhá obvykle mezi zářím a lednem. Vlastní páření trvá 3 až 6 dní. Během této doby lvi neloví, jen pijí vodu. Březost trvá asi 110 dní. Poté samice vrhne 1 až 5 koťat (průměrně 2,5).[4] Dominantní samci se páří častěji než níže postavení členové samčích smeček.[15] Úmrtnost mláďat dosahuje 33 až 36 %.[4] Průměrná doba mezi jednotlivými vrhy činí u samic 24 měsíců, pokud tedy mláďata nezahynou v důsledku infanticidy či kvůli jiným příčinám. Mladí lvi se stávají nezávislými ve věku přibližně dvou let. Mladí samci následně opouštějí smečku a snaží se ustavit vlastní teritorium. Rozmnožovat se začínají ve 3 až 8 letech věku. Lvi perští se za příznivých podmínek dožívají 16 až 21 let.[4]

Konkurence

Lvi dominují nad všemi ostatními predátory, kteří žijí v oblasti jejich výskytu (levharti, hyeny, šakalové, různé druhy malých koček). Historickou výjimkou byli tygři. Obě šelmy sdílely habitat v některých částech střední a západní Asie a především v Indii. Obecně se předpokládá, že tygr by mohl být při případném střetu jeden na jednoho potenciálním vítězem (tygr je považován za zuřivější, rychlejší a inteligentnější šelmu)[17], ve prospěch lvů nicméně hovoří sdružování do smeček. Kolovaly sice lidové zkazky, že tygři přispěli k téměř vyhubení lvů v Indii, ale už britský zoolog Reginald Innes Pocock je v první polovině 20. století jednoznačně zavrhl.[2]

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Lov na lva s pomocí slona (cca 1810)

Hrozby, konflikty s lidmi

Lov na lva byl oblíbenou zábavou vládnoucích vrstev již od starověku. Zhruba od poloviny 18. století byl lev loven tak intenzivně, že z naprosté většiny svého historického rozšíření během 200 let vymizel. Důvodem bylo masové rozšíření palných zbraní a povýšení lovu na zábavu nejen pro panovníky a šlechtu, ale i pro kolonialisty a různé zbohatlíky. Existuje například záznam z roku 1857, kdy si jeden britský důstojník sloužící v Indii zaznamenal, že toho roku zastřelil 300 lvů.[4] Lev perský má v současnosti jen jednu subpopulaci, tudíž je velmi náchylný k vyhynutí z hlediska neočekávaných událostí, jako může být například epizootie nebo rozsáhlý lesní požár. Dalším problémem je pytláctví, především v poslední době, kdy se některé organizované gangy začínají přeorientovávat z tygrů na lvy. Bylo zaznamenáno i několik utonutí poté, co lvi spadli do studny.[18] Další hrozbou je automobilová a železniční doprava, která ročně způsobí smrt několika jedinců.[13] V září a říjnu 2018 bylo v Gírském lese a jeho blízkosti nalezeno 23 mrtvých lvů. Nejméně 5 z nich zahynulo v důsledku nákazy psinkou (Canine distemper virus).[19] Dalších více než 20 jedinců je virem nakaženo a je možné, že část z nich rovněž uhyne.[20] Podobná epidemie (příbuzného viru) zdecimovala v roce 1994 serengetskou populaci lva.[21]

Existenci stabilní lví populace ohrožovaly i pastevecké komunity žijící v Gírském lese. Jejich dobytek vytlačoval divoké kopytníky tím, že jim spásal trávu a listí. Lvi museli mnohem častěji lovit dobytek, a tím se dostávali do konfliktu s lidmi. Po přesídlení pastevců a části dobytka se situace výrazně zlepšila. Populace divokých kopytníků vzrostla mezi lety 1970 až 2010 zhruba desetkrát (z cca 6 400 na 64 850) a populace lvů se mezi roky 1974 a 2010 zvýšila ze 180 na 411 zvířat.[12] V důsledku vysoké hustoty zalidnění v Indii se lvi někdy dostávají do těsného kontaktu s lidmi, což může skončit tragicky.[22] Například mezi lety 1988 a 1990 došlo k 81 útokům lvů a výsledkem bylo 16 mrtvých lidí.[4]

Zajímavé je, že genetická variabilita lvů perských navzdory malé populaci není tak nízká, jak se dříve předpokládalo.[23][24][25]

Ochrana

Lev perský požívá v Indii plnou právní ochranu. Došlo dokonce ke snahám o jeho reintrodukci do jiných částí země, ale žádná trvalá populace se jinde zatím neuchytila.[18]

Chov v zoo

V Evropě je v rámci zoo chováno přibližně 150 jedinců ve čtyřech desítkách zoo. Chov je koordinován pomocí Evropského záchovného programu.[26]

V Česku chová lva perského pod označením lev indický Zoo Praha a Zoo Ostrava.[27]

 src=
Samci lvů perských chovaní v zajetí mívají výraznější hřívu než ti z volné přírody.

V minulosti je také chovala Zoo Dvůr Králové.[27]

Chov v Zoo Praha

V závěru roku 2015 se podařilo získat po dlouhých diplomatických jednáních lvy indické přímo z Indie, což je pro evropský chov velmi cenné. Evropská populace totiž byla tímto obohacena po dvou desítkách let.[28] Dvě samice (Ginni, Suchi) a samec (Jamvan) byli získáni z indického státu Gudžarát, konkrétně ze Zoo Sakkarbaug, která v době příchodu trojice lvů do Prahy chovala 56 příslušníků tohoto poddruhu, nejvíce na světě.[29]

Jelikož se zatím v Ostravě ani Praze nepodařilo odchovat mláďata, došlo v listopadu 2017 k dočasnému přesunu ostravského samce Sohana do Zoo Praha.[26][30] V zimních měsících probíhalo páření s oběma pražskými samicemi.[31] Během roku 2018 proběhlo testování březosti u obou samic a bylo zjištěno, že Suchi je pro rozmnožování ztracená a pro Ginni je nejlepší umělé oplodnění[32] (proběhlo na počátku roku 2019).

V průběhu roku 2018 byli chováni dva samci a dvě samice:[33] V dubnu 2019 byl chován samec a dvě samice.

  • Jamvan (narozen 5. dubna 2012 v Rampaza Genepool Centre, Indie)
  • Ginni (narozena 20. května 2012 v Zoo Sakkarbaug, Indie) – 2. 1. 2019 podstoupila umělou inseminaci (spermatem samce Jamvana)[34]
  • Suchi (narozena 3. května 2010 v Zoo Sakkarbaug, Indie)[35]

Do počátku dubna 2019 byl samec Sohan (narozen 2003)[26] krátkodobě zapůjčen ze Zoo Ostrava. V Zoo Praha pobýval od konce roku 2017 do 3. 4. 2019, kdy byl převezen zpět do Ostravy.[36] Samice Ginni porodila 23. 4. 2019 mrtvé mládě.[37]

Zvířata obývají velký pavilon šelem a plazů v dolní části zoo.[38]

Galerie

Reference

  1. Červený seznam IUCN 2018.1. 5. července 2018. Dostupné online. [cit. 2018-08-10]
  2. a b c POCOCK, Reginald Innes. Fauna of British India. Mammalia, Volume 1: Primates and Carnivores. 2. vyd. Londýn: Taylor and Francis, Ltd., 1939. Dostupné online. S. 197-222.
  3. MAZÁK, Vratislav. Zvířata celého světa - 7: Velké kočky a gepardi. Praha: Státní zemědělské nakladatelství, 1980. S. 105-106.
  4. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n NOWELL, Kristin; JACKSON, Peter. Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Švýcarsko: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, 1996. 406 s. Dostupné online. ISBN 9782831700458. Kapitola Asiatic lion, s. 37-41. (anglicky)
  5. KITCHENER, A. C., a kol. A revised taxonomy of the Felidae. The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN/ SSC Cat Specialist Group. Cat News Special Issue 11 [online]. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Winter 2017 [cit. 2017-12-25]. Dostupné online.
  6. BARNETT, Ross; MENDOZA, Marie Zepeda; SOARES, André Rodrigues. Mitogenomics of the Extinct Cave Lion, Panthera spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810), Resolve its Position within the Panthera Cats. Open Quaternary. 2016-06-23, roč. 2, čís. 0. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-04-30]. ISSN 2055-298X. DOI:10.5334/oq.24.
  7. SUMANARATHNA, Aravinda; KATUPOTHA, Jinadasa; ABYEWARDHANA, Kamal. EXTINCTION OF QUATERNARY MAMMALIAN HABITATS OF MEGAFAUNA IN SABARAGAMU BASIN, SRI LANKA. Jornal of Eco Astronomy. 2017-02-01, roč. 01, s. 16–31. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-04-30].
  8. BARNETT, Ross; YAMAGUCHI, Nobuyuki; BARNES, Ian. The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 2006-09-07, roč. 273, čís. 1598, s. 2119–2125. PMID: 16901830. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-05-06]. ISSN 0962-8452. DOI:10.1098/rspb.2006.3555. PMID 16901830. (anglicky)
  9. ANTUNES, Agostinho; TROYER, Jennifer L.; ROELKE, Melody E. The Evolutionary Dynamics of the Lion Panthera leo Revealed by Host and Viral Population Genomics. PLOS Genetics. 2008-11-07, roč. 4, čís. 11, s. e1000251. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-05-06]. ISSN 1553-7404. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000251. PMID 18989457. (anglicky)
  10. KINNEAR, N. B. The Past and Present Distribution of the Lions in the South Eastern Asia. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 1920, s. 33-39. Dostupné online.
  11. KAUSHIK, Himanshu. Lion population roars to 650 in Gujarat forests. The Times of India. 2017-08-04. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-04-25].
  12. a b c d SINGH, H.S.; GIBSON, Luke. A conservation success story in the otherwise dire megafauna extinction crisis: The Asiatic lion ( Panthera leo persica ) of Gir forest. Biological Conservation. 2011-05, roč. 144, čís. 5, s. 1753–1757. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-11-11]. ISSN 0006-3207. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.02.009.
  13. a b 14 Asiatic lions die in Gir: Facts about Gir lions and protection measures taken by govt. India Today [online]. 2018-09-27 [cit. 2018-11-11]. Dostupné online. (anglicky)
  14. National Studbook. Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica) [online]. New Delhi: Wildlife Institue of India, Dehradun, Central Zoo Authority, May 2014 [cit. 2018-07-30]. Dostupné online.
  15. a b c CHAKRABARTI, Stotra; JHALA, Yadvendradev V. Selfish partners: resource partitioning in male coalitions of Asiatic lions. Behavioral Ecology. 2017-09-25, roč. 28, čís. 6, s. 1532–1539. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-11-07]. ISSN 1045-2249. DOI:10.1093/beheco/arx118. PMID 29622932. (anglicky)
  16. a b JHALA, Yadvendradev V.; MUKHERJEE, Shomen; SHAH, Nita. Home range and habitat preference of female lions (Panthera leo persica) in Gir forests, India. Biodiversity and Conservation. 2009-06-05, roč. 18, čís. 13, s. 3383–3394. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-11-13]. ISSN 0960-3115. DOI:10.1007/s10531-009-9648-9. (anglicky)
  17. When a Lion Fights a Tiger. The Milwaukee Journal - Google News Archive Search [online]. 1951-02-28 [cit. 2018-11-13]. Dostupné online.
  18. a b BREITENMOSER, U., a kol. Panthera leo ssp. persica (Asiatic Lion, Indian Lion). oldredlist.iucnredlist.org [online]. IUCN, 2008 [cit. 2018-11-11]. Dostupné online.
  19. Asiatic lions in Gujarat’s Gir forest dying of Canine Distemper Virus: ICMR. hundustantimes. 2018-10-05. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-11-11]. (anglicky)
  20. SIDDIQUI, Zeba. More Asiatic lions in India test positive for virus after 23 deaths. Reuters. 2018-10-10. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-11-11]. (anglicky)
  21. ROELKE-PARKER, Melody E.; MUNSON, Linda; PACKER, Craig. A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo). Nature. 1996-02, roč. 379, čís. 6564, s. 441–445. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-11-11]. ISSN 0028-0836. DOI:10.1038/379441a0. (anglicky)
  22. Last Lions of India [online]. BBC, 2009 [cit. 2018-11-13]. Dostupné online.
  23. SHANKARANARAYANAN, Pattabhiraman; BANERJEE, Moinak; KACKER, Raj Kumar. Genetic variation in Asiatic lions and Indian tigers. Electrophoresis. 1997, roč. 18, čís. 9, s. 1693–1700. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-11-11]. ISSN 0173-0835. DOI:10.1002/elps.1150180938. (anglicky)
  24. ATKINSON, Kirsty E.; KITCHENER, Andrew C.; TOBE, Shanan S. An assessment of the genetic diversity of the founders of the European captive population of Asian lion (Panthera leo leo), using microsatellite markers and studbook analysis. Mammalian Biology. 2018-01, roč. 88, s. 138–143. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-11-11]. ISSN 1616-5047. DOI:10.1016/j.mambio.2017.10.001.
  25. SINGH, A.; SHAILAJA, K.; GAUR, A. Development and characterization of novel microsatellite markers in the Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). Molecular Ecology Notes. 2002-12, roč. 2, čís. 4, s. 542–543. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-11-11]. ISSN 1471-8278. DOI:10.1046/j.1471-8286.2002.00306.x. (anglicky)
  26. a b c WEB-EVOLUTION.CZ. Samec lva indického na čas odcestoval z Ostravy do Zoo Praha - Novinky - Novinky - O zoo - Zoo Ostrava. www.zoo-ostrava.cz [online]. [cit. 2018-06-19]. Dostupné online. (česky)
  27. a b www.Zootierliste.de. zootierliste.de [online]. [cit. 2018-06-19]. Dostupné online.
  28. Jamvan, Ginni a Suchi – lvi indičtí. Zoo Praha. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-06-19]. (česky)
  29. Vzácní lvi z Indie pouze v Zoo Praha. Zoo Praha. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-06-19]. (česky)
  30. POREBSKÁ, Hana. Samec lva indického dorazil do Zoo Praha. Pražský deník. 2017-11-17. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-06-19]. (česky)
  31. V pražské zoo probíhají lví námluvy, osvědčil se až druhý samec. iDNES.cz [online]. 2018-02-22 [cit. 2018-06-19]. Dostupné online.
  32. Stanovisko k chovu lvů indických v Zoo Praha. Zoo Praha [online]. [cit. 2019-01-03]. Dostupné online. (česky)
  33. Přehled vzácně chovaných druhů, Zoo Praha 2018
  34. Další naděje pro ohrožené lvy indické – v Zoo Praha proběhlo umělé oplodnění lvice Ginni. Zoo Praha [online]. [cit. 2019-01-03]. Dostupné online. (česky)
  35. Nádherné lvy indické představila Zoo Praha. A těší se na lvíčata. iDNES.cz [online]. 2015-12-17 [cit. 2018-06-19]. Dostupné online.
  36. Lev Sohan se vrátil do Zoo Ostrava. Zoo Praha [online]. [cit. 2019-04-04]. Dostupné online. (česky)
  37. Lvice Ginni porodila mrtvé mládě. Zoo Praha [online]. [cit. 2019-04-24]. Dostupné online. (česky)
  38. Lev indický - lexikon zvířat. www.zoopraha.cz [online]. [cit. 2018-06-19]. Dostupné online. (česky)

Externí odkazy

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Lev perský: Brief Summary ( Czech )

provided by wikipedia CZ

Lev perský (dříve Panthera leo persica, od roku 2017 Panthera leo leo), též zvaný lev indický či lev asijský je označení pro asijskou populaci lva pustinného. Historické rozšíření tohoto lva se táhlo v pásu území od Turecka na západě až po střední Indii na východě. V současnosti (2019) žije pouze v Indii ve státě Gudžarát a Mezinárodním svazem ochrany přírody (IUCN) je veden jako ohrožený. Jeho populace od 70. let 20. století pomalu vzrůstá a podle sčítání z roku 2017 dosahuje celkem 650 kusů. Nicméně snaha o reintrodukci na jiná místa Indie se zatím nepodařila.

Ve srovnání s africkými populacemi lva mají lvi perští několik zvláštností. Dosahují v průměru poněkud menšího vzrůstu a hříva samců bývá méně rozsáhlá (především na temeni hlavy). Na břiše mají podélný lalok volně visící kůže, jenž africkým lvům chybí. Z hlediska sociální organizace je hlavním rozdílem to, že jejich smečky nejsou tak početné a málokdy zahrnují i dospělé samce. Ti se ke lvicím připojují většinou jen v době páření nebo občas také při konzumaci větší kořisti.

Nejdůležitější kořistí lvů perských jsou různé druhy kopytníků (především jelenů a divokých turů), přičemž poměrně často zabíjejí i domácí zvířata.

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Asiatisk løve ( Danish )

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Den asiatiske løve (latin: Panthera leo persica) er en underart af løve, som ikke lever vildt andre steder end i Gir Forest nationalpark i Gujarat, Indien.

Referencer

  1. ^ Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D.P., Ahmad Khan, J. & Driscoll, C. (2008). Panthera leo ssp. persica. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2008. Hentet den 16. december 2013.
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Asiatisk løve: Brief Summary ( Danish )

provided by wikipedia DA

Den asiatiske løve (latin: Panthera leo persica) er en underart af løve, som ikke lever vildt andre steder end i Gir Forest nationalpark i Gujarat, Indien.

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Asiatischer Löwe ( German )

provided by wikipedia DE
Wissenschaftlicher Name Panthera leo persica (Meyer, 1826)

Der Asiatische Löwe (Panthera leo persica), auch Persischer Löwe oder Indischer Löwe genannt, ist eine Unterart des Löwen. Das ursprüngliche Verbreitungsgebiet reichte bis nach Südosteuropa sowie in den Mittleren und den Nahen Osten. Er kommt heute in freier Wildbahn nur noch im indischen Staat Gujarat im Gir-Nationalpark auf der Halbinsel Kathiawar vor.

Evolution und Merkmale

 src=
Ursprüngliche und aktuelle Verbreitung des Löwen, Panthera leo
 src=
Männchen des Asiatischen Löwen im Gir-Nationalpark. Deutlich zu erkennen ist die Bauchfalte
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Asiatische Löwin

Nach molekularbiologischen Untersuchungen spaltete sich die Unterart vor 50.000 bis 100.000 Jahren vom afrikanischen Löwen ab.[1] Insgesamt werden zurzeit zwölf Löwenunterarten unterschieden.[2]

Der Asiatische Löwe sieht dem afrikanischen Löwen recht ähnlich, ist aber im Allgemeinen etwas kleiner. Die männlichen Tiere erreichen ein Gewicht von 160 bis maximal 190 Kilogramm, die Weibchen zwischen 110 und 120 Kilogramm. Die Schulterhöhe beträgt ca. 110 cm. Der Asiatische Löwe erreicht eine maximale Körperlänge von 290 cm. Die größte gemessene Körperlänge eines männlichen Asiatischen Löwen betrug, von der Nasen- bis zur Schwanzspitze, 292 cm.[3]

Das Fell ist kurz und von beiger bis sandiger Farbe. Er hat eine kürzere Mähne und die Ellenbogenbehaarung ist deutlich länger als beim afrikanischen Verwandten. Als eine der wichtigsten morphologischen Eigenschaften des Asiatischen Löwen gilt die Ausbildung einer längsseits liegenden Hautfalte in der Bauchmitte, die so weder beim männlichen noch beim weiblichen Afrikanischen Löwen, insbesondere im Erwachsenenalter, anzutreffen ist. Ein weiteres Merkmal ist die kleinere, geringer ausgebildete und weniger üppige Mähne des Männchens, die die Ohren nicht vollständig bedeckt. Allerdings gibt es auch in Afrika nahezu mähnenlose männliche Tiere. Afrikanischer und Asiatischer Löwe unterscheiden sich zudem genetisch sowie geringfügig osteologisch voneinander. So weist die Hälfte der Löwen im Gir-Nationalpark in der Schädelstruktur doppelte Foramen infraorbitale (Nervenaustrittsöffnungen unter dem Auge) auf.[4][5]

Lebensweise

Wie der Afrikanische Löwe lebt der Asiatische Löwe in Rudeln. Die Rudelgröße ist jedoch im Durchschnitt kleiner als beim afrikanischen Vertreter. Weibliche Löwen im Gir-Nationalpark leben in Gruppen von zwei bis sechs Individuen und Jungtieren.[6]

Lebensraum

Der Lebensraum des Asiatischen Löwen umfasste sowohl laubabwerfende Wälder als auch trockenere Gebiete wie Savannen mit Anteil an Dornwäldern.

Ernährung

Die Jagd obliegt den Weibchen. Nur in Ausnahmefällen beteiligen sich die Männchen des Rudels an der Jagd. Löwen jagen meist bei Dunkelheit oder in den kühlen Morgenstunden. Zu den Beutetieren des Asiatischen Löwen gehören Axishirsche, Indische Gazellen, Nilgauantilopen, Sambarhirsche, Vierhornantilopen und Wildschweine. Ferner fressen Löwen auch Aas.

Fortpflanzung und Entwicklung

Die Fortpflanzung ist nicht an Jahreszeiten gebunden und findet ganzjährig statt, jedoch ergaben Beobachtungen einen Anstieg der Geburtenzahlen in den späten Winter- und frühen Sommermonaten.

Nach einer Tragzeit von etwa 110 Tagen bringt die Löwin in geschützter Umgebung zwei bis vier hilflose Junge zur Welt. Im Alter von sechs Monaten werden die jungen Löwen entwöhnt, sie bleiben dann noch ungefähr zwei Jahre bei der Mutter. Diese Entwicklung entspricht in etwa der anderer Großkatzen beziehungsweise auch der Entwicklung Afrikanischer Löwen. Die Jungensterblichkeit liegt bei 33 %: 3 von 9 Jungtieren bei insgesamt vier Würfen einer Löwin sterben.[7]

Beim Asiatischen Löwen erreichen die Weibchen die Geschlechtsreife mit etwa vier Jahren und somit ein Jahr früher als die männlichen Tiere. Die Fortpflanzungszeit endet bei beiden Geschlechtern im Schnitt mit 15 Jahren.[8]

Die Lebenserwartung des Asiatischen Löwen ist bei den Weibchen mit 17 bis 18 Jahre höher als bei den Männchen, die ein Alter von 15 bis 16 Jahren erreichen.[9]

Bestand und Schutz

Der Asiatische Löwe wurde stark bejagt und fast ausgerottet. So gab es 1913 nur noch 20 Individuen. Der Nawab von Junagadh, der einst die Tiere selbst bejagt hatte, stellte die im Gir-Wald übrig gebliebenen Asiatischen Löwen schließlich unter Schutz. Zum Schutz der Löwen verbot die indische Regierung 1955 die Löwenjagd. Als weitere Maßnahme wurde 1965 der 1153,42 km² umfassende Gir-Nationalpark geschaffen, in dem die Population wieder anwachsen konnte. Zehn Jahre später wurde das Schutzgebiet vergrößert und ein Kernareal von 258,71 km² geschaffen.

Der zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts geringe Bestand des Asiatischen Löwen führte jedoch zu einem Verlust der genetischen Vielfalt (Flaschenhalseffekt), was wiederum Inzucht zur Folge hatte.[10] Des Weiteren waren die Tiere aufgrund der dezimierten Anzahl durch Krankheiten gefährdet.

Der Fortbestand der Unterart gilt bei einer geschätzten Anzahl von 250 bis 300 Exemplaren als nicht gesichert, aber stabil. Der Asiatische Löwe wird deshalb in der Roten Liste der IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) als „vom Aussterben bedroht“ (critically endangered) geführt.[11] Die Anzahl der fortpflanzungsfähigen Tiere wird auf ca. 175 geschätzt.[12]

Eine Kreuzung mit afrikanischen Löwen (Panthera leo leo) ist zwar möglich, würde jedoch nicht der Erhaltung der reinrassigen Unterart dienen und ist zudem problematisch.

Mittlerweile gibt es Bestrebungen, den Asiatischen Löwen in einem weiteren indischen Reservat, dem Kuno-Wildreservat anzusiedeln, um eine zweite Wildpopulation zu etablieren.[13]

Zoopopulation

 src=
Männlicher Asiatischer Löwe im Tiergarten Nürnberg; durch das kühlere Klima Mitteleuropas wächst die Mähne der Männchen stärker.

Die Löwen, die bis zum Jahr 1987 in zoologischen Gärten außerhalb Indiens unter dem Namen P. l. persica gehalten wurden, waren keine reinerbig asiatischen Löwen. Genetische Studien belegten, dass sie sich von den Indischen Löwen des Gir-Nationalparks (siehe blauer Pfeil auf obiger Karte der ursprünglichen Verbreitung) stark unterschieden und zum Teil auf Afrikanische Löwen zurückgingen. Dieser Befund wird auch durch das Fehlen bestimmter Merkmale unterstrichen. So besitzen die Männchen dieser Löwen in der Regel keine Bauchfalte, ein Merkmal, das bei fast allen Asiatischen Löwen auftritt. Beim Asiatischen Löwen ist zudem die Mähne nicht besonders stark ausgebildet und insbesondere im Bereich der Ohren fast immer schwach entwickelt. Im Gegensatz dazu ist die Mähne des Afrikanischen Löwen variabler und bedeckt die Ohren häufig fast völlig. Als reine Asiatische Löwen konnten damals nur die Löwen im indischen Sakkarbaug-Zoo in Junagadh betrachtet werden. Diese gehen direkt auf Wildfänge aus dem Gir-Nationalpark zurück.[14] Aus diesem Grund wurden 1990 zwei reinrassige Zuchtpaare aus Junagadh in den Zoo London verbracht und mit diesen ein neues Europäisches Erhaltungszuchtprogramm (EEP) aufgebaut. Die Asiatischen Löwen, die heute in europäischen Zoos gezeigt werden, gehen auf Löwen mit gesicherter indischer Herkunft zurück und sind daher als reinrassige Asiatische Löwen zu bezeichnen.[15]

Mythologie

 src=
Löwentöter-Emblem in Khajuraho

Das Motiv des Löwentöters ist zum königlichen Emblem der mittelalterlichen Chandella- und Hoysala-Dynastien geworden.

Literatur

Weblinks

 src= Commons: Asiatischer Löwe (Panthera leo persica) – Album mit Bildern, Videos und Audiodateien

Einzelnachweise

  1. Asiatischer Löwe bei vox.de
  2. Sudipta Mitra: Gir forest and the saga of the asiatic lion. Indianbooks, Delhi 2005, ISBN 81-7387-183-3.
  3. Kristin Nowell, Peter Jackson: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Wild Cats. S. 37.
  4. John Seidensticker, Susan Lumpkin: Große Katzen. S. 92.
  5. Grit Hoffmann: Olfaktorische Komponenten des Sozialverhaltens Indischer Löwen (Panthera leo persica). Diplomarbeit Universität Potsdam, Diplomica Verlag, Hamburg, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8366-2012-3.
  6. John Seidensticker, Susan Lumpkin: Große Katzen. S. 92.
  7. Kristin Nowell, Peter Jackson: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Wild Cats. S. 37.
  8. Kristin Nowell, Peter Jackson: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Wild Cats. S. 37.
  9. Zoo Frankfurt: Asiatischer Löwe (Memento des Originals vom 20. November 2014 im Internet Archive) i Info: Der Archivlink wurde automatisch eingesetzt und noch nicht geprüft. Bitte prüfe den Link gemäß Anleitung und entferne dann diesen Hinweis.@1@2Vorlage:Webachiv/IABot/www.zoo-frankfurt.de
  10. John Seidensticker, Susan Lumpkin: Große Katzen. S. 92.
  11. IUCN: Panthera leo ssp. persica, abgerufen am 23. Juni 2013.
  12. Zoo Frankfurt: Asiatischer Löwe (Memento des Originals vom 23. Mai 2014 im Internet Archive) i Info: Der Archivlink wurde automatisch eingesetzt und noch nicht geprüft. Bitte prüfe den Link gemäß Anleitung und entferne dann diesen Hinweis.@1@2Vorlage:Webachiv/IABot/www.zoo-frankfurt.de
  13. A. J. T. Johnsingh, S. P. Goyal, Qamar Qureshi: Preparations for the reintroduction of Asiatic lion Panthera leo persica into Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh, India. In: Oryx. 41, Nr. 1, 2007, S. 93–96 (doi:10.1017/S0030605307001512).
  14. S. J. O'Brien u. a.: Evidence for African origins of founders of the asiatic lion species survival plan. In: Zoo Biology. Volume 6, Issue 2, 1987, S. 99–116.
  15. Asian Lion Project@1@2Vorlage:Toter Link/www.asianlionproject.co.uk (Seite nicht mehr abrufbar, Suche in Webarchiven) i Info: Der Link wurde automatisch als defekt markiert. Bitte prüfe den Link gemäß Anleitung und entferne dann diesen Hinweis., ZSL London Zoo
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Asiatischer Löwe: Brief Summary ( German )

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Der Asiatische Löwe (Panthera leo persica), auch Persischer Löwe oder Indischer Löwe genannt, ist eine Unterart des Löwen. Das ursprüngliche Verbreitungsgebiet reichte bis nach Südosteuropa sowie in den Mittleren und den Nahen Osten. Er kommt heute in freier Wildbahn nur noch im indischen Staat Gujarat im Gir-Nationalpark auf der Halbinsel Kathiawar vor.

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Asiatic lion ( Scots )

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The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica), an aa kent as the Indian lion or Persie lion,[3] is a lion subspecies that exists as a single population in Indie's Gujarat state.

References

  1. Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D. P., Ahmad Khan, J. and Driscoll, C. (2008). "Panthera leo ssp. persica". IUCN Reid Leet o Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Internaitional Union for Conservation o Naitur.CS1 maint: uises authors parameter (link)
  2. Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 546. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  3. Humphreys, P., Kahrom, E. (1999). Lion and Gazelle: The Mammals and Birds of Iran. Images Publishing, Avon.
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Asiatic lion: Brief Summary ( Scots )

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The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica), an aa kent as the Indian lion or Persie lion, is a lion subspecies that exists as a single population in Indie's Gujarat state.

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Asiatisk leyva ( Faroese )

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 src=
Útbreiðsluøki hjá asiatiskum leyvum í dag.

Asiatisk Leyva ella Asiatiskt ljón, (latín Panthera leo persica) er eitt asiatiskt undirslag av leyvu.

Útbreiðslu øki

Søguliga útbreiðsluøkið hjá asiatiskari leyvu av persica undirslagnum var ætlandi frá Norður India í eystri, gjøgnum Iran suður á arabsiku hálvoynna og vestur til Grikkalands og Italia. Nógvar fornleivdir av nærslektaða undirslagnum Panthera leo spelaea eru funnar í Norður Afrika, Miðeystri, Siberia, Alaska og stórum pørtum av Europa so langt norðuri sum í Skotlandi. Nú finst astiatiska leyvan bara í Gir skóginum í útnyrðings India.

Asiatiskar leyvur í Europa og Landsynnings Asia

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Asiatisk honleyva

Í fyrndini livdu leyvur í Europa. Aristotelus og Herodotus skrivaðu at leyvur livdu á Balkan. Tá Xerxes kongur av Persia gjørdi hernaðarligt frambrot gjøgnum Makedónia í 480 f.Kr., blivu fleiri av hansara viðføris kamelum dripnir av leyvum. Ætlandi doyðu leyvurnar í Grikkalandi út uml. Ár 80-100 f.Kr. Nemeiska leyvan í griksku mýtologiini er ofta avmyndað saman við Heraklis/Herkules í grikskari mýtologiskari list.

Europeiska leyvan verður stundum mett sum verandi partur av asiatiska stovninum (“Panthera leo persica”), stundum sum egið undirslag, Europeisk leyva (“Panthera leo europaea”), ella sum seinasta leivd av holuleyvunum (“Panthera leo spelaea”)

Scythisk list í Ukraina, frá 4 øld f.Kr. avmyndar Scythar ið veiða leyvur. Leyvur yvirlivdu í Kaukasus økinum inntil 10’du øld. Hetta var norðasti stovnurin av leyvum, og einasta øki í fyrrverandi Sovjetsamveldinum har ið leyvur livdu í søguligari tíð. Hesar leyvur doyðu út í Armenia uml. Ár 100 e.Kr. í Aserbadjan og Landsynnings Russlandi í 10’du øld. Høvuðsorsøkin til at hesir stóru køttar hvurvu var minkandi stovnar av fongdjórum. Fongdjór teirra umfataðu visund, elg, aurochs, tarpan, rádýr o.o. klyvjadjór.

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Asiatisk hannleyva)
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Asiatisk leyva: Brief Summary ( Faroese )

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 src= Útbreiðsluøki hjá asiatiskum leyvum í dag.

Asiatisk Leyva ella Asiatiskt ljón, (latín Panthera leo persica) er eitt asiatiskt undirslag av leyvu.

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Leon asiatic ( Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association) )

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Le leon asiatic (Panthera leo persica) es un subspecie de Panthera leo.

Nota
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Leong Asyatiko ( Tagalog )

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Isang pamilya ng leong Asyatiko sa Kagubatang Gir, Indiya

Ang leong Asyatiko (Panthera leo persica), kilala rin bilang leong Indiyano o leong Persyano, ay isang uri ng leon. Dati, natagpuan ito sa India, sa buong Gitnang Silangan hanggang sa Timog-silangang Europa. Sa kasulukuyan, matatagpuan ito lamang sa Kagubatang Gir sa estadong Gujarat, India.

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Luani Aziatik ( Albanian )

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Luani Aziatik (Panthera leo leo), luani Persik ose luani Indian është një nënlloj i llojit të luanit. Ky nënlloj i luanit jeton sot vetëm në Indi ku edhe quhet luani indian. Kjo kafshë ka luajtur për më shumë se 2000 vjet një rol shumë të madh në simbolet dhe folklorin indian. Në kohërat antike konsiderohej dyluftimi me një luan si një provim shumë i mirë për të fituar pushtetin.

Karakteristikat

Luani aziatik është shumë i ngjashëm me luanin afrikan, por është në përgjithësi më i vogël se ai. Meshkujt arrijnë një peshë nga 150 kg deri në 250 kg kurse femrat nga 120 kg deri në 180 kg. Gjatësia e meshkujve është 1,7-2,5 m, ndërsa ajo e femrave 1,4-1,75 m. Lartësia e krahëve të tyre është përafërsisht 1 m. Mashkulli më i gjatë i parë ndonjëhrë kishte një gjatësi prej 2,9 m. Ata jetojnë 16-18 vjet.

Shtrirja

Në kohërat e lashta ishte edhe banor i Evropës juglindore. Dikur shtriheshin nga Maqedonia e Greqisë deri në Indinë e sotme duke përfshirë Iranin, Afganistanin dhe Pakistanin dhe nga Kaukazi deri në Jemen. Tani ka 250-350 individë të këtij lloji, kurse sot ata jetojnë të lirë vetëm në parkun kombëtar Gir në Indi. Ky park ka 1153,42 km² hapësirë për këtë nënlloj të luanit. Luani aziatik për një kohë ishte pothuajse i zhdukur, kishte përafërsisht vetëm 100 individë, por pas ndërhyrjes së shtetit u ndalua gjuajtja e tyre dhe prapë filloi të rritet numri i tyre.

Referimet

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Luani Aziatik: Brief Summary ( Albanian )

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Luani Aziatik (Panthera leo leo), luani Persik ose luani Indian është një nënlloj i llojit të luanit. Ky nënlloj i luanit jeton sot vetëm në Indi ku edhe quhet luani indian. Kjo kafshë ka luajtur për më shumë se 2000 vjet një rol shumë të madh në simbolet dhe folklorin indian. Në kohërat antike konsiderohej dyluftimi me një luan si një provim shumë i mirë për të fituar pushtetin.

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Panthera leo persica ( Lombard )

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Ül Leun asiatich (nom scentifegh Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826) l'é v'una sutaspeci da leun. In natura al viv sulament in da la Furesta da Gir, in India.

Riferiment

  1. Eror Lua an package.lua a la linia 80: module 'Modulo:Citazione/Configurazione/sandbox' not found. La entrada de la base de datos incluye una justificación para clasificar la especie como vulnerable.
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Panthera leo persica: Brief Summary ( Lombard )

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Ül Leun asiatich (nom scentifegh Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826) l'é v'una sutaspeci da leun. In natura al viv sulament in da la Furesta da Gir, in India.

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Şêrê îranî ( Kurdish )

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Şêrê îranî an şêrê arî an jî şêrê asyayî (Panthera leo persica) yek ji cinsên şêran e. Li çaxên berê warê vî şêrî ji Ewropayê heta Hindistanê bû, lê niha bi tenê li nîvgirava Kathîyawarê (Hindistan) dimîne.

Asiatic Lion Gir Forest.jpg

Jiyan

Şêrê îranî ji mînak Şêrê Afrîkayê di nav koman de dijî. Hema koma wan li koma ya afrîkayî da biçûktirê. Şêrên mê ya Nationalpar-Gir ji nav dwudwu - şeş ferdan da û çelakan da dijîn.[3]

Jîngeh

Jîngeha şêrê îranî ji him daristanê dirî da ye him jî cihê hişkan ê mînak savanan.

Xwerin

Şêr li mê ye xwe nêçir dikin. Zafikî tarîye da an jî serê sibe derdikevin qewo nêçirê.

Nêçirên wan jî;

Wek sembol

Şêrê îranî ji li sembolan ariyan û li hindan heye, lê mirov kare li sembolan Ermanan jî bûnin.

Ariyan

Al

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Alaya Dûgela Zend
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Alaya Dûgela Pehlewan

Nîşan

Lion and Sun (Pahlavi Dynasty).svg

Hindan

Al

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Srî Lanka
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Împeratoriya Moxol a Hindistanê

Nîşan

 src=
Srî Lanka

Çavkanî

  1. Şablon:MSW3 Wozencraft
  2. John Seidensticker, Susan Lumpkin: Große Katzen. S. 92.
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Şêrê îranî: Brief Summary ( Kurdish )

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Şêrê îranî an şêrê arî an jî şêrê asyayî (Panthera leo persica) yek ji cinsên şêran e. Li çaxên berê warê vî şêrî ji Ewropayê heta Hindistanê bû, lê niha bi tenê li nîvgirava Kathîyawarê (Hindistan) dimîne.

Asiatic Lion Gir Forest.jpg
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Ασιατικό λιοντάρι ( Greek, Modern (1453-) )

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Το ασιατικό λιοντάρι (Panthera leo persica - Πάνθηρας ο λέων ο περσικός), επίσης γνωστό και ως ινδικό ή ευρασιατικό λιοντάρι, είναι διαφοροποιημένο υποείδος του αφρικανικού λιονταριού (Panthera leo - Πάνθηρας ο λέων). Το μόνο μέρος όπου συναντάται ελεύθερο σήμερα στην άγρια φύση είναι το δάσος της Γκιρ στην Ινδία, η οποία αποτελεί το μόνο καταφύγιο του ωραίου και δυνατού ζώου που κάποτε ήταν κοινό σε ολόκληρη την Ινδία. Το 2010 η κυβέρνηση της Καθιαβάρ επισήμανε ότι 411 ασιατικά λιοντάρια είχαν θεαθεί στο δάσος της Γκιρ, αυξημένα κατά 52 από την τελευταία καταγραφή το 2005.

Παλαιά και νέα κατανομή

Παλιά η έκταση εξάπλωσης του ασιατικού λιονταριού ήταν μεγάλη με ανατολικότερο όριο την Ινδία, δυτικότερο την Ελλάδα και βορειότερο το όρος Καύκασος. Στην πραγματικότητα αρκετές τοποθεσίες απολιθωμάτων έχουν ανακαλυφθεί σε όλη την Αφρική, την Μέση Ανατολή, την Σιβηρία, την Αλάσκα και σχεδόν σε όλη την Ευρώπη.

 src=
Ασιατικό και αφρικανικό λιοντάρι, εικονογράφηση σε εγκυκλοπαίδεια

Βιολογία και συμπεριφορά

Τα ασιατικά λιοντάρια σε σχέση με τους αδερφούς τους της Αφρικής παρουσιάζουν μερικές διαφορές που δικαιολογούν το γεγονός ότι θεωρούνται υποείδος. Στο ασιατικό λιοντάρι είναι πιο μεγάλη η φούντα της ουράς και πιο μεγάλες επίσης οι φούντες στους αγκώνες, ενώ τα μικρά έχουν τρίχωμα λίγο πιο διαφορετικό από τα αφρικανικά. Η τυμπανική μεμβράνη είναι πιο εξογκωμένη και το κρανίο πιο κοντό. Το μέγεθος αναλογεί σε αυτό των κεντροαφρικανικών λιονταριών και κυμαίνεται στα αρσενικά από 1,90 μέτρα σε 2,80 και στα θηλυκά από 1,60 σε 2,50. Διακριτικό χαρακτηριστικό θεωρείται επίσης και η χαίτη του αρσενικού η οποία έχει μικρότερο μήκος από αυτή του αφρικανικού. Το βάρος για τα αρσενικά κυμαίνεται από 160 κιλά ως 190 και στα θηλυκά από 110-120. Το τρίχωμα κυμαίνεται από ένα σκούρο διάστικτο μαύρο σε ένα γκριζοκανελί χρώμα. Τα ασιατικά λιοντάρια είναι μικρότερα κι ελαφρύτερα από τους Αφρικανούς συγγενείς τους αλλά το ίδιο επιθετικά. Η τροφή τους αποτελείται από αντιλόπες (έντμι, αιγέλαφοι και νιλγέ), αγριόχοιρους, νεροβούβαλους και κατοικίδια ζώα. Τα ασιατικά λιοντάρια είναι πολύ κοινωνικά ζώα, που ζουν σε αγέλες. Αυτές είναι μικρότερες από αυτές των αφρικανικών λιονταριών με μέσο όρο δύο θηλυκών, ενώ των αφρικανικών είναι 4-6.

Κατάσταση

Το εθνικό πάρκο της Γκιρ της δυτικής Ινδίας έχει 411 λιοντάρια (Απρίλιος 2011) που ζουν σε μια έκταση 1.412 τετραγωνικών χιλιομέτρων κυκλωμένα από ανοιχτή βλάστηση. Μέχρι 150 με 200 χρόνια πριν, η τίγρη της Βεγγάλης μαζί με τις ινδικές λεοπαρδάλεις μοιράζονταν το περιβάλλον, όπου τα ασιατικά λιοντάρια βρισκόταν σε μεγάλους αριθμούς μαζί με τον ασιατικό γατόπαρδο, τώρα εξαφανισμένο. Οπωσδήποτε οι ασιατικοί γατόπαρδοι προτιμούσαν τα ανοιχτά λιβάδια, και τα ασιατικά λιοντάρια τα ανοιχτά δάση, όπου επίσης ζούσαν τίγρεις και λεοπαρδάλεις. Παλιότερα ίσως τα λιοντάρια και οι τίγρεις να ανταγωνίζονταν για το φαγητό και την περιοχή. Τα ασιατικά λιοντάρια που ζούσαν έξω από τη ζούγκλα έβλεπαν τα θηράματα να γίνονται πιο εύκολα με την κτηνοτροφία, κι επιδόθηκαν αμέσως σε αυτού το είδος το κυνήγι. Φυσικά, μπήκαν αμέσως στο στόχαστρο των κυνηγών, αποίκων και ντόπιων. Οι συνηθέστεροι τρόποι εξόντωσης ήταν με πυροβόλα όπλα και το κυριότερο με δηλητήριο. Οι ανοιχτές εκτάσεις όπου ζουν τα έκαναν πιο τρωτά. Διηγήσεις Άγγλων κυνηγών μας πληροφορούν για πραγματικές σφαγές. Ένας μόνο κυνηγός σκότωσε πάνω από 300 ζώα, ενώ ένας άλλος πάνω από 90. Διηγήσεις τέτοιου είδους αποτελούν τις αποδείξεις του κυκλώνα που σχεδόν έδιωξε το λιοντάρι από την ασιατική ήπειρο.

Το ασιατικό λιοντάρι στην Ευρώπη και στην Ασία

 src=
Ένα ασιατικό λιοντάρι.

Τα λιοντάρια συναντιούνταν και στην Ευρώπη. Ο Αριστοτέλης κι ο Ηρόδοτος αναφέρουν την παρουσία του λιονταριού στα Βαλκάνια. Όταν ο βασιλιάς Ξέρξης πέρασε από τη Μακεδονία και τη Θεσσαλία το 480 π.Χ, αρκετές από τις καμήλες του κατασπαράχτηκαν από τα λιοντάρια. Λιοντάρια πιστεύεται ότι υπήρχαν στην Ελλάδα τουλάχιστον μέχρι το «Σωτήριον Έτος»(80-100 μ.Χ). Το λιοντάρι της Νεμέας αποτελεί χαρακτηριστικό παράδειγμα της εξάπλωσης των λιονταριών στην Ευρώπη. Τα λιοντάρια επιβίωσαν στον Καύκασο μέχρι και το δέκατο αιώνα(αυτό ήταν και το βορειότερο όριο εξάπλωσής τους). Αυτά τα λιοντάρια εξαφανίστηκαν από την Αρμενία το έτος 100 και στο Αζερμπαϊτζάν και στην Ουκρανία το δέκατο αιώνα.

Το ασιατικό λιοντάρι στη θρησκεία και την τέχνη

Το ασιατικό λιοντάρι κατέχει μια πολύ σημαντική θέση στην τέχνη και τη θρησκεία, όπου συμβολίζει και συμβολίζεται με ποικίλους τρόπους. Οι διάφορες θρησκείες έχουν συμβολίσει μεγάλα γεγονότα με το βασιλιά των ζώων. Το λιοντάρι της Νεμέας που έπνιξε ο Ηρακλής αξιώθηκε να το περιλάβει ο Δίας στους θεούς του Ολύμπου. Το άρμα της Κυβέλης σερνόταν από λιοντάρια, ο Δανιήλ γοητεύει και τιθασεύει τα λιοντάρια, λιοντάρια φυλάνε τους ναούς Ινδουιστών και βουδιστών κι υπηρετούν τους θεούς τους. Το ίδιο και στην τέχνη. Οι Σπαρτιάτες για να τιμήσουν τον Λεωνίδα κατασκεύασαν το άγαλμα ενός λιονταριού. Τα μακεδονικά ψηφιδωτά της Πέλλας απεικονίζουν υπέροχες παραστάσεις λιονταριών, όπως και τα ελληνικά αγγεία, ακροκέραμα και ζωοφόρους. Η σκυθική τέχνη από την Ουκρανία τον τέταρτο π.Χ αιώνα, δείχνει ρεαλιστικές παραστάσεις κυνηγιού λιονταριών. Οι Πέρσες, οι Σουμέριοι κι οι Βαβυλώνιοι το απεικόνισαν αμέτρητες φορές στα ανάγλυφά τους. Καθ' όλη την πορεία των αιώνων το λιοντάρι δεν έπαψε να εμφανίζεται στην τέχνη και να επιδρά σε αυτήν.

Παραπομπές

  1. Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D.P., Ahmad Khan, J. & Driscoll, C. (2008). Panthera leo ssp. persica στην Κόκκινη Λίστα Απειλούμενων Ειδών της IUCN. Έκδοση 2013.2. Διεθνής Ένωση Προστασίας της Φύσης (IUCN). Ανακτήθηκε 4 Ιαν. 2014.

Βιβλιογραφία

  • "Ο θαυμαστός κόσμος των ζώων", έκτος τόμος, σελ.75-79, εκδ. Χ. Τεγόπουλος - Ν. Νίκας, Αθήνα 1973
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Ασιατικό λιοντάρι: Brief Summary ( Greek, Modern (1453-) )

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Το ασιατικό λιοντάρι (Panthera leo persica - Πάνθηρας ο λέων ο περσικός), επίσης γνωστό και ως ινδικό ή ευρασιατικό λιοντάρι, είναι διαφοροποιημένο υποείδος του αφρικανικού λιονταριού (Panthera leo - Πάνθηρας ο λέων). Το μόνο μέρος όπου συναντάται ελεύθερο σήμερα στην άγρια φύση είναι το δάσος της Γκιρ στην Ινδία, η οποία αποτελεί το μόνο καταφύγιο του ωραίου και δυνατού ζώου που κάποτε ήταν κοινό σε ολόκληρη την Ινδία. Το 2010 η κυβέρνηση της Καθιαβάρ επισήμανε ότι 411 ασιατικά λιοντάρια είχαν θεαθεί στο δάσος της Γκιρ, αυξημένα κατά 52 από την τελευταία καταγραφή το 2005.

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Ази арслан ( Mongolian )

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Ази арслан (Panthera leo persica) буюу Энэтхэг арслан,[2][3][4] нь арслангийн нэгэн дэд зүйл юм. Уг дэд зүйл өдгөө зөвхөн Энэтхэгийн Гужарат мужийн Гир ойд л зэрлэгээрээ үлджээ.[5][6] 2010 онд Гужаратын засаг захиргааны тооцоолсноор Гир ойд 411 толгой Ази арслан байсан нь өмнөх 2005 онд 52 толгой тоологдсонтой харьцуулахад өссөн үзүүлэлт юм.[7]

Энэтхэгт Ази арслангаас гадна мийнхэн овгийн Бенгалын бар, Энэтхэг ирвэс, цасны ирвэс, үүлэн ирвэс бий.[8] Эрт цагт Ази арслан нь Газрын дундад тэнгисээс Энэтхэгийн хойгийн зүүн хойд хэсэг хүртэлх өргөн уудам нутагт тархан амьдардаг байсан ч хайр найргүй агналт, усны бохирдол, хоол тэжээлийн хомсдолоос болж тоо толгой, амьдрах орчин нь ихээр хорогджээ.[9] Хуучин Ази арслан нь Бенгал, Араб, Перс арслан хэмээн гурав ангилагддаг байв.[10] Ази арслан нь Африк арслантай харьцуулахад биеэр жижиг, хөнгөн боловч зан чанарын хувьд ижил юм.

Эшлэл

  1. Загвар:IUCN2007
  2. Websters Dictionary - http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/definitions/lion?cx=partner-pub-0939450753529744%3Av0qd01-tdlq&cof=FORID%3A9&ie=UTF-8&q=lion&sa=Search#906
  3. "Alexander the Great and the Persian Lion", G. F. Hill, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 43, Part 2 (1923), pp. 156-161
  4. The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica, Meyer 1826) in Palestine and the Arabian and Islamic Region - The Book : Carnivora Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 2005-2008, by Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa
  5. Tom Brakefield, Alan Shoemaker. Big cats. Retrieved on 2010-12-14.
  6. Sharad Singh Negi. Biodiversity and its conservation in India. Retrieved on 2010-12-14.
  7. 411 lions in Gir forests, population up by 52. Deccanherald.com. 2010-12-14-д хандсан.
  8. M. W. Pandit. You Deserve, We Conserve: A Biotechnological Approach to Wildlife Conservation. Retrieved on 2010-12-14.
  9. Budh Dev Sharma, Tej Kumari. Indian wildlife. Retrieved on 2010-12-14.
  10. Charles Knight: The English Cyclopaedia. Retrieved on 2010-12-14.
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Ази арслан: Brief Summary ( Mongolian )

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Ази арслан (Panthera leo persica) буюу Энэтхэг арслан, нь арслангийн нэгэн дэд зүйл юм. Уг дэд зүйл өдгөө зөвхөн Энэтхэгийн Гужарат мужийн Гир ойд л зэрлэгээрээ үлджээ. 2010 онд Гужаратын засаг захиргааны тооцоолсноор Гир ойд 411 толгой Ази арслан байсан нь өмнөх 2005 онд 52 толгой тоологдсонтой харьцуулахад өссөн үзүүлэлт юм.

Энэтхэгт Ази арслангаас гадна мийнхэн овгийн Бенгалын бар, Энэтхэг ирвэс, цасны ирвэс, үүлэн ирвэс бий. Эрт цагт Ази арслан нь Газрын дундад тэнгисээс Энэтхэгийн хойгийн зүүн хойд хэсэг хүртэлх өргөн уудам нутагт тархан амьдардаг байсан ч хайр найргүй агналт, усны бохирдол, хоол тэжээлийн хомсдолоос болж тоо толгой, амьдрах орчин нь ихээр хорогджээ. Хуучин Ази арслан нь Бенгал, Араб, Перс арслан хэмээн гурав ангилагддаг байв. Ази арслан нь Африк арслантай харьцуулахад биеэр жижиг, хөнгөн боловч зан чанарын хувьд ижил юм.

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एशियाई सिंह ( Hindi )

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वयस्क भारतीय सिंह

एशियाई सिंह (वैज्ञानिक नाम : Panthera leo persica), शेर की एक प्रजाति है जो केवल भारत के गुजरात राज्य में पायी जाती है। इसलिये इसे 'भारतीय शेर' भी कहते हैं। शेर की एक प्रजाति है। एशियाई सिंहों की संख्या बहुत कम बची है और यह लुप्तप्राय प्रजाति की श्रेणी में रखी गयी है।

बाहरी कड़ियाँ

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एशियाई सिंह: Brief Summary ( Hindi )

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एशियाई सिंह (वैज्ञानिक नाम : Panthera leo persica), शेर की एक प्रजाति है जो केवल भारत के गुजरात राज्य में पायी जाती है। इसलिये इसे 'भारतीय शेर' भी कहते हैं। शेर की एक प्रजाति है। एशियाई सिंहों की संख्या बहुत कम बची है और यह लुप्तप्राय प्रजाति की श्रेणी में रखी गयी है।

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ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਬੱਬਰ ਸ਼ੇਰ ( Punjabi )

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ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਸ਼ੇਰ (ਵਿਗਿਆਨਕ ਨਾਂ: Panthera leo persica) ਸ਼ੇਰ ਦੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਿਸਮ ਹੈ, ਜੋ ਅੱਜ ਸਿਰਫ਼ ਗੀਰ ਜੰਗਲ, ਗੁਜਰਾਤ, ਭਾਰਤ ਵਿੱਚ ਪਾਏ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ। ਇੱਥੇ ਇਸ ਨੂੰ ਇੰਡੀਅਨ ਸ਼ੇਰ (Indian lion) ਅਤੇ ਪਰਸ਼ੀਅਨ ਸ਼ੇਰ (Persian lion) ਦੇ ਨਾਂ ਨਾਲ ਵੀ ਜਾਣਿਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ।[2][3]

ਸੰਖਿਆ

ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਸ਼ੇਰਾਂ ਦੀ ਭਾਰਤ ਵਿੱਚ ਪਹਿਲੀ ਵਾਰ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਵਿੰਟਰ ਬਲੈਥ ਜੋ ਕਿ ਰਾਜਕੁਮਾਰ ਕਾਲਜ਼, ਰਾਜਕੋਟ ਦੇ ਪ੍ਰਿੰਸੀਪਲ ਸਨ, ਨੇ 1950 ਈ: ਵਿੱਚ ਕੀਤੀ ਸੀ। ਉਦੋਂ ਤੋਂ ਲੈ ਕੇ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਸਰਕਾਰ ਹਰ ਪੰਜ ਸਾਲ ਬਾਅਦ ਇੰਨ੍ਹਾ ਦੀ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਕਰਦੀ ਆ ਰਹੀ ਹੈ। 2001 ਤੋਂ 2005 ਵਿਚਕਾਰ 32 ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਸ਼ੇਰਾਂ ਦਾ ਵਾਧਾ ਹੋਇਆ ਹੈ। 2005 ਵਿੱਚ ਗੁਜਰਾਤ ਸਰਕਾਰ ਨੇ ਗਿਰ ਜੰਗਲ ਵਿੱਚ ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਸ਼ੇਰਾਂ ਦੀ ਗਿਣਤੀ 259 ਦੱਸੀ।[4] ਮਈ 2015 ਅਨੁਸਾਰ ਭਾਰਤ ਵਿੱਚ ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਸ਼ੇਰਾਂ ਦੀ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਦਾ ਅੰਦਾਜ਼ਾ 523 ਲਗਾਇਆ ਗਿਆ ਹੈ। ਜਿਹਨਾਂ ਵਿੱਚੋਂ 109 ਨਰ, 201 ਮਾਦਾ ਅਤੇ 213 ਬੱਚੇ ਹਨ।

ਹੋਰ

ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਸ਼ੇਰ ਅੱਗੇ ਭੂਮੱਧ ਸਾਗਰ ਤੋਂ ਉੱਤਰੀ-ਪੂਰਬੀ ਭਾਰਤ ਤੱਕ ਪਾਏ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਸਨ, ਪਰ ਇਹਨਾਂ ਦਾ ਆਦਮੀ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਜਿਆਦਾ ਸ਼ਿਕਾਰ ਕਰਨ ਕਰ ਕੇ, ਗੰਦਾ ਪਾਣੀ ਹੋਣ ਕਰ ਕੇ, ਅਤੇ ਇਹਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਸ਼ਿਕਾਰ ਅਤੇ ਰਹਿਣ ਦੀ ਜਗਾ ਘੱਟਣ ਕਰ ਕੇ, ਇਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਸੰਖਿਆ ਬਹੁਤ ਘਟ ਗਈ ਹੈ।[5] ਇਤਿਹਾਸਕ ਤੌਰ 'ਤੇ, ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਸ਼ੇਰਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਤਿੰਨ ਹਿਸਿਆਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਵੰਡਿਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਸੀ: ਬੰਗਾਲੀ, ਅਰਬੀ, ਅਤੇ ਪਰਸ਼ਿਅਨ ਸ਼ੇਰ[6]

ਹੁਲਿਆ ਅਤੇ ਵਰਤਾਰਾ

ਵੱਡੇ ਨਰ ਸ਼ੇਰਾਂ ਦੀ ਖੋਪਰੀ 330-340 ਮੀਲਿਮੀਟਰ, ਅਤੇ ਨਰ ਸ਼ੇਰਾਂ ਦੀ ਖੋਪਰੀ 266-277 ਮੀਲਿਮੀਟਰ ਹੁੰਦੀ ਹੈ।[7] ਨਰ ਸ਼ੇਰਾਂ ਦਾ ਭਾਰ 160-190 ਕਿਲੋਗਰਾਮ ਅਤੇ ਨਾਰ ਸ਼ੇਰਾਂ ਦਾ ਭਾਰ 110-120 ਕਿਲੋਗਰਾਮ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ।[8] ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਸ਼ੇਰ ਛੋਟੇ ਝੁੰਡਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਰਹਿੰਦੇ ਹਨ। ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਸ਼ੇਰਾਂ ਦੇ ਝੁੰਡ ਅਫ਼ਰੀਅਨ ਸ਼ੇਰਾਂ ਦੇ ਝੁੰਡਾ ਨਾਲੋਂ ਛੋਟੇ ਹੁੰਦੇ ਹਨ, ਜਿਸ ਵਿੱਚ ਆਮ-ਤੋਰ ਤੇ 2 ਨਾਰ ਸ਼ੇਰ ਹੁੰਦੇ ਹਨ, ਜਦ ਕਿ ਅਫ਼ਰੀਕਨ ਸ਼ੇਰਾਂ ਦੇ ਝੁੰਡ ਵਿੱਚ 4 ਤੋਂ 6 ਨਰ ਸ਼ੇਰ ਹੁੰਦੇ ਹਨ। ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਸ਼ੇਰ ਜਿਆਦਾ ਤੋਰ ਤੇ ਹਿਰਨ ਅਤੇ ਹਿਰਨ ਵਰਗੇ ਜਾਨਵਰ, ਜੰਗਲੀ ਸੂਰ, ਅਤੇ ਬਾਕੀ ਪਸ਼ੂ ਆਦਿ ਦਾ ਸ਼ਿਕਾਰ ਕਰਦੇ ਹਨ।

ਹੋਰ ਵੇਖੋ

ਬਾਹਰੀ ਕੜੀ

Wikimedia Commons ਵਿਕਿਸਪੀਸ਼ੀਜ਼ ਦੇ ਉਪਰ ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਸ਼ੇਰ ਦੇ ਸਬੰਧਤ ਜਾਣਕਾਰੀ ਹੈ।

ਹਵਾਲੇ

  1. "Panthera leo persica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2007. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2000. Retrieved 12 August 2008. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of Critically endangerd
  2. Biodiversity and its conservation in India - By Sharad Singh Negi
  3. Big cats - By Tom Brakefield, Alan Shoemaker
  4. Highest-ever lion count at 359 in Gir sanctuary
  5. Indian wildlife - By Budh Dev Sharma, Tej Kumari
  6. The English Cyclopaedia - edited by Charles Knight
  7. V.G Heptner & A.A. Sludskii. Mammals of the Soviet Union, Volume II, Part 2. ISBN 9004088768.
  8. Nowell K, Jackson P (1996). "Panthera Leo". Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (PDF). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat hi ialist Group. pp. 17–21. ISBN 2-8317-0045-0. line feed character in |title= at position 49 (help)
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ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਬੱਬਰ ਸ਼ੇਰ: Brief Summary ( Punjabi )

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ਏਸ਼ੀਆਈ ਸ਼ੇਰ (ਵਿਗਿਆਨਕ ਨਾਂ: Panthera leo persica) ਸ਼ੇਰ ਦੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਿਸਮ ਹੈ, ਜੋ ਅੱਜ ਸਿਰਫ਼ ਗੀਰ ਜੰਗਲ, ਗੁਜਰਾਤ, ਭਾਰਤ ਵਿੱਚ ਪਾਏ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ। ਇੱਥੇ ਇਸ ਨੂੰ ਇੰਡੀਅਨ ਸ਼ੇਰ (Indian lion) ਅਤੇ ਪਰਸ਼ੀਅਨ ਸ਼ੇਰ (Persian lion) ਦੇ ਨਾਂ ਨਾਲ ਵੀ ਜਾਣਿਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ।

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ஆசியச் சிங்கம் ( Tamil )

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ஆசிய பெண் சிங்கம்

ஆசிய சிங்கம் (Panthera leo persica) அல்லது இந்திய சிங்கம் அல்லது பாரசீக சிங்கம் என அழைக்கப்படுவது [3] சிங்கங்களில் ஒரு கிளையினம் ஆகும். இவைதற்போது இந்தியாவின் குஜராத் மாநிலத்தின் கிர் தேசியப் பூங்காவில் உள்ளன. இதன் எண்ணிக்கை குறைந்துவிட்டதால் இதை அருகிய இனம் என்று பன்னாட்டு இயற்கை பாதுகாப்புச் சங்கம் பட்டியலிடப்பட்டுள்ளது.[1] 2010 முதல் இந்த சிங்கங்களின் எண்ணிக்கை கிர் தேசியப் பூங்காவில் படிப்படியாக அதிகரித்து வருகிறது. இது குசராத் மாநில விலங்காகும்.

மே 2015 இல், 14 வது ஆசியச் சிங்கக் கணக்கெடுப்பு சுமார் 20,000 கிமீ 2 (7,700 சதுர மைல்) பரப்பளவில் நடத்தப்பட்டது, இந்த பகுதியில் சிங்கங்களின் எண்ணிக்கை 523 ஆக உள்ளதாக தெரியவந்தது. இதில் 109 ஆண் சிங்கங்களும், 201 பெண்கள் சிங்கங்களும், 213 குட்டிகள் உள்ளதாக மதிப்பிடப்பட்டுள்ளது.[4][5] இந்த எண்ணிக்கையானது 2018 ஆம் ஆண்டு 600 ஆக அதிகரித்துள்ளது.

ஆசிய சிங்கங்கள் என்பவை இந்தியாவில் காணப்படும் பெரும் பூனை இனங்களில் ஒன்றாகும். பிற பெரும் பூனை இனங்கள் வங்காளப் புலி , இந்தியச் சிறுத்தை , பனிச்சிறுத்தை, படைச்சிறுத்தை ஆகியவை ஆகும்.[6]

ஆப்பிரிக்க சிங்கங்களின் துணைக் குடும்பமாகக் கருதப்படும் ஆசிய சிங்க இனமானது, ஒரு லட்சம் ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்பு ஆசியப் பகுதிக்கு இடம்பெயர்ந்திருக்கலாம் என்று கருதப்படுகிறது. முற்காலத்தில் இவை பாரசீகம், இஸ்ரேல் , மெசபடோமியா , பலுசிஸ்தானில் இருந்து, மேற்கில் சிந்து கிழக்கில் வங்காளம்வரையிலும் தெற்கில் நருமதை ஆறுவரையிலும் காணப்பட்டன. ஆப்பிரிக்க சிங்கத்துடன் ஒப்பிட்டால் இதற்கு பிடரி மயிர் சற்றுக்குறைவாக இருக்கும். [7]பெண் சிங்கத்துக்கு பிடரி மயிர் இருக்காது. உடலில் கோடுகளோ அல்லது புள்ளிகளோ காணப்படா. ஆனால் சிங்கக் குட்டிகள் உடலில் புள்ளிகள் ,கோடுகள் காணப்படும்.

நோய் அச்சுறுத்தல்

இந்தச் சிங்கங்களின் எண்ணிக்கைத் தொடர்ந்து அதிகரித்துவருவதாக புள்ளிவிவரங்கள் தெரிவித்தாலும், 2016 ஆம் ஆண்டில் 104 சிங்கங்களும் 2017இல் 80 சிங்கங்களும் இறந்துள்ளன. 2018 ஆம் ஆண்டு காலகட்டத்தில் 23 சிங்கங்கள் 20 நாட்களில் அடுத்தடுத்து உயிரிழந்தது, சுற்றுச்சூழல் செயல்பாட்டாளர்களையும் வனவிலங்கு ஆர்வலர்களையும் அதிர்ச்சிக்கு ஆளாக்கியிருக்கிறது. 2011ஆம் ஆண்டிலேயே ஒரு சிங்கத்தின் மரணத்துக்கு ஆடுகளைத் தாக்கும் பி.பி.ஆர்.எஸ். என்ற வைரசே காரணம் என்று விலங்கின நோய்கள் ஆராய்ச்சி மற்றும் நோயறிதலுக்கான மையம் (சி.ஏ.டி.ஆர்.ஏ.டி), இந்திய கால்நடை ஆராய்ச்சி நிறுவனம் (ஐ.வி.ஆர்.ஐ) ஆகியவை எச்சரித்தன. இந்த வைரசின் ஆபத்தில் இருந்து ஆசிய சிங்கங்களைக் காக்க மிகப் பெரிய ஒரு செயல்திட்டத்தை உடனடியாக மேற்கொண்டால்தான் இந்த அரிய வகை சிங்கங்களைப் பாதுகாக்க முடியும் என வனவிலங்கு ஆர்வலர்கள் கூறுகின்றனர்.[8]

குறிப்புகள்

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Panthera leo ssp. persica". பன்னாட்டு இயற்கைப் பாதுகாப்புச் சங்கத்தின் செம்பட்டியல் பதிப்பு 2014.3. பன்னாட்டு இயற்கைப் பாதுகாப்புச் சங்கம் (2008).
  2. Wozencraft, W. Christopher (16 November 2005). "Order Carnivora (pp. 532-628)". in Wilson, Don E., and Reeder, DeeAnn M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols. (2142 pp.). பக். 546. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:978-0-8018-8221-0. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=14000238.
  3. Humphreys, P., Kahrom, E. (1999). Lion and Gazelle: The Mammals and Birds of Iran. Images Publishing, Avon.
  4. DeshGujarat (2015). "Asiatic Lion population up from 411 to 523 in five years". http://deshgujarat.com/2015/05/10/asiatic-lion-population-up-from-411-to-523-in-five-years. பார்த்த நாள்: 10 May 2015.
  5. Anonymous (2015). "Asiatic lion population in Gujarat rises to 523". Deccan Herald. http://www.deccanherald.com/content/476837/asiatic-lion-population-gujarat-rises.html.
  6. Pandit, M. W., Shivaji, S., Singh, L. (2007). You Deserve, We Conserve: A Biotechnological Approach to Wildlife Conservation. I. K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:9788189866242. https://books.google.com/books?id=-BLEGylIIasC&lpg=PP1&pg=PP1.
  7. Pocock, R. I. (1939). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. Taylor and Francis Ltd., London. Pp. 212–222.
  8. புவி (2018 அக்டோபர் 8). "கிர் சிங்கங்களின் தொடர் மரணம்: என்ன காரணம்?". கட்டுரை. இந்து தமிழ். பார்த்த நாள் 9 அக்டோபர் 2018.
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விக்கிபீடியா ஆசிரியர்கள் மற்றும் ஆசிரியர்கள்

ஆசியச் சிங்கம்: Brief Summary ( Tamil )

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 src= ஆசிய பெண் சிங்கம்

ஆசிய சிங்கம் (Panthera leo persica) அல்லது இந்திய சிங்கம் அல்லது பாரசீக சிங்கம் என அழைக்கப்படுவது சிங்கங்களில் ஒரு கிளையினம் ஆகும். இவைதற்போது இந்தியாவின் குஜராத் மாநிலத்தின் கிர் தேசியப் பூங்காவில் உள்ளன. இதன் எண்ணிக்கை குறைந்துவிட்டதால் இதை அருகிய இனம் என்று பன்னாட்டு இயற்கை பாதுகாப்புச் சங்கம் பட்டியலிடப்பட்டுள்ளது. 2010 முதல் இந்த சிங்கங்களின் எண்ணிக்கை கிர் தேசியப் பூங்காவில் படிப்படியாக அதிகரித்து வருகிறது. இது குசராத் மாநில விலங்காகும்.

மே 2015 இல், 14 வது ஆசியச் சிங்கக் கணக்கெடுப்பு சுமார் 20,000 கிமீ 2 (7,700 சதுர மைல்) பரப்பளவில் நடத்தப்பட்டது, இந்த பகுதியில் சிங்கங்களின் எண்ணிக்கை 523 ஆக உள்ளதாக தெரியவந்தது. இதில் 109 ஆண் சிங்கங்களும், 201 பெண்கள் சிங்கங்களும், 213 குட்டிகள் உள்ளதாக மதிப்பிடப்பட்டுள்ளது. இந்த எண்ணிக்கையானது 2018 ஆம் ஆண்டு 600 ஆக அதிகரித்துள்ளது.

ஆசிய சிங்கங்கள் என்பவை இந்தியாவில் காணப்படும் பெரும் பூனை இனங்களில் ஒன்றாகும். பிற பெரும் பூனை இனங்கள் வங்காளப் புலி , இந்தியச் சிறுத்தை , பனிச்சிறுத்தை, படைச்சிறுத்தை ஆகியவை ஆகும்.

ஆப்பிரிக்க சிங்கங்களின் துணைக் குடும்பமாகக் கருதப்படும் ஆசிய சிங்க இனமானது, ஒரு லட்சம் ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்பு ஆசியப் பகுதிக்கு இடம்பெயர்ந்திருக்கலாம் என்று கருதப்படுகிறது. முற்காலத்தில் இவை பாரசீகம், இஸ்ரேல் , மெசபடோமியா , பலுசிஸ்தானில் இருந்து, மேற்கில் சிந்து கிழக்கில் வங்காளம்வரையிலும் தெற்கில் நருமதை ஆறுவரையிலும் காணப்பட்டன. ஆப்பிரிக்க சிங்கத்துடன் ஒப்பிட்டால் இதற்கு பிடரி மயிர் சற்றுக்குறைவாக இருக்கும். பெண் சிங்கத்துக்கு பிடரி மயிர் இருக்காது. உடலில் கோடுகளோ அல்லது புள்ளிகளோ காணப்படா. ஆனால் சிங்கக் குட்டிகள் உடலில் புள்ளிகள் ,கோடுகள் காணப்படும்.

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விக்கிபீடியா ஆசிரியர்கள் மற்றும் ஆசிரியர்கள்

ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹ ( Kannada )

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ಸಿಂಹಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಆಫ್ರಿಕಾದ ಸಿಂಹ ಮತ್ತು ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹ ಎಂಬ ಎರಡು ಮುಖ್ಯ ಪ್ರಭೇದಗಳಿವೆ. ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹ ವಾಸವಾಗಿರುವುದು ಗುಜರಾತ್‍ನ ಗಿರ್ ಅರಣ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ. ಬಾರತದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಐದು ದೊಡ್ಡ ಬೆಕ್ಕಿನ ಜಾತಿಯ ಪ್ರಾಣಿಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹ. ಉಳಿದವುಗಳು ಬಂಗಾಳದ ಹುಲಿ, ಭಾರತೀಯ ಚಿರತೆ, ಹಿಮ ಚಿರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಮಂಜು ಚಿರತೆ.

ಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳು

 src=
Emblem of the Hoysala Empire in Ancient India, depicting Sala fighting the Lion.
 src=
Dirham coin of Kaykhusraw II, Sivas, AH 638/AD 1240-1

ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹ ಗಾತ್ರದಲ್ಲಿ ಆಫ್ರಿಕಾದ ಸಿಂಹಕ್ಕಿಂತ ತುಸು ಚಿಕ್ಕದು. ಪೂರ್ಣ ಬೆಳೆದ ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹ ಸುಮಾರು ೧೬೦ ರಿಂದ ೧೯೦ ಕಿಲೋ ತೂಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಇದು ಸುಮಾರು ೩.೫ ಅಡಿ ಎತ್ತರ ಮತ್ತು ೯ ಅಡಿ ಉದ್ದಕ್ಕೆ ಬೆಳೆಯುತ್ತದೆ. ಹೆಣ್ಣು ಸಿಂಹ ೧೧೦ರಿಂದ ೧೨೦ ಕಿಲೋ ಭಾರವಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ.

ವಾಸ

ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹ ಕುಟುಂಬ ಜೀವಿ. ಒಂದು ಕುಟುಂಬದಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು ಗಂಡು, ಒಂದು ಅಥವಾ ಎರಡು ಹೆಣ್ಣು ಮತ್ತು ಮರಿಗಳು ಇರುತ್ತವೆ.

ಭೌಗೋಳಿಕ ಹರಡುವಿಕೆ

ಹಿಂದಿನ ಕಾಲದಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹ ಭಾರತೀಯ ಭೂಖಂಡದಲ್ಲಿ ಮಾತ್ರವಲ್ಲದೆ ಪರ್ಶಿಯಾ (ಇಂದಿನ ಇರಾನ್), ಇರಾಕ್, ಸಿರಿಯಾ ಮತ್ತು ಟರ್ಕಿ ದೇಶಗಳಲ್ಲೂ ತಿರುಗಾಡುತ್ತಿತ್ತು. ಬೇಟೆಗಾರರ ಕಾರಣ ಭಾರತದಲ್ಲೂ ಸಿಂಹಗಳು ಕಾಣೆಯಾಗಿದ್ದವು.

ಸಂರಕ್ಷಣೆ

೧೯೦೪ ರಿಂದ ೧೯೧೧ ನಡುವೆ ಗಿರ್ ಅರಣ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಉಳಿದುಕೊಂಡಿದ್ದ ಕೆಲವೇ ಸಿಂಹಗಳಿಗೆ ಜುನಾಗಢದ ನವಾಬ ರಕ್ಷಣೆ ನೀಡಿದ್ದ. ಆ ಬಳಿಕ ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರು ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಸಿಂಹಗಳ ಬೇಟೆ ನಡೆಯದಂತೆ ನೋಡಿಕೊಂಡಿದ್ದರು. ಹೀಗಾಗಿ ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹಗಳ ಕೊನೆಯ ಸಂತಾನ ಉಳಿದುಕೊಂಡಿದೆ. ಇಂದು ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಗುಜರಾತಿನ ಜುನಾಗಢ ಮತ್ತು ಅಮೇಲಿ ಜಿಲ್ಲೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸುಮಾರು ೧೮೨೬ ಚದರ ಕಿಲೋಮೀಟರ್ ವಿಸ್ತೀರ್ಣದ ಗಿರ್ ಅಭಯಾರಣ್ಯ ಮತ್ತು ಅದರ ಸಮೀಪದ ಕಾಡುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹಗಳು ವಾಸವಾಗಿವೆ. ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಸುಮಾರು ೫೨೩ ಸಿಂಹಗಳು ಇವೆ ಎಂದು ೨೦೧೫ರಲ್ಲಿ ಲೆಕ್ಕ ಹಾಕಲಾಗಿತ್ತು.

ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಗಳು

  1. Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D. P., Ahmad Khan, J. and Driscoll, C. (2008). "Panthera leo ssp. persica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. International Union for Conservation of Nature.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 546. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
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ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ ಲೇಖಕರು ಮತ್ತು ಸಂಪಾದಕರು

ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹ: Brief Summary ( Kannada )

provided by wikipedia emerging languages

ಸಿಂಹಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಆಫ್ರಿಕಾದ ಸಿಂಹ ಮತ್ತು ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹ ಎಂಬ ಎರಡು ಮುಖ್ಯ ಪ್ರಭೇದಗಳಿವೆ. ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹ ವಾಸವಾಗಿರುವುದು ಗುಜರಾತ್‍ನ ಗಿರ್ ಅರಣ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ. ಬಾರತದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಐದು ದೊಡ್ಡ ಬೆಕ್ಕಿನ ಜಾತಿಯ ಪ್ರಾಣಿಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿಂಹ. ಉಳಿದವುಗಳು ಬಂಗಾಳದ ಹುಲಿ, ಭಾರತೀಯ ಚಿರತೆ, ಹಿಮ ಚಿರತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಮಂಜು ಚಿರತೆ.

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ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ ಲೇಖಕರು ಮತ್ತು ಸಂಪಾದಕರು

Şêrê Asya ( Diq )

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Şêrê Asya (Panthera leo persica) ya zi Şêrê İrani keyey pısıngêkan (felidae) ra yew ganiyo. Eyro şêrê Asya warey Hindıstani Gucerati sero Mêşey Giri dı cıwiyenê. Verni dı şerê Asya Hindıstani ra heta İran, nêmadey Erebıstani u Yunanıstani wareyê do gırd dı weşiya xo ramıtêne. Eyro hem amarê inan hem zi warey inan biy tayn, teyna Hindıstan dı estê. Amarê inan pêro piya 410 şêro.

Şêrê Asya şêrê Afrika ra heto fizyolocik ra qıtekêro u amarê cı kemiyêro. Yew şêrê Afrika heta 200 kg veciyeno, şêrê Asya zi 100-140 kg miyan dı vıriyeno.

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Şêrê Asya: Brief Summary ( Diq )

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Şêrê Asya (Panthera leo persica) ya zi Şêrê İrani keyey pısıngêkan (felidae) ra yew ganiyo. Eyro şêrê Asya warey Hindıstani Gucerati sero Mêşey Giri dı cıwiyenê. Verni dı şerê Asya Hindıstani ra heta İran, nêmadey Erebıstani u Yunanıstani wareyê do gırd dı weşiya xo ramıtêne. Eyro hem amarê inan hem zi warey inan biy tayn, teyna Hindıstan dı estê. Amarê inan pêro piya 410 şêro.

Şêrê Asya şêrê Afrika ra heto fizyolocik ra qıtekêro u amarê cı kemiyêro. Yew şêrê Afrika heta 200 kg veciyeno, şêrê Asya zi 100-140 kg miyan dı vıriyeno.

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Asiatic lion

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The Asiatic lion is a Panthera leo leo population in India.[3] Its range is restricted to the Gir National Park and environs in the Indian state of Gujarat. On the IUCN Red List, it is listed under its former scientific name Panthera leo persica as Endangered because of its small population size and area of occupancy.[1]

The first scientific description of the Asiatic lion was published in 1826 by the Austrian zoologist Johann N. Meyer who named it Felis leo persicus.[4] Until the 19th century, it occurred in Saudi Arabia[5][6] eastern Turkey, Iran, Mesopotamia, and from east of the Indus River to Bengal and Narmada River in Central India.[7] Since the turn of the 20th century, it is restricted to the Gir Forest National Park and surrounding areas.[8] This lion population has steadily increased since 2010.[9] In May 2015, the 14th Asiatic Lion Census was conducted over an area of about 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi); the lion population was estimated at 523 individuals, comprising 109 adult males, 201 adult females and 213 cubs.[10][11][12] In August 2017, surveyors counted 650 wild lions.[13][14]

The lion is one of five pantherine cats inhabiting India, along with the Bengal tiger (P. tigris tigris), Indian leopard (P. pardus fusca), snow leopard (P. uncia) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa).[15][16] It was also known as the "Indian lion" and the "Persian lion".[17][18]

Taxonomy

Felis leo persicus was the scientific name proposed by Johann N. Meyer in 1826 who described an Asiatic lion skin from Persia.[4] Following his, other naturalists and zoologists also described lion specimens from other parts of Asia that used to be considered synonyms of P. l. persica:[7]

In 2017, the Asiatic lion was subsumed to P. l. leo due to close morphological and molecular genetic similarities with Barbary lion specimens.[3][23]

Evolution

Fossil remains of Panthera spelaea excavated in the Cromer Stage indicate that it represented a genetically isolated and highly distinct lineage.[24] Fossil lion remains were found in Pleistocene deposits in West Bengal.[25] A fossil carnassial excavated in the Batadomba Cave indicates that Panthera leo sinhaleyus inhabited Sri Lanka during the late Pleistocene, and is thought to have become extinct around 39,000 years ago. Deraniyagala described this lion in 1939 that was distinct from today's lion.[26]

Lion phylogeography

Results of a phylogeographic analysis based on mtDNA sequences of lions from across the global range indicates that Sub-Saharan African lions are phylogenetically basal to all modern lions. These findings support an African origin of modern lion evolution with a probable centre in East and Southern Africa. It is likely that lions migrated from there to West Africa, eastern North Africa and via the periphery of the Arabian Peninsula into Turkey, southern Europe and northern India during the last 20,000 years. The Sahara, tropical rainforest and the Great Rift Valley are natural barriers to lion dispersal.[27]

Genetic markers of 357 samples from captive and wild lions from Africa and India were examined during a study on lion evolution. Results indicate four lineages of lion populations: one in Central and North Africa to Asia, one in Kenya, one in Southern Africa, and one in Southern and East Africa. The first wave of lion expansion is thought to have occurred about 118,000 years ago from East Africa into West Asia, and the second wave in the late Pleistocene or early Holocene periods from Southern Africa towards East Africa.[28]

The Asiatic lion is genetically closer to North and West African lions than to the group comprising East and Southern African lions. The two groups probably diverged about 186,000–128,000 years ago. It is thought that the Asiatic lion remained connected to North and Central African lions until gene flow was interrupted due to extinction of lions in Europe and the Middle East.[29][30]

Asiatic lions are genetically less diverse than lions in Africa, which may be the result of a founder effect in the recent history of the remnant population in the Gir Forest.[31]

Characteristics

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Asiatic lion cub
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An Asiatic lioness

The Asiatic lion's fur ranges in colour from ruddy-tawny, heavily speckled with black, to sandy or buffish grey, sometimes with a silvery sheen in certain lights. Males have only moderate mane growth at the top of the head, so that their ears are always visible. The mane is scanty on the cheeks and throat where it is only 10 cm (3.9 in) long. About half of Asiatic lions' skulls from the Gir forest have divided infraorbital foramina, whereas African lions have only one foramen on either side. The sagittal crest is more strongly developed, and the post-orbital area is shorter than in African lion. Skull length in adult males ranges from 330 to 340 mm (13 to 13 in), and in females from 292 to 302 mm (11.5 to 11.9 in). It differs from the African lion by a larger tail tuft and less inflated auditory bullae.[7] The most striking morphological character of the Asiatic lion is a longitudinal fold of skin running along its belly.[32]

Shoulder height of males is 107–120 centimetres (3.51–3.94 feet), and of females 80–107 centimetres (2.62–3.51 feet).[33] Head-and-body measurements of two lions in Gir Forest were 1.98 m (78 in) each, with tail-lengths of 0.79–0.89 m (31–35 in) and total lengths of 2.82–2.87 m (111–113 in), respectively. The Gir lion is similar in size to the Central African lion,[7] and smaller than large African lions.[34] Adult males weigh 160 to 190 kg (350 to 420 lb), while females weigh 110 to 120 kg (240 to 260 lb).[35]

Manes

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Asiatic (above) and southern African (below) lions. Note the larger tail tuft, sparser mane on the head and prominent fold of skin on the abdomen of the former

Colour and development of manes in male lions varies between regions, among populations and with age of lions.[36] In general, the Asiatic lion differs from the African lion by a less developed mane.[7] The manes of most lions in ancient Greece and Asia Minor were also less developed and did not extend to below the belly, sides or ulnas. Lions with such smaller manes were also known in the Syrian region, Arabian peninsula and Egypt.[17][37]

In contrast, a stone relief at Nineveh in the Mesopotamian Plain depicts a lion with underbelly hair. Therefore, it was suspected that the Mesopotamian lion may have been a distinct subspecies, for which the scientific name Panthera leo mesopotamica was proposed.[38]

Exceptionally sized lions

The confirmed record total length of a male Indian lion is 2.92 m (115 in), including the tail.[39]

Emperor Jahangir allegedly speared a lion in the 1620s that measured 3.10 m (122 in) and weighed 306 kg (675 lb).[40]

In 1841, Austen Henry Layard accompanied hunters in Khuzestan, Iran, and sighted a lion which "had done much damage in the plain of Ram Hormuz," before one of his companions killed it. He described it as being "unusually large and of very dark brown colour", with some parts of its body being almost black.[41]

In 1935, a British Admiral claimed to have sighted a maneless lion feeding on a goat near Quetta. He wrote "It was a large lion, very stocky, light tawny in colour, and I may say that no one of us three had the slightest doubt of what we had seen until, on our arrival at Quetta, many officers expressed doubts as to its identity, or to the possibility of there being a lion in the district."[8]

Distribution and habitat

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Habitat in Gir Forest

In Saurashtra's Gir Forest, an area of 1,412.1 km2 (545.2 sq mi) was declared as a sanctuary for Asiatic lion conservation in 1965. This sanctuary and the surrounding areas are the only habitats supporting the Asiatic lion.[9] After 1965, a national park was established covering an area of 258.71 km2 (99.89 sq mi) where human activity is not allowed. In the surrounding sanctuary only Maldharis have the right to take their livestock for grazing.[42]

Lions inhabit remnant forest habitats in the two hill systems of Gir and Girnar that comprise Gujarat's largest tracts of tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, thorny forest and savanna, and provide valuable habitat for a diverse flora and fauna. Five protected areas currently exist to protect the Asiatic lion: Gir Sanctuary, Gir National Park, Pania Sanctuary, Mitiyala Sanctuary, and Girnar Sanctuary. The first three protected areas form the Gir Conservation Area, a 1,452 km2 (561 sq mi) large forest block that represents the core habitat of the lion population. The other two sanctuaries Mitiyala and Girnar protect satellite areas within dispersal distance of the Gir Conservation Area. An additional sanctuary is being established in the nearby Barda Wildlife Sanctuary to serve as an alternative home for lions.[9] The drier eastern part is vegetated with acacia thorn savanna and receives about 650 mm (26 in) annual rainfall; rainfall in the west is higher at about 1,000 mm (39 in) per year.[35]

The lion population recovered from the brink of extinction to 411 individuals by 2010. In that year, approximately 105 lions lived outside the Gir forest, representing a quarter of the entire lion population. Dispersing sub-adults established new territories outside their natal prides, and as a result the satellite lion population has been increasing since 1995.[9] By 2015, the total population had grown to an estimated 523 individuals, inhabiting an area of 7,000 km2 (2,700 sq mi) in the Saurashtra region.[10][11][12] The Asiatic Lion Census conducted in 2017 revealed about 650 individuals.[13]

In November 2019, a lioness and a sub-adult were seen in villages about 20–50 km (12–31 mi) from Chotila Village in Surendranagar district. This location is about 60–70 km (37–43 mi) from Gir Forest,[43][44] making the district the fifth in Gujarat to have wild lions.[45] Apparently on a hunting mission, they had killed a bovine at a farm in the village of Rampura Chobara, causing local villagers to fear for themselves and their livestock.[46][47]

Former range

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Men with a chained lion in Iran, ca. 1880.[48] Photograph by Antoin Sevruguin exhibited in the National Museum of Ethnology (Netherlands)

The Asiatic lion used to occur in Arabia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Baluchistan.[7] In South Caucasia, it was known since the Holocene and became extinct in the 10th century. Until the middle of the 19th century, it survived in regions adjoining Mesopotamia and Syria, and was still sighted in the upper reaches of the Euphrates River in the early 1870s.[17][18] By the late 19th century, the Asiatic lion had become extinct in Saudi Arabia and Turkey.[6][49] The last known lion in Iraq was killed on the lower Tigris in 1918.[50]

Historical records in Iran indicate that it ranged from the Khuzestan Plain to the Fars Province at elevations below 2,000 m (6,600 ft) in steppe vegetation and pistachio-almond woodlands.[51] It was widespread in the country, but in the 1870s, it was sighted only on the western slopes of the Zagros Mountains, and in the forest regions south of Shiraz.[17] It served as the national emblem and appeared on the country's flag. Some of the country's last lions were sighted in 1941 between Shiraz and Jahrom in the Fars Province, and in 1942, a lion was spotted about 65 km (40 mi) northwest of Dezful.[52] In 1944, the corpse of a lioness was found on the banks of the Karun River in Iran's Khuzestan Province.[53][54]

Reginald Innes Pocock suggested that the restricted distribution of the Asiatic lion in India indicates that it was a comparatively recent immigrant and arrived in the country through Persia and Baluchistan, before humans limited its dispersal.[7] In the early 19th century, the Asiatic lion occurred in Sind, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Gujarat, Rajastan, Haryana, Bihar and eastward as far as Palamau and Rewa, Madhya Pradesh.[41][55] It once ranged to Bengal in the east and up to the Narmada River in the south, but declined under heavy hunting pressure. The advent and increasing availability of firearms led to its extinction over large areas.[41][7] Heavy hunting by British colonial officers and Indian rulers caused a steady and marked decline of lion numbers in the country.[42] Lions were exterminated in Palamau by 1814, in Baroda, Hariana and Ahmedabad district in the 1830s, in Kot Diji and Damoh in the 1840s. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, a British officer shot 300 lions. The last lions of Gwalior and Rewah were shot in the 1860s. One lion was killed near Allahabad in 1866.[55] The last lion of Mount Abu in Rajasthan was spotted in 1872.[56] By the late 1870s, lions were extinct in Rajastan.[41] By 1880, no lion survived in Guna, Deesa and Palanpur districts, and only about a dozen lions were left in Junagadh district. By the turn of the century, the Gir Forest held the only Asiatic lion population in India, which was protected by the Nawab of Junagarh in his private hunting grounds.[7][41]

Ecology and behaviour

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A male lion scent marking his territory in Gir Forest
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Female and male lion
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Young male

Male Asiatic lions are solitary or associate with up to three males forming a loose pride. Pairs of males rest, hunt and feed together, and display marking behaviour at the same sites. Females associate with up to 12 females forming a stronger pride together with their cubs. They share large carcasses among each other, but seldom with males. Female and male lions usually associate only for a few days when mating, but rarely live and feed together.[57][58]

Results of a radio telemetry study indicate that annual home ranges of male lions vary from 144 to 230 km2 (56 to 89 sq mi) in dry and wet seasons. Home ranges of females are smaller, varying between 67 and 85 km2 (26 and 33 sq mi).[59] During hot and dry seasons, they favour densely vegetated and shady riverine habitats, where prey species also congregate.[60][61]

Coalitions of males defend home ranges containing one or more female prides.[62] Together, they hold a territory for a longer time than single lions. Males in coalitions of three to four individuals exhibit a pronounced hierarchy with one male dominating the others.[63]

Feeding ecology

In general, lions prefer large prey species within a weight range of 190 to 550 kg (420 to 1,210 lb) irrespective of their availability.[64] Domestic cattle have historically been a major component of the Asiatic lions' diet in the Gir Forest.[7] Inside the Gir Forest National Park, lions predominantly kill chital, sambar, nilgai, cattle, buffalo and less frequently also wild boar.[59] They most commonly kill chital, which weighs only around 50 kg (110 lb).[62] They prey on sambar deer when the latter descend from the hills during summer. Outside the protected area where wild prey species do not occur, lions prey on buffalo and cattle, rarely also on camel. They kill most prey less than 100 m (330 ft) away from water bodies, charge prey from close range and drag carcasses into dense cover.[59]

In 1974, the Forest Department estimated the wild ungulate population at 9,650 individuals. In the following decades, the wild ungulate population has grown consistently to 31,490 in 1990 and 64,850 in 2010, including 52,490 chital, 4,440 wild boar, 4,000 sambar, 2,890 nilgai, 740 chinkara, and 290 four-horned antelope. In contrast, populations of domestic buffalo and cattle declined following resettlement, largely due to direct removal of resident livestock from the Gir Conservation Area. The population of 24,250 domestic livestock in the 1970s declined to 12,500 by the mid-1980s, but increased to 23,440 animals in 2010. Following changes in both predator and prey communities, Asiatic lions shifted their predation patterns. Today, very few livestock kills occur within the sanctuary, and instead most occur in peripheral villages. Depredation records indicate that in and around the Gir Forest, lions killed on average 2,023 livestock annually between 2005 and 2009, and an additional 696 individuals in satellite areas.[9]

Dominant males consume about 47% more from kills than their coalition partners. Aggression between partners increases when coalitions are large, but kills are small.[63]

Reproduction

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Lions mating in Gir Forest
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A pride of adult lions and their cubs

Asiatic lions mate foremost between September and January. Mating lasts three to six days. During these days, they usually do not hunt, but only drink water. Gestation lasts about 110 days. Litters comprise one to four cubs.[65] The average interval between births is 24 months, unless cubs die due to infanticide by adult males or because of diseases and injuries. Cubs become independent at the age of about two years. Subadult males leave their natal pride latest at the age of three years and become nomads until they establish their own territory.[58] Dominant males mate more frequently than their coalition partners. During a study carried out between December 2012 and December 2016, three females were observed switching mating partners in favour of the dominant male.[63] Monitoring of more than 70 mating events showed that females mated with males of several rivaling prides that shared their home ranges, and that these males were tolerant toward the same cubs. Only new males that entered the female territories killed unfamiliar cubs. Young females mated foremost with males within their home ranges. Older females selected males at the periphery of their home ranges.[66]

Threats

The Asiatic lion currently exists as a single subpopulation, and is thus vulnerable to extinction from unpredictable events, such as an epidemic or large forest fire. There are indications of poaching incidents in recent years. There are reports that organized gangs have switched attention from tigers to these lions. There have also been a number of drowning incidents after lions fell into wells.[1]

Nearly 25 lions in the vicinity of Gir Forest were found dead in October 2018. Four of them had died because of canine distemper virus, the same virus that had killed several Serengeti lions earlier.[67][68]

Prior to the resettlement of Maldharis, the Gir forest was heavily degraded and used by livestock, which competed with and restricted the population sizes of native ungulates. Various studies reveal tremendous habitat recovery and increases in wild ungulate populations following the Maldhari resettlement during the last four decades.[9]

Conflicts with humans

Since the mid 1990s, the Asiatic lion population has increased to an extent that by 2015 about a third resided outside the protected area. Hence, conflict between local residents and wildlife also increased. Local people protect their crops from nilgai, wild pigs and other herbivores by using electrical fences that are powered with high voltage. Some consider the presence of predators a benefit, as latter keep the herbivore population in check. But some people also fear the lions and killed several in retaliation for attacks on livestock.[69]

In July 2012, a lion dragged a man from the veranda of his house and killed him about 50–60 km (31–37 mi) from the Gir Forest National Park. This was the second attack by a lion in this area, six months after a 25-year-old man was attacked and killed in Dhodadar.[70]

Conservation

Panthera leo persica was included on CITES Appendix I, and is fully protected in India.[8]

Reintroduction

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Proposed reintroduction sites in India. Pink spots indicate former populations, blue spots indicate proposed sites.

India

In the 1950s, biologists advised the Indian government to re-establish at least one wild population in the Asiatic lion's former range to ensure the population's reproductive health and to prevent it from being affected by an outbreak of an epidemic. In 1956, the Indian Board for Wildlife accepted a proposal by the Government of Uttar Pradesh to establish a new sanctuary for the envisaged reintroduction, Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary, covering 96 km2 (37 sq mi) in eastern Uttar Pradesh, where climate, terrain and vegetation is similar to the conditions in the Gir Forest. In 1957, one male and two female wild-caught Asiatic lions were set free in the sanctuary. This population comprised 11 animals in 1965, which all disappeared thereafter.[71]

The Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project to find an alternative habitat for reintroducing Asiatic lions was pursued in the early 1990s. Biologists from the Wildlife Institute of India assessed several potential translocation sites for their suitability regarding existing prey population and habitat conditions. The Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, in northern Madhya Pradesh, was ranked as the most promising location, followed by Sita Mata Wildlife Sanctuary and Darrah National Park.[72] Until 2000, 1,100 families from 16 villages had been resettled from the Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, and another 500 families from eight villages envisaged to be resettled. With this resettlement scheme the protected area was expanded by 345 km2 (133 sq mi).[71][73]

Gujarat state officials resisted the relocation, since it would make the Gir Sanctuary lose its status as the world's only home of the Asiatic lion. Gujarat raised a number of objections to the proposal, and thus the matter went before the Indian Supreme Court. In April 2013, the Indian Supreme Court ordered the Gujarat state to send some of their Gir lions to Madhya Pradesh to establish a second population there.[74] The court had given wildlife authorities six months to complete the transfer. The number of lions and which ones to be transported will be decided at a later date. As of now, the plan to shift lions to Kuno is in jeopardy, with Madhya Pradesh having apparently given up on acquiring lions from Gujarat.[75][76]

Iran

In 1977, Iran attempted to restore its lion population by transporting Gir lions to Arzhan National Park, but the project met resistance from the local population, and thus it was not implemented.[18][52] However, this did not stop Iran from seeking to bring back the lion.[77][78] In February 2019, Tehran Zoological Garden obtained a male Asiatic lion from Bristol Zoo in the United Kingdom,[79] followed in June by a female from Dublin Zoo. They are supposed to reproduce.[80]

In captivity

Until the late 1990s, captive Asiatic lions in Indian zoos were haphazardly interbred with African lions confiscated from circuses, leading to genetic pollution in the captive Asiatic lion stock. Once discovered, this led to the complete shutdown of the European and American endangered species breeding programs for Asiatic lions, as its founder animals were captive-bred Asiatic lions originally imported from India and were ascertained to be intraspecific hybrids of African and Asian lions. In North American zoos, several Indian-African lion crosses were inadvertently bred, and researchers noted that "the fecundity, reproductive success, and spermatozoal development improved dramatically."[81][82]

DNA fingerprinting studies of Asiatic lions have helped in identifying individuals with high genetic variability, which can be used for conservation breeding programs.[83]

In 2006, the Central Zoo Authority of India stopped breeding Indian-African cross lions stating that "hybrid lions have no conservation value and it is not worth to spend resources on them".[81][84] Now only pure native Asiatic lions are bred in India.

The Asiatic lion International Studbook was initiated in 1977, followed in 1983 by the North American Species Survival Plan (SSP).[85] The North American population of captive Asiatic lions was composed of descendants of five founder lions, three of which were pure Asian and two were African or African-Asian hybrids. The lions kept in the framework of the SSP consisted of animals with high inbreeding coefficients.[32]

In the early 1990s, three European zoos imported pure Asiatic lions from India: London Zoo obtained two pairs; the Zürich Zoologischer Garten one pair; and the Helsinki Zoo one male and two females. In 1994, the European Endangered Species Programme (EEP) for Asiatic lions was initiated. The European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) published the first European Studbook in 1999. By 2005, there were 80 Asiatic lions kept in the EEP — the only captive population outside of India.[85] As of 2009, more than 100 Asiatic lions were kept within the EEP. The SSP had not resumed; pure-bred Asiatic lions are needed to form a new founder population for breeding in American zoos.[86]

In culture

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A painting showing a lion hunt in India, ca. 1810
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The famous original sandstone sculpted Lion Capital of Ashoka preserved at Sarnath Museum, which was originally erected around 250 BC atop an Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath. The angle from which this picture has been taken, minus the inverted bell-shaped lotus flower, has been adopted as the National emblem of India, showing the horse on the left and the bull on the right of the Ashoka Chakra in the circular base on which the four lions are standing back to back. On the far side is an elephant and a lion instead. The wheel Ashoka Chakra from its base has been placed onto the center of the National Flag of India.

South and East Asia

  • The Sanskrit word for 'lion' is 'सिंह' (siṃha), which also signifies the Leo of the Zodiac.[87] The Mahabharata (Sanskrit: महाभारत) contains literature on the lion, such as a comparison to the tiger.[88]
  • Since ancient times, lion statues adorned palaces and temples and other important buildings in India, and in Buddhist culture, the lion was depicted as the protector of Dharma. In Hinduism lions are associated with Gods and Goddesses. Narasimha (Narasingh or Narasinga – man-lion) is described as an incarnation (avatar) of Vishnu within the Puranic texts of Hinduism and is worshiped as "Lion God". Thus, Asiatic lions are considered sacred by all Hindus in India. A lion-faced dakini also appears in Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism. The Hindu deity is known as Narasimha and the Tibetan Buddhist form is known as Siṃhamukhā in Sanskrit and Senge Dongma (Wyl. seng ge gdong ma) in Tibetan.[89] The lion is found on numerous flags and coats of arms all across Asia and Europe, and also appears on the Emblem of India and on the flag of Sri Lanka. Singhāsana, meaning seat of a lion, is the traditional Sanskrit name for the throne of a Hindu kingdom in India and Sinhalese kingdom in Sri Lanka since antiquity.
  • The surnames Singh, Singha and Sinha are related to the Prakrit word siṁgha and Sanskrit word siṃhḥ which refer to lions, tigers and leopards.[90] These are common Hindu and Sikh surnames dating back over 2000 years to ancient India. They originally were only used by Rajputs, a Hindu kshatriya or military caste in India since the seventh century. After the birth of the Khalsa brotherhood in 1699, the Sikhs adopted the name "Singh" at the direction of Guru Gobind Singh. As this name was associated with higher classes and royalty, this action was to combat the prevalent caste system and discrimination by last name. Along with millions of Hindu Rajputs today, it is also used by up to 10 million Sikhs worldwide.[91][92] The Sinhalese people are the majority ethnic group of Sri Lanka. The name 'Sinhala' translates to "lion's blood" or "lion people" and refers to the myths regarding the descent of the legendary founder of the Sinhalese people 2500 years ago, Prince Vijaya, who is said to have migrated from Singhapur (Simhapura or Singur).[93] The words "singha" or "singham" meaning "courageous lion" are used as an ending of many surnames, such as "Weerasingha" used by the Sinhala people, and "Veerasingham" used by the Tamil people. The name Sinhala comes from the belief that Vijaya's paternal grandfather was a lion. An alternative theory places Singhapur in modern Sihor, which happens to be close to the Gir Sanctuary.
  • The lion is the symbol of Mahavira, the 24th and last Tirthankara in Jainism.[94][95]
  • In the Burmese and Sinhalese animal and planetary zodiac, the lion is the third animal zodiac of the Burmese and the sixth animal zodiac of the Sinhalese people of Sri Lanka.[96]
  • The lion is the basis of the lion dances that form part of the traditional Chinese New Year celebrations, and of similar customs in other Asian countries. Chinese guardian lions and their Eastern, Southeastern and Southern Asian counterparts depicted in Chinese art were modeled on the basis of lions found in Indian temples.[97] Buddhist monks, or possibly traders, possibly brought descriptions of sculpted lions guarding the entry to temples in China. Chinese sculptors then used the description to model "Fo-Lions" (Fo (Chinese: ) is a character for the Buddha) temple statues after native dogs (possibly the Tibetan Mastiff) by adding a shaggy mane. Depictions of these "Fo-lions" have been found in Chinese religious art as early as 208 BC. The Tibetan Snow Lion (Tibetan: གངས་སེང་གེ་; Wylie: gangs seng ge) is a mythical animal of Tibet. It symbolizes fearlessness, unconditional cheerfulness, the eastern quadrant and the element of Earth. It is said to range over mountains, and is commonly pictured as being white with a turquoise mane. Two Snow Lions appear on the flag of Tibet. Many East Asian languages borrowed from the Sanskrit word for lion.
  • Cambodia has a native martial art called L-bukkatao (Khmer: ល្បុក្កតោ, Pounding a lion).[98]
  • The island nation of Singapore (Singapura) derives its name from the Malay words singa (lion) and pura (city), which in turn is from the Sanskrit siṃha (सिंह) and pura (पुर) .[99] According to the Malay Annals, this name was given by a 13th-century Sumatran Malay prince named Sang Nila Utama, who, on alighting the island after a thunderstorm, spotted an auspicious beast on shore that his chief minister identified as an Asiatic lion.[100] Recent studies of Singapore indicate lions have never lived there, unlike the tiger. Therefore, the animal seen by Sang Nila Utama would more likely have been a tiger,[101] though it would be odd for them not to recognize one.[102]

West Asia and Europe

See also

References

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Asiatic lion: Brief Summary

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The Asiatic lion is a Panthera leo leo population in India. Its range is restricted to the Gir National Park and environs in the Indian state of Gujarat. On the IUCN Red List, it is listed under its former scientific name Panthera leo persica as Endangered because of its small population size and area of occupancy.

The first scientific description of the Asiatic lion was published in 1826 by the Austrian zoologist Johann N. Meyer who named it Felis leo persicus. Until the 19th century, it occurred in Saudi Arabia eastern Turkey, Iran, Mesopotamia, and from east of the Indus River to Bengal and Narmada River in Central India. Since the turn of the 20th century, it is restricted to the Gir Forest National Park and surrounding areas. This lion population has steadily increased since 2010. In May 2015, the 14th Asiatic Lion Census was conducted over an area of about 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi); the lion population was estimated at 523 individuals, comprising 109 adult males, 201 adult females and 213 cubs. In August 2017, surveyors counted 650 wild lions.

The lion is one of five pantherine cats inhabiting India, along with the Bengal tiger (P. tigris tigris), Indian leopard (P. pardus fusca), snow leopard (P. uncia) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). It was also known as the "Indian lion" and the "Persian lion".

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Azia leono ( Esperanto )

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La azia leono (Panthera leo persica) estas la ununura subspecio de leonoj, kiu hodiaŭ troveblas ekster Afriko. Temas pri unu el la felisedaj subspecioj plej minacataj en la mondo, ĉar ties loĝantaro en naturo ampleksas nur ĉirkaŭ 360 bestojn (en la jaro 2006) en la Gir-Arbaro, protektita zono de 1 412 kvadrataj kilometroj en la sudo de la barata provinco Guĝarato. Tie dum la britia koloniado, la specio suferis troan ĉasadon pro sporto, kaj restis nur 20 ekzempleroj. Tiam la nababo de Gir protektis la specion, ĝis kiam ekestis konfliktoj kun la homa loĝantaro, kiu suferis perdon de gregoj.

Pro ties malabundo en libero, tiu orientalisa leono estas tre valora ero en bestoĝardenoj, kie oni klopodas ties bredadon en kaptiveco. Oni supozas, ke ekzistas ĉirkaŭ milo de aziaj leonoj en la zooj tutmonde.

Aspekto

La azia leono estas similaj al la afrikaj parencoj, sed estas kelkaj diferencoj, pro kiuj kelkaj fakuloj parolas pri diferenca specio. Tiu estas iom pli malgranda kaj malpli fortika ol la afrikaj, ĉirkaŭ 160 - 190 kg ĉe maskloj kaj 110 – 120 kg ĉe inoj. Maskloj estas ĉirkaŭ 1.70 - 1.80 m longaj kaj la inoj estas nur ĉirkaŭ 1.40 - 1.60 m longaj sen kalkuli la voston.

La azia leono havas pli helan haŭton kaj la hararon multe pli mallongan ol la afrikaj; pro tio la oreloj de maskloj videblas. La hartufo en kubutoj estas pli videbla. Krome estas laŭlonga falto blanka en la ventro. Plej similaj estas la leonoj de Atlaso aŭ de Nordafriko (Panthera leo leo), kiuj estas formortintaj en la sovaĝejoj ekde la 1930-aj jaroj.

Kutimoj

Reproduktado okazas plej ofte vintre, sed ankaŭ la tutan jaron. Okazas ceremonioj ĉe kiuj la maskloj pisas, montras dentojn antaŭ pariĝado. Ofte okazas kvereloj inter maskloj, foje tre danĝeraj kaj vundigaj; tiele maskloj vivas nur averaĝe ĝis 12 jaroj.

Vidu ankaŭ

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Azia leono: Brief Summary ( Esperanto )

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La azia leono (Panthera leo persica) estas la ununura subspecio de leonoj, kiu hodiaŭ troveblas ekster Afriko. Temas pri unu el la felisedaj subspecioj plej minacataj en la mondo, ĉar ties loĝantaro en naturo ampleksas nur ĉirkaŭ 360 bestojn (en la jaro 2006) en la Gir-Arbaro, protektita zono de 1 412 kvadrataj kilometroj en la sudo de la barata provinco Guĝarato. Tie dum la britia koloniado, la specio suferis troan ĉasadon pro sporto, kaj restis nur 20 ekzempleroj. Tiam la nababo de Gir protektis la specion, ĝis kiam ekestis konfliktoj kun la homa loĝantaro, kiu suferis perdon de gregoj.

Pro ties malabundo en libero, tiu orientalisa leono estas tre valora ero en bestoĝardenoj, kie oni klopodas ties bredadon en kaptiveco. Oni supozas, ke ekzistas ĉirkaŭ milo de aziaj leonoj en la zooj tutmonde.

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Panthera leo persica ( Spanish; Castilian )

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El león asiático (Panthera leo persica) es una subespecie de león,[2]​ la única que puede encontrarse actualmente fuera de África. Se trata de uno de los felinos más amenazados del mundo, pues su población en estado salvaje se reduce a unos 650 ejemplares (en 2017) localizados en el Bosque de Gir, una zona protegida de 1412 km² situada al sur del estado indio de Gujarat.[3]

Debido a su escasez en libertad, el león asiático es una pieza muy valorada por los parques zoológicos, donde se potencia su reproducción en cautividad. Se estima que existen alrededor de mil leones asiáticos en los zoológicos de todo el mundo. En 2017 un equipo de investigadores pertenecientes a la UICN publicó una nueva clasificación taxonómica de la familia felidae en la que solo reconocían a dos subespecies de león: Panthera leo leo que agrupa al león asiático, de África occidental, central y a las ya desaparecidas en libertad poblaciones del león del Atlas y Panthera leo melanochaita que agrupa a los leones del África oriental y meridional.[4]

Descripción

Leona asiática en el Zoo Ueno, (Tokio).

El león asiático recuerda en todo a sus parientes africanos, aunque se pueden citar algunas sutiles diferencias. Para empezar, es un poco más pequeño y menos corpulento que los leones africanos, rondando los 160 - 190 kg en el caso de los machos y los 110 - 120 kg en el de las hembras. Los machos alcanzan una longitud de 1,70 - 1,80 m de largo más 70 - 105 cm de cola y hasta 1,07 m a la altura de la cruz, el macho más grande registrado en el bosque de Gir medía 2,92 m de largo incluyendo la cola, y tenía un peso de 190 kg. Las hembras, desprovistas de melena, son considerablemente más pequeñas, pues su longitud es de sólo 1,40 - 1,60 m sin contar la cola.[5]

Los leones asiáticos también tienen el pelaje ligeramente más claro, y la melena rojiza y más corta en los ejemplares salvajes, en especial en la parte superior de la cabeza (razón por la cual, las orejas de los machos son siempre visibles), la melena se prolonga a lo largo del pecho de forma similar a la de su más próximo pariente, el león del Atlas (Panthera leo leo). El mechón de pelo en los codos es más notorio. También hay algunas características únicas en el cráneo que sólo comparten los leones norteafricanos y asiáticos. Y por último, los leones asiáticos siempre poseen un doblez longitudinal en la piel del vientre, característica muy escasa en los leones de África.

Los hábitos reproductivos y alimenticios son similares a los de los leones africanos. En el bosque de Gir, los leones dejan las zonas más densas a los tigres, mientras que ellos ocupan los márgenes, con árboles separados por áreas cubiertas de hierba y arbustos. Cazan tanto en manada como en solitario, siendo sus presas más frecuentes los ciervos (el axis y el sambar en particular), antílopes, jabalíes y búfalos indios. Por lo general, las manadas de los leones asiáticos son más pequeñas, con sólo un par de hembras, mientras que los leones africanos normalmente poseen harenes de 4 a 6 leonas. Tan sólo se ha documentado un caso excepcional de un león asiático que tenía 5 compañeras. Este pequeño tamaño de los grupos se debe probablemente a las menores dimensiones de las presas disponibles en Asia.

Técnicas de caza

Los hábitos de caza de los leones (Panthera leo), una o dos hembras se acercan escondidas a la presa mientras que las otras leonas esperan pacientemente ocultas en lugares estratégicos formando un perímetro alrededor del animal que designen acechar. Una vez que las hembras que van a iniciar la persecución están cerca de la propuesta presa, se lanzan sobre ella. Muchas veces ahí termina la operación. Pero si la víctima logra escapar, aquellas que esperan ocultas integran la cacería frescas saliéndole al paso al animal que huye. Los leones asiáticos cazan de forma casi idéntica a los africanos. Cuando lo hacen en grupo se abalanzan sobre su presa luego de acecharla un buen rato y la atacan con sus garras. Luego si es muy grande la asfixian con sus colmillos de 7,6 cm usando una presión de 1000 psi ≈ 70 kg/cm². Esta fuerza fue descubierta en un estudio reciente del 2004. Al contrario si es una presa muy pequeña solo le rompen el cuello.

Historia y declive

Los estudios genéticos indican que la separación entre el león asiático y sus parientes africanos (y, por tanto, su probable salida de África) es muy reciente, no más allá de los 100 000 años de antigüedad. El león se extendió después rápidamente, convirtiéndose en la subespecie de león con la mayor área de distribución tras el león de las cavernas. En los inicios de los tiempos históricos, el león asiático - seguramente con apreciables variedades regionales - era un animal común en el sureste de los Balcanes, Anatolia, el Cáucaso, Oriente Próximo (incluidas Arabia y la península del Sinaí), Persia e India hasta la desembocadura del Ganges. El Poema de Gilgamesh, primer relato extenso conocido, habla de los leones como animales particularmente abundantes en Mesopotamia, cazados por decenas por el personaje de Enkidu. Lo cierto es que el león aparece profusamente en las representaciones artísticas de las civilizaciones de Oriente Próximo y era una de las piezas más codiciadas por los nobles y reyes cuando salían de caza. Incluso en la India primitiva, los dibujos de leones abundan más que los de tigres, hasta el punto de que fueron escogidos como emblema de los reyes Maurya. Los tres leones de éste aparecen todavía hoy en el escudo nacional indio.

En Grecia, el león aparece como personaje constante en la Ilíada de Homero, y todavía figura en los relatos de Aristóteles y Heródoto (aunque en tiempos de éste, ya había desaparecido del sur de Grecia) sobre la fauna europea. La marcha de Jerjes para conquistar Macedonia fue retrasada por el gran número de camellos de carga que fueron devorados por los leones griegos. La extinción de éstos se fecha entre el 80 y el 100 d. C. Hacia el siglo X los leones desaparecieron del Cáucaso y en el siglo XII, en plena época de las Cruzadas, lo hicieron de Palestina, donde habían sido comunes durante siglos. Pocos animales son tantas veces mencionados en la Biblia como el león.

En el resto de su distribución se mantuvieron más o menos constantes hasta finales del siglo XVIII y principios del XIX, cuando el aumento constante de la población y con ello de la caza y la roturación del terreno para dedicarlo al cultivo los fueron arrinconando poco a poco, en zonas cada vez más alejadas entre sí. Hacia 1800 desaparecieron de Anatolia, y para 1810 ya se habían extinguido en el actual Pakistán y probablemente también en Afganistán. Los últimos datos sobre leones en el Kurdistán turco, Siria, Irak, Arabia Saudí e Irán datan respectivamente de 1870, 1891, 1918, 1923 y 1942.

En la India centro - occidental, los leones desaparecieron del valle del río Narmada en 1848 y de la zona de Delhi alrededor de una década después. A finales del siglo XIX, las autoridades coloniales británicas comenzaron a considerar que el león indio caminaba directamente hacia la extinción. En 1900, sus presiones consiguieron que el nawab (gobernador) de Junagadh declarara una reserva de 5,600 km² alrededor del Bosque de Gir, donde se agrupaban los últimos leones indios. A pesar de ello, unos años después hubo un periodo de sequías que diezmó las presas de los leones y obligó a éstos a atacar al hombre, razón por la cual fueron perseguidos de forma contundente. Como resultado, en 1913 sólo quedaban 20 leones en India.

Estado actual

La caza del león está totalmente prohibida en India desde 1948. 1.412 de los 5.000 kilómetros cuadrados del bosque fueron declarados reserva natural en 1969 y en 1975 se convirtió en el Parque nacional y Santuario de vida salvaje Gir, donde, gracias a la protección gubernamental, la población de leones se incrementó poco a poco hasta los 650 ejemplares censados en 2017.[3][6]

Sin embargo, la conservación del león plantea varios problemas. En el parque viven cientos de personas en aldeas y granjas que ya existían antes de crearse la reserva y que no ven con buenos ojos los constantes ataques de los leones a sus ganados (mucho más fáciles de capturar que los animales salvajes, evidentemente). Por si fuera poco, el aumento de la población de leones ha hecho que el terreno protegido les sea insuficiente y son cada vez más los animales que se aventuran en las tierras de cultivo de los alrededores. Algunos ataques contra humanos en los años 70 y principios de los 90 han terminado por exacerbar a la población, que ha disparado contra los leones o envenenado carroñas para eliminarlos. El caso más reciente de esto último ocurrió el 9 de octubre de 2005 y se saldó con la muerte de 7 ejemplares.

Con el fin de disminuir estos problemas, el gobierno indio está estudiando el traslado de varios ejemplares a otras zonas protegidas del país, contribuyendo así a repoblar las zonas donde estos felinos se extinguieron. Las áreas donde se está experimentando con la reintroducción son Palpur Kuno, Sitamata y Chandraprabha (donde ya hubo un intento de reintroducción en 1964, que fracasó), situadas en los estados de Rajastán y Madhya Pradesh.

Referencias

  1. Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D.P., Ahmad Khan, J. & Driscoll, C. (2008). «Panthera leo ssp. persica». Lista Roja de especies amenazadas de la UICN 2014.1 (en inglés). ISSN 2307-8235. Consultado el 13 de julio de 2014.
  2. Wilson, Don; Reeder, DeeAnn, eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World (en inglés) (3ª edición). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols. (2142 pp.). ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.
  3. a b https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ahmedabad/Lion-population-roars-to-650-in-Gujarat-forests/articleshow/59907625.cms
  4. http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/filesharing/5.Cat_News/5.3._Special_Issues/5.3.10._SI_11/CN_Special_Issue_11_Revised_taxonomy_of_the_Felidae.pdf
  5. Nowell K, Jackson P (1996). «Panthera Leo» (PDF). Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat hi ialist Group. pp. 17-21. ISBN 2-8317-0045-0.
  6. «Copia archivada». Archivado desde el original el 9 de agosto de 2017. Consultado el 2 de noviembre de 2017.

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Panthera leo persica: Brief Summary ( Spanish; Castilian )

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El león asiático (Panthera leo persica) es una subespecie de león,​ la única que puede encontrarse actualmente fuera de África. Se trata de uno de los felinos más amenazados del mundo, pues su población en estado salvaje se reduce a unos 650 ejemplares (en 2017) localizados en el Bosque de Gir, una zona protegida de 1412 km² situada al sur del estado indio de Gujarat.​

Debido a su escasez en libertad, el león asiático es una pieza muy valorada por los parques zoológicos, donde se potencia su reproducción en cautividad. Se estima que existen alrededor de mil leones asiáticos en los zoológicos de todo el mundo. En 2017 un equipo de investigadores pertenecientes a la UICN publicó una nueva clasificación taxonómica de la familia felidae en la que solo reconocían a dos subespecies de león: Panthera leo leo que agrupa al león asiático, de África occidental, central y a las ya desaparecidas en libertad poblaciones del león del Atlas y Panthera leo melanochaita que agrupa a los leones del África oriental y meridional.​

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Aasia lõvi ( Estonian )

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Aasia lõvi ehk india lõvi (Panthera leo persica) on lõvi alamliik.

Aasia lõvi on esindatud ka Tallinna Loomaaia kollektsioonis.

Välislingid

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Aasia lõvi: Brief Summary ( Estonian )

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Aasia lõvi ehk india lõvi (Panthera leo persica) on lõvi alamliik.

Aasia lõvi on esindatud ka Tallinna Loomaaia kollektsioonis.

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Panthera leo persica ( Basque )

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Asiar lehoia (Panthera leo persica) gaur egun Afrikatik kanpo bizi den lehoi-subespezie bakarra da. Munduan desagertzeko arriskurik handiena duten ugaztunetako bat da, libre bizi direnak Indiako Gujarat estatuaren hegoaldeko 1.412 km²-ko gune babestu batean bakarrik bizi baitira, Gir oihanean. Uste da 400 bat espezimen besterik ez direla (2010).

Ezaugarriak

Lehoi asiarra Afrikako lehoiaren antz handia du, baina txikixeagoa da eta ez hain sendoa (160-190 kg arren kasuan, eta 110-120 kg emeen kasuan). Ilajea argixeagoa dute, eta kalparra gorriztagoa eta laburragoa, batez ere buruaren goialdean. Horregatik, belarriak beti agerian dituzte. Kalparra bularraldean hedatzen da. Ukondoetako ile-mototsa nabarmenagoa da Afrikako lehoiarena baino.

Jateko eta ugaltzeko ohiturak ere Afrikako lehoiarenak bezalakoak dira. Bakarka nahiz taldeka ehizatzen dute, eta haien harrapakin ohikoenak oreinak, antilopeak, basurdeak eta bufaloak dira. Oro har, lehoi asiarren taldeak txikiagoak izaten dira Afrikakoenak baino, eme-pare bat baino ez dira izaten, eta ez 4 edo 6 eme, Afrikako lehoien taldeetan gertatzen den moduan. Beharbada, harrapakinak txikiagoak direlako Afrikakoak baino.

Historia

 src=
Lehoi asiarra Babiloniako Istarren atean. Pergamo Museoa, Berlin).

Azterketa genetikoek adierazten dute lehoi asiarraren eta lehoi afrikarraren arteko bereizketa ez dela oso zaharra, duela ehun bat mila urtekoa gehienez ere. Lehoia, Afrikatik atera ondoren, azkar hedatu zen. Garai historikoaren hasieran, ohikoa zen Balkanetan, Anatolian, Kaukason, Ekialde Hurbilean, Persian eta Indian. Gilgameshen epopeiak (k. a. XXVII. mendekoa) dioenez, lehoia oso ugaria zen Mesopotamian, eta Ekialde Hurbileko zibilizazioen artelanetan maiz agertzen da. Indian bertan ere, lehoien marrazkiak ugariagoak dira tigreenak baino. Gaur egun, Indiako armarrian hiru lehoi agertzen dira, K.a. IV. mendeko Maurya Inperioko erregeen sinboloa baitziren.

Indian, 1948tik, guztiz debekatuta dago lehoiaren ehiza. 1969an Gir oihaneko 5.000 kilometro karratuetatik 1.412 kilometro karratu natura-erreserba izendatu ziren, eta 1975ean parke nazional bilakatu zen. Gobernuaren babesari esker, lehoien populazioa hazi egin da pixkanaka, baina subespeziearen kontserbazioa ez dago ziurtatuta.[1]

Erreferentziak

(RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.log.warn("Gadget "ErrefAurrebista" was not loaded. Please migrate it to use ResourceLoader. See u003Chttps://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berezi:Gadgetaku003E.");});
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Panthera leo persica: Brief Summary ( Basque )

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Asiar lehoia (Panthera leo persica) gaur egun Afrikatik kanpo bizi den lehoi-subespezie bakarra da. Munduan desagertzeko arriskurik handiena duten ugaztunetako bat da, libre bizi direnak Indiako Gujarat estatuaren hegoaldeko 1.412 km²-ko gune babestu batean bakarrik bizi baitira, Gir oihanean. Uste da 400 bat espezimen besterik ez direla (2010).

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Aasianleijona ( Finnish )

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Aasianleijona (Panthera leo persica) on maantieteellisesti eriytynyt leijonan alalaji[2]. Se eroaa geneettisesti afrikkalaisista leijonista niin vähän, että populaatioiden arvioidaan eronneen toisistaan noin satatuhatta vuotta sitten.[3]

Ulkonäkö ja koko

Aasianleijona on pienempi kuin afrikkalaiset leijonat. Tyypillisesti naaras painaa 110–120 kilogrammaa ja uros 160–190 kilogrammaa. Aasianleijonan harja on keskimäärin pienempi kuin afrikkalaisilla lajitovereilla, joten sen korvat ovat koko ajan näkyvissä. Vatsapuolella on alalajille tyypillinen ihopoimu.[3]

Aasianleijonan ravinto

Aasianleijona saalistaa sambarhirviä, aksishirviä, antilooppeja, villisikoja ja muita suhteellisen suurikokoisia kasvinsyöjänisäkkäitä. Sillä on vahvat leuat ja erityisesti saaliin surmaamiseen ja raateluun soveltuvat kulmahampaat.

Levinneisyys

Aasianleijonia elää luonnossa enää Girin kansallispuiston alueella Intiassa.[3] Vuonna 2015 Girissä laskettiin olevan yhteensä 523 leijonaa. Määrä oli kasvanut vuodesta 2010, jolloin leijonia laskettiin 411. Arviolta 40 prosenttia leijonista elää varsinaisen Girin metsäalueen ulkopuolella.[4] Ihmisen toiminnan vuoksi sen elinalue on pienentynyt viimeisten 200 vuoden aikana huomattavasti. Aasianleijonan levinneisyys on aiemmin ulottunut Bulgariasta Intiaan ja Pakistaniin.Iranissa. Turkissa eli leijonia vielä 1800-luvun lopulla. Viimeiset havainnot Iranista ovat vuodelta 1942, Irakista vuodelta 1918.[3]

Suomessa aasianleijonia on Korkeasaaren eläintarhassa Helsingissä.[5]

Lähteet

  1. Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D.P., Ahmad Khan, J. & Driscoll, C.: Panthera leo ssp. persica IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN, Iucnredlist.org. Viitattu 14.7.2014. (englanniksi)
  2. Wilson, Don E. & Reeder, DeeAnn M. (toim.): Panthera leo persica Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed). 2005. Johns Hopkins University Press. Viitattu 2.11.2017. (englanniksi)
  3. a b c d Species Asian Lion Centre.
  4. India's lion population sees 27% increase BBC News. BBC. Viitattu 22.7.2015. (englanniksi)
  5. Aasianleijona Korkeasaaren eläintarha. Viitattu 18.4.2016.
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Aasianleijona: Brief Summary ( Finnish )

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Aasianleijona (Panthera leo persica) on maantieteellisesti eriytynyt leijonan alalaji. Se eroaa geneettisesti afrikkalaisista leijonista niin vähän, että populaatioiden arvioidaan eronneen toisistaan noin satatuhatta vuotta sitten.

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Lion asiatique ( French )

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Panthera leo persica

Le lion asiatique, lion d'Asie[1] ou lion persan (Panthera leo persica ou Panthera leo sinhaleyus) est une sous-espèce de lion. Son habitat naturel s'étendait autrefois sur tout le sous-continent indien et il était possible de le trouver de la Syrie à l'Inde orientale. À cause de la chasse et de la destruction de son habitat, il avait pratiquement disparu du continent au XXe siècle.

Les derniers spécimens sauvages, environ 500, se trouvent en Inde, dans la forêt de Gir ainsi que dans les parties méridionales de la péninsule de Saurashtra. Un certain nombre de zoos abritent quelques individus.

Description

Il existe peu de différence entre le lion d'Asie et le lion d'Afrique (Panthera leo leo). La crinière du lion d'Asie est moins touffue que celle de son homologue africain : il est fréquent que les oreilles soient dégagées plutôt qu'enfouies dans les poils. Un autre point de différenciation est une poche de peau (un gousset) qui s'étend sous le ventre jusqu'aux pattes arrière que le lion d'Afrique développe rarement[2],[3]. Le lion d'Asie a généralement un pelage plus épais et une touffe de poils plus longue au bout de la queue[3].

Les crânes de lion d'Asie présentent également des foramens doubles[2].

Le lion d'Asie mâle mesure en moyenne 1,9 mètre de long pour 150-180 kg (120 à 160 kg pour une femelle) (tête et corps) pour une queue d'environ 80 centimètres[3].

Comportement

Le lion d'Asie est un prédateur territorial vivant en petite troupe. Contrairement au lion d'Afrique, la troupe est peu nombreuse : deux à six mâles défendent un territoire occupé par plusieurs groupes de femelles. La superficie du territoire est de 100 à 200 km2 pour les mâles et de 50 à 100 km2 pour les femelles. Il n'y a association entre les mâles et les femelles que pendant les périodes d'accouplement ou lors de chasse au gros gibier. Les proies du lion d'Asie sont composées de cervidés comme le Sambar et le Chital et parfois de bétail[2]. Une étude menée en 1993 a montré que le régime alimentaire des lions de Gir est composé de 43 % de Chitals (Axis axis), 14,8 % de Sambar (Cervus unicolor) et de plus de 35 % de bétail[3],[4]. Les lions d'Asie ne sont pas considérés comme des mangeurs d'homme[5].

On ignore si le comportement social modifié du lion d'Asie est une conséquence de leur faible effectif, du faible nombre de proies de grosse taille ou encore des pressions de chasse trop importantes[2]. En effet, leur type d'habitat tendrait à une organisation sociale solitaire, proche de celle du tigre[6].

Écologie et répartition

Habitat

Les lions d'Asie vivaient dans un habitat similaire au lion d'Afrique, constitué de savanes et de forêts peu arborées. À la suite de la réduction radicale de leur territoire, les lions d'Asie ne se retrouvent plus que dans la forêt de Gir en Inde, composée d'une part d'une forêt de tecks et dans les parties plus sèches d'acacias. Quelques cours d'eau et lac sillonnent le parc et se remplissent à la mousson[7].

Répartition

Les lions d'Asie se retrouvent exclusivement dans le parc national et sanctuaire faunique de Gir, dans l'état du Gujarat en Inde. Leur aire de répartition originelle s'étendait de la Grèce au Nord du Maghreb et couvrait le Moyen-Orient jusqu'à l'Inde[7]. L'historien grec Hérodote (VII, 125-126) précise que les lions, en Europe, vivent exclusivement dans les montagnes du nord de la Grèce continentale. Il raconte, pour illustrer ce propos, qu'en 480 avant Jésus-Christ, lors des Guerres médiques, des dromadaires de la caravane de Xerxès sont attaqués par des lions en Macédoine[2], ces lions ne s'attaquant ni aux humains ni aux chevaux. Au fil du temps, les limites du territoire du lion d'Asie sont peu à peu repoussées : il s'éteint en Grèce dès le Ier siècle av. J.-C., en Palestine au XIIIe siècle, au Pakistan en 1842 et survit jusqu'au XXe siècle (1914 environ) en Irak et en Iran où il est aperçu en 1942. En Perse il disparait en 1941. À la fin du XIXe siècle, seuls une centaine de lions sont décomptés dans la forêt de Gir, alors qu'en 1857 un officier britannique se vantait de tuer jusqu'à trois-cents lions dans la région de Delhi[7]. En 1974 on dénombrait 200 individus au sein de la réserve du Gir. Depuis quelques décennies, il existe une population importante résidant hors de Gir, dans l'ensemble du sud de la péninsule du Kathiawar, ces lions forment aujourd'hui plus de 40 % des individus sauvages.

Récemment, quelques individus de Gir ont été relocalisés dans la réserve de Kuno-Palpur dans l'État voisin du Madhya Pradesh.

Protection

Menaces pesant sur l'espèce

 src=
Lionne d'Asie dans le parc national de Gir en Inde.

Fiona et Mel Sunquist dans Wild Cat of the World considèrent les lions d'Asie comme un cas d'école des problèmes pouvant survenir concernant la conservation d'une population isolée de gros carnivores ; quatre menaces majeures atteignent le lion d'Asie : une aire de répartition réduite, des tensions avec l'élevage domestique chaque jour plus présent, des attaques de lions contre les hommes et un appauvrissement génétique[3].

Des observations de la physiologie de certains spécimens laissaient croire que la population restante était gravement affectée par la consanguinité, diminuant la capacité d’adaptation aux variations de l’environnement telles que les maladies ou même les feux de forêt[8]. Une autre menace est une possible réduction radicale des proies du lion à la suite d'une sécheresse par exemple[8].

Une étude réalisée dans les années 1990 par le Centre de biologie cellulaire et moléculaire de Hyderabad ainsi que la Surveillance zoologique de Calcutta a effectivement démontré que le niveau de diversité génétique de l’espèce est très faible. Les recherches ont également démontré que la faible hétérozygotie est responsable d’une malformation des spermatozoïdes retrouvés chez 79 % des individus étudiés, engendrant l’infertilité chez plusieurs, mettant en péril la survie de l’espèce. Quelques individus ayant une plus grande variation génétique ont cependant été découvert à l’extérieur des grands groupes connus, donnant la chance d’augmenter la diversité génétique par le croisement et la conservation.

Le lion d'Asie est également menacé par l'intrusion de l'homme dans le parc national de la forêt de Gir : des bergers maldharis introduisent leur troupeau dans le parc, accroissant le risque de prélèvement de leur bétail par les lions. Bien qu'indemnisés par l'état indien, les tensions sont fortes et certains éleveurs laissent du bétail empoisonné à destination des lions[8].

La forêt de Gir n'étant plus suffisamment grande pour accueillir une population aussi importante, énormément d'individus vivent le long de la côte, dans un environnement inapproprié pour eux. En effet, de plus en plus de lion sont repérés le long des plages sauvages, et de nombreux cas de noyade sont recensés.

Le 12 septembre 2018, cinq lions de la forêt de Gir sont morts de la maladie de Carré. Les analyses réalisées sur les corps ont montré que la maladie est une souche est-africaine ayant déjà décimé un tiers des populations de lions africaines. Des tirs de vaccins contre cette maladie sont la seule mesure de protection efficace[9].

Mesures de protection

 src=
Lion d'Asie dans le parc national de Gir en Inde.

Cette espèce compte parmi les espèces de mammifères les plus menacées, aussi le gouvernement indien a-t-il mis en place un plan de réintroduction, dit « Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project », visant notamment à éviter qu'un seul noyau de population soit condamné à l'érosion génétique dans une seule et même forêt.

Un premier programme d'élevage conservatoire intensif s'arrêta brusquement lorsque des recherches eurent montré que la majorité des spécimens utilisés lors de ce programme étaient hybridés de lion d'Afrique ; en effet, seuls quatre individus étaient de véritables lions d'Asie[5]. L'élevage a repris en prenant garde à l'origine des lions utilisés.

Historique des actions de protection

La forêt de Gir est la réserve de chasse du Nawab de Junagadh. En 1913, le Nawab décide de protéger le lion d'Asie, dont les populations étaient tombées à une trentaine d'individus. En 1950, les populations de la forêt de Gir s'élèvent à 220 individus. En 1957, une réintroduction dans le sanctuaire de vie sauvage de Chandraprabha est tentée par le gouvernement indien : deux lionnes et un lion sont introduits, se multiplient jusqu'à onze individus puis disparaissent mystérieusement en 1965. En 1972, d'importants efforts sont menés par le Forest Departement pour réduire la quantité de bétail sur le parc et dans les années 1980, la population de lion d'Asie monte à 284 individus en 1990 puis à 304 individus en 1995[3].

Notes et références

  1. Annexes au Journal officiel des Communautés européennes du 18 décembre 2000. Lire en ligne.
  2. a b c d et e (fr) Peter Jackson et Adrienne Farrell Jackson (trad. Danièle Devitre, préf. Dr Claude Martin, ill. Robert Dallet et Johan de Crem), Les Félins : Toutes les espèces du monde, Turin, Delachaux et Niestlé, coll. « La bibliothèque du naturaliste », 15 octobre 1996, 272 p., relié (ISBN 978-2603010198 et 2-603-01019-0), « Lion d'Asie ».
  3. a b c d e et f (en) Melvin E. Sunquist et Fiona Sunquist, Wild cats of the world, Presse universitaire de Chicago, 2002, 452 p. (ISBN 0226779998 et 9780226779997, lire en ligne), « Lion », p. 285-304.
  4. Le reste étant constitué de mammifères sauvages.
  5. a et b Peter Jackson et Adrienne Farrell Jackson, op. cit., « Lion d'Asie », p. 109.
  6. Mel et Fiona Sunquist, op. cit., p. 13.
  7. a b et c Peter Jackson et Adrienne Farrell Jackson, op. cit., « Lion d'Asie », p. 108.
  8. a b et c Peter Jackson et Adrienne Farrell Jackson, op. cit., « Lion d'Asie », p. 110.
  9. (en) « Asiatic lions in Gujarat's Gir Forest dying of Caniane Distemper Virus: ICMR », Hindustan Times,‎ 5 octobre 2018 (lire en ligne)

Annexes

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Lion asiatique: Brief Summary ( French )

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Panthera leo persica

Le lion asiatique, lion d'Asie ou lion persan (Panthera leo persica ou Panthera leo sinhaleyus) est une sous-espèce de lion. Son habitat naturel s'étendait autrefois sur tout le sous-continent indien et il était possible de le trouver de la Syrie à l'Inde orientale. À cause de la chasse et de la destruction de son habitat, il avait pratiquement disparu du continent au XXe siècle.

Les derniers spécimens sauvages, environ 500, se trouvent en Inde, dans la forêt de Gir ainsi que dans les parties méridionales de la péninsule de Saurashtra. Un certain nombre de zoos abritent quelques individus.

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Leon Áiseach ( Irish )

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Fospeiceas leoin is ea an leon Áiseach, nó an leon Indiach mar a thugtar air chomh maith. Speiceas go mór i mbaol atá ann, agus líon beag le fáil go fóill i Stát Gujarat na hIndia.

 src=
Is síol é an t-alt seo. Cuir leis, chun cuidiú leis an Vicipéid.
Má tá alt níos forbartha le fáil i dteanga eile, is féidir leat aistriúchán Gaeilge a dhéanamh.


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León asiático ( Galician )

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O león asiátio (Panthera leo persica) é unha a subspecie de león que só se atopa en estado salvaxe na Foresta de Gir do Guxarat, na India[2][3], a única que se pode atopar nese estado fóra de África. No ano 2010, as autoridades de Guxarat censaron en 411 o número de exemplares; un aumento de 52 sobre o último censo de 2005[4]. A distribución histórica ía do Mediterráneo ao nordeste do subcontinente indio, mais a caza excesiva, a contaminación da auga e o declive da súa caza natural reduciron o seu hábitat[5], estando a piques de se extinguir a comenzos do século XX. Clasificábase en tres clases: leóns bengalís, árabes e persas[6]. Os leóns asiáticos son máis pequenos e claros ca os africanos pero igual de feros.

 src=
Un león nun manuscrito persa do século XV

Notas

  1. Cat Specialist Group (2008). "Panthera leo persica". Lista Vermella da IUCN de Especies en Perigo (en inglés). IUCN 2007. Consultado o 10 May 2010.
  2. Tom Brakefield, Alan Shoemaker. Big cats. Consultado o 2010-12-14.
  3. Sharad Singh Negi. Biodiversity and its conservation in India. Consultado o 2010-12-14.
  4. "411 lions in Gir forests, population up by 52". Deccanherald.com. Consultado o 2010-12-14.
  5. Budh Dev Sharma, Tej Kumari. Indian wildlife. Consultado o 2010-12-14.
  6. Charles Knight (ed.). The English Cyclopaedia. Consultado o 2010-12-14.
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León asiático: Brief Summary ( Galician )

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O león asiátio (Panthera leo persica) é unha a subspecie de león que só se atopa en estado salvaxe na Foresta de Gir do Guxarat, na India, a única que se pode atopar nese estado fóra de África. No ano 2010, as autoridades de Guxarat censaron en 411 o número de exemplares; un aumento de 52 sobre o último censo de 2005. A distribución histórica ía do Mediterráneo ao nordeste do subcontinente indio, mais a caza excesiva, a contaminación da auga e o declive da súa caza natural reduciron o seu hábitat, estando a piques de se extinguir a comenzos do século XX. Clasificábase en tres clases: leóns bengalís, árabes e persas. Os leóns asiáticos son máis pequenos e claros ca os africanos pero igual de feros.

 src= Un león nun manuscrito persa do século XV
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Azijski lav ( Croatian )

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Azijski lav (Panthera leo persica) je podvrsta lava koja je bila rasprostranjena od Indije do Grčke, ali je zbog lova ostalo manje od tisuću jedinki u Indiji. U 20. stoljeću ostalo je samo 12 jedinki - minimalno da se očuva vrsta. Nekoć strastveni lovac se posvetio očuvanju ovih životinja i smjestio ih u nacionalni park Sasan Gir u indijskoj državi Gujarat. Poslije je izbrojano 327 jedinki.

Opis

Afrički i azijski lav su genetski blizanci, a postoje male razlike. Azijski lavovi su svjetlije boje s malom grivom i velikim trbušnim naborom kože. Visoki su 1, a dugački 3 metra. Prosječna im je težina 240 kg, a mogu potrčati 65 km/h. Love jelene, antilope, bizone, krave, divlje svinje, majmune, ptice i u rijetkim slučajevima ljude. Izloženi su novom velikom problemu: nacionalni park prostire se na samo 1420 četvornih kilometara.

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Azijski lav: Brief Summary ( Croatian )

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Azijski lav (Panthera leo persica) je podvrsta lava koja je bila rasprostranjena od Indije do Grčke, ali je zbog lova ostalo manje od tisuću jedinki u Indiji. U 20. stoljeću ostalo je samo 12 jedinki - minimalno da se očuva vrsta. Nekoć strastveni lovac se posvetio očuvanju ovih životinja i smjestio ih u nacionalni park Sasan Gir u indijskoj državi Gujarat. Poslije je izbrojano 327 jedinki.

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Singa asia ( Indonesian )

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Singa asia (Panthera leo persica), juga dikenal sebagai singa india atau singa persia,[3] adalah subspesies singa yang hidup sebagai populasi tunggal di negara bagian India, Gujarat. Singa ini terdaftar sebagai spesies terancam oleh Uni Internasional untuk Konservasi Alam (IUCN) disebabkan oleh ukuran populasinyaa yang kecil.[1]

Singa asia pertama dijelaskan oleh zoologi Austria, Johann N. Meyer dalam trinomen Felis leo persicus..[4] Singa asia adalah salah satu dari lima spesies kucing besar yang ditemukan di India, bersama dengan harimau Benggala, macan tutul India, macan tutul salju, dan macan dahan.[5]

Sejak tahun 2010, populasi singa di Taman Nasional Hutan Gir telah meningkat terus.[6] Pada bulan Mei 2015, sensus singa asia ke-14 dilakukan di atas wilayah dengan luas sekitar 20000 km2 (7700 sq mi); populasi singa diperkirakan 523 ekor, yang terdiri dari 109 jantan dewasa, 201 betina dewasa, dan 213 anak singa.[7][8]

Habitat sebelumnya dari singa asia mencakup Eropa tenggara, Basin Laut Hitam, Kaukasus, Persia, Kanaan, Mesopotamia, Baluchistan, dari Sindhu di barat sampai Benggala di timur, dan dari Rampur dan Rohilkund di utara sampai Nerbudda di selatan. Singa asia berbeda dari singa Afrika dengan auditory bulla (kapsul tulang yang mengelilingi bagian tengah dan dalam telinga00 yang kurang menggembung, ekor yang lebih besar, dan bulu tengkuk yang kurang mengembang.[9]

Evolusi

 src=
Singa Afrika (atas) dan Asia (bawah), sebagaimana yang diilustrasikan dalam Johnsons Book of Nature

Peninggalan fosil yang ditemukan dari Periode Cromer menunjukkan bahwa singa atau hewan yang mirip singa[10] yang memasuki Eropa merupakan jenis yang berukuran sangat besar. Sering ditemukan tulang singa di sedimen gua dari zaman Eemian menunjukkan bahwa Pleistosen akhir, singa gua Eropa, Panthera spelaea, terus bertahan hidup di Balkan dan Asia Kecil. Mungkin terdapat populasi yang terus-menerus berkembang yang menjangkau sampai India.[11] Singa gua muncul sekitar 600.000 tahun yang lalu dan menyebar di seluruh Eropa, melintasi Siberia dan masuk ke Alaska barat. Pembentukan bertahap hutan lebat kemungkinan menyebabkan penurunan rentang geografis singa mendekati berakhirnya zaman Pleistosen akhir.[12] Analisis filogenetis dari sampel DNA singa gua menunjukkan bahwa mereka sangat berbeda dari kerabat mereka, dan merupakan garis keturunan yang terpisah dari singa-singa di Afrika dan Asia sejak penyebaran mereka di Eropa pada zaman prasejarah, dan menjadi punah tanpa keturunan mitokondrialdi benua lainnya.[10][13]

Referensi

  1. ^ a b Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D. P., Ahmad Khan, J. and Driscoll, C. (2008). "Panthera leo ssp. persica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature.Pemeliharaan CS1: Menggunakan parameter penulis (link)
  2. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (2005-11-16). Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds), ed. Mammal Species of the World (edisi ke-3rd edition). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.Pemeliharaan CS1: Banyak nama: editors list (link) Pemeliharaan CS1: Teks tambahan: editors list (link) Pemeliharaan CS1: Teks tambahan (link)
  3. ^ Humphreys, P., Kahrom, E. (1999). Lion and Gazelle: The Mammals and Birds of Iran. Images Publishing, Avon.
  4. ^ Meyer, J. N. (1826). Dissertatio inauguralis anatomico-medica de genere felium. Doctoral thesis, University of Vienna.
  5. ^ Pandit, M. W.; Shivaji, S.; Singh, L. (2007). You Deserve, We Conserve: A Biotechnological Approach to Wildlife Conservation. I. K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. ISBN 9788189866242.
  6. ^ Singh, H. S.; Gibson, L. (2011). "A conservation success story in the otherwise dire megafauna extinction crisis: The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) of Gir forest" (PDF). Biological Conservation. 144 (5): 1753–1757. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.02.009.
  7. ^ Anonymous (2015). "Asiatic Lion population up from 411 to 523 in five years". DeshGujarat. Diakses tanggal 10 May 2015.
  8. ^ Anonymous (2015). "Asiatic lion population in Gujarat rises to 523". Deccan Herald.
  9. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1939). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. Taylor and Francis Ltd., London. Pp. 212–222.
  10. ^ a b Barnett, Ross; Mendoza, Marie Lisandra Zepeda; Soares, André Elias Rodrigues; Ho, Simon Y W; Zazula, Grant; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Shapiro, Beth; Kirillova, Irina V; Larson, Greger; Gilbert, M Thomas P. "Mitogenomics of the Extinct Cave Lion, Panthera spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810), Resolve its Position within the Panthera Cats". OpenQuaternary.com. Diakses tanggal 2016-11-03.
  11. ^ Kurtén, B. (1968). Pleistocene Mammals of Europe. Transaction Publishers, 2007. hlm. 317. ISBN 0202309533.
  12. ^ O’Brien, S. J., Joslin, P., Smith, G. L. III, Wolfe, R., Schaffer, N., Heath, E., Ott-Joslin, J., Rawal, P. P., Bhattacharjee, K. K., and Martenson, J. S. (1987). "Evidence for African origins of founders of the Asiatic lion Species Survival Plan" (PDF). Zoo Biology. 6 (2): 99–116. doi:10.1002/zoo.1430060202.Pemeliharaan CS1: Menggunakan parameter penulis (link)
  13. ^ Burger, J., Rosendahl, F., Loreille, O., Hemmer, H., Eriksson, T., Götherström, A., Hiller, J., Collins, M. J., Wess, T., Alt, K. W. (2004). "Molecular phylogeny of the extinct cave lion Panthera leo spelaea". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (3): 841–849. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.07.020. PMID 15012963.Pemeliharaan CS1: Menggunakan parameter penulis (link)

Bacaan lebih lanjut

Pranala luar

[1]

  • ^ "What Is the connection Between Gir lions and Africans lions". Divya Bhaskar. 10 August 2016. Diakses tanggal 10 August 2016.
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    Singa asia: Brief Summary ( Indonesian )

    provided by wikipedia ID

    Singa asia (Panthera leo persica), juga dikenal sebagai singa india atau singa persia, adalah subspesies singa yang hidup sebagai populasi tunggal di negara bagian India, Gujarat. Singa ini terdaftar sebagai spesies terancam oleh Uni Internasional untuk Konservasi Alam (IUCN) disebabkan oleh ukuran populasinyaa yang kecil.

    Singa asia pertama dijelaskan oleh zoologi Austria, Johann N. Meyer dalam trinomen Felis leo persicus.. Singa asia adalah salah satu dari lima spesies kucing besar yang ditemukan di India, bersama dengan harimau Benggala, macan tutul India, macan tutul salju, dan macan dahan.

    Sejak tahun 2010, populasi singa di Taman Nasional Hutan Gir telah meningkat terus. Pada bulan Mei 2015, sensus singa asia ke-14 dilakukan di atas wilayah dengan luas sekitar 20000 km2 (7700 sq mi); populasi singa diperkirakan 523 ekor, yang terdiri dari 109 jantan dewasa, 201 betina dewasa, dan 213 anak singa.

    Habitat sebelumnya dari singa asia mencakup Eropa tenggara, Basin Laut Hitam, Kaukasus, Persia, Kanaan, Mesopotamia, Baluchistan, dari Sindhu di barat sampai Benggala di timur, dan dari Rampur dan Rohilkund di utara sampai Nerbudda di selatan. Singa asia berbeda dari singa Afrika dengan auditory bulla (kapsul tulang yang mengelilingi bagian tengah dan dalam telinga00 yang kurang menggembung, ekor yang lebih besar, dan bulu tengkuk yang kurang mengembang.

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    Panthera leo persica ( Italian )

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    Il leone asiatico (Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826), chiamato anche leone indiano o leone di Gir è una sottospecie di leone. In natura sopravvive solamente nella Foresta di Gir, nello Stato indiano del Gujarat[2][3]. Nel 2010 il governo di questo Stato ha dichiarato che nell'area ne sono stati censiti 411 esemplari, 52 in più rispetto al precedente censimento del 2005[4], mentre nel 2015 il numero è cresciuto a 523 esemplari[5] e nel 2017 a 650[6][7].

    Il leone asiatico è uno dei cinque grandi felini dell'India, insieme alla tigre del Bengala, al leopardo indiano, al leopardo delle nevi e al leopardo nebuloso[8]. Un tempo il suo areale si estendeva dal Mediterraneo alle regioni nord-orientali del subcontinente indiano, ma la caccia eccessiva, l'inquinamento idrico e la diminuzione delle prede naturali ne hanno ridotto notevolmente l'estensione[9]. In passato il leone asiatico veniva suddiviso in tre razze: leoni del Bengala, d'Arabia e persiani[10]. È tutt'oggi oggetto di dibattito se i leoni che vivevano in Europa (nei Balcani, in Macedonia e in Grecia) durante l'epoca ellenica fossero leoni asiatici o se appartenessero a un'altra sottospecie. Talvolta viene considerato l'animale nazionale dell'India, ma tale affermazione è sbagliata, dato che l'animale simbolo dell'India è la tigre (Panthera tigris)[11].

    Distribuzione e habitat

    Gli studiosi ritengono che l'areale storico dei leoni asiatici della sottospecie persica si estendesse, attraverso l'attuale Iran, fino all'India settentrionale a est, ai margini settentrionali della penisola arabica a sud e alle attuali Grecia e Italia a ovest[12]. È da ricordare che resti fossili di leone delle caverne (Panthera leo spelaea), una sottospecie, oggi estinta, strettamente imparentata con il leone asiatico, sono stati rinvenuti in numerosi siti sparsi in tutto il Nordafrica, il Medio Oriente, la Siberia, l'Alaska e gran parte dell'Europa, fino alla Scozia[13]. Come detto, gli esperti dibattono se considerare i leoni che vivevano in Europa durante il periodo antico come leoni asiatici o se appartenessero a un'altra sottospecie. Alcuni sostengono addirittura che si trattasse degli ultimi esemplari di leoni delle caverne, sebbene questa ipotesi è generalmente ritenuta improbabile dalla comunità scientifica.

    L'areale moderno del leone asiatico è ristretto solamente al Santuario della Foresta di Gir, situato nell'India nord-occidentale.

    Descrizione e biologia

     src=
    Leone asiatico e sudafricano. Si notano il ciuffo sulla coda più grande, la criniera meno folta sulla testa, le orecchie più vistose e la pelle molle sull'addome del primo
    Una leonessa asiatica nello Zoo di Ueno.

    I leoni asiatici sono simili alle forme africane, ma hanno bolle timpaniche meno rigonfie, costrizione post-orbitale più breve e, di solito, foro infraorbitale diviso. Il leone asiatico maschio ha, in media, una criniera meno imponente di quella del cugino africano, però ha un pelame che nell'insieme è più sviluppato. In verità, molti leoni africani hanno la criniera ancora meno lussureggiante e sono noti anche alcuni esemplari maschi che ne sono completamente privi, come ad esempio i due esemplari imbalsamati conservati al Field Museum di Chicago, noti come i "mangiatori d'uomini dello Tsavo". Nel leone asiatico, i ciuffi di peli dei gomiti sono generalmente più sviluppati che nel leone africano. Ma anche questa particolarità ha un valore relativo, e lo stesso vale per il fiocco di peli terminali della coda, più folta e soprattutto più lunga nel leone asiatico. Quest'ultima particolarità è più costante rispetto alle due precedenti. Il colore della criniera e dei ciuffi di peli secondari va dal giallo chiaro al nero, passando per tutte le tinte di rosso, di ocra e di bruno; esso corrisponde per intero alla gamma cromatica che è propria del leone africano. Un buon numero di leoni asiatici ha una frangia longitudinale di peli sotto il ventre, ma questa frangia si ritrova ugualmente in alcuni loro omologhi del continente nero. I leoncini asiatici sono chiazzati e a volte se ne vedono di quelli ornati di macchie disposte in file più o meno trasversali, ciò che li fa somigliare alle tigri[14]. La criniera del leone asiatico, se sviluppata al massimo, arriva fino all'inguine e ricorda molto quella del leone dell'Atlante (Panthera leo leo), cugino africano più grande, oggi estinto in natura e con cui il leone asiatico è strettamente imparentato, in quanto proveniente da popolazioni di leoni nordafricani.

    Le loro dimensioni corrispondono a quelle dei leoni diffusi nelle regioni centrali dell'Africa. Nei maschi adulti la lunghezza massima del cranio è di 330–340 mm, mentre nelle femmine è di 266–277 mm[14]. I maschi possono raggiungere il peso di 160–190 kg e le femmine di 110–120 kg[15]. Il più lungo maschio catturato misurava 292 cm di lunghezza[16], mentre la maggiore altezza alla spalla registrata è di 107 cm[17]. Il Capitano Smee uccise un maschio di 268 cm che, eviscerato, pesava 222,3 kg[16]. Secondo alcuni resoconti di caccia il più grande maschio selvatico conosciuto era lungo esattamente 3 m[18].

    I leoni asiatici sono animali sociali che vivono in branchi. Questi sono meno numerosi di quelli dei leoni africani e in media comprendono due sole femmine, al contrario delle quattro-sei femmine che si incontrano nei branchi africani. Hanno abitudini meno socievoli e si congiungono con gli altri membri del branco solamente per accoppiarsi o attorno alla carcassa di una preda particolarmente grande. È stato ipotizzato che questo comportamento sia dovuto al fatto che a Gir si trovano prede più piccole di quelle che vivono in Africa, per la cui cattura necessita la collaborazione di pochi animali[19]. I leoni asiatici si nutrono prevalentemente di cervi (sambar e cervi pomellati), antilopi (nilgau), gazzelle (chinkara), cinghiali, bufali selvatici e bestiame domestico.

    Conservazione

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    Un maschio adulto di leone asiatico in cattività.

    Nel Parco Nazionale della Foresta di Gir, in India occidentale, vivono circa 650[6][7] leoni in un rifugio di 1412 km² ricoperto da boscaglie e foreste decidue aperte. Si ritiene che nel 1907, quando il Nababbo di Junagadh assicurò loro completa protezione, fossero rimasti solo 13 esemplari. Questa notizia, comunque, è piuttosto controversa, dal momento che durante il primo censimento dei leoni di Gir, condotto nel 1936, vennero registrati 234 animali.

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    Un giovane maschio di leone asiatico.

    Fino a circa 150-200 anni fa i leoni asiatici, diffusi in molte regioni dell'India occidentale e centrale, condividevano gran parte del loro areale con le tigri del Bengala e i leopardi indiani, oltre che con i ghepardi asiatici, oggi scomparsi dall'India. Tuttavia, i ghepardi asiatici prediligevano le praterie aperte, mentre i leoni asiatici preferivano le foreste aperte miste a distese erbose, aree che offrono dimora anche a tigri e leopardi. È probabile che un tempo le tigri del Bengala e i leoni asiatici fossero in competizione sia per le prede che per il territorio.

    In India questi grandi felini persero gran parte delle giungle aperte e delle praterie in cui dimoravano a causa dell'incremento della popolazione umana, che convertì quasi completamente le pianure in terreni agricoli. Inoltre, divennero bersaglio sia dei cacciatori locali che dei coloni britannici.

    Ancora oggi i leoni vengono talvolta avvelenati per aver attaccato il bestiame[20]. Tra le altre minacce alla loro sopravvivenza ricordiamo inondazioni, incendi ed epidemie. Il loro areale ristretto, infatti, li rende particolarmente vulnerabili.

    Nell'area del parco sono stati scavati dagli agricoltori tra i 15.000 e i 20.000 pozzi aperti, utilizzati per l'irrigazione; essi, però, costituiscono anche delle trappole che hanno già portato a morte molti leoni per annegamento. Per contrastare il problema è stata suggerita la costruzione di muretti attorno a tali pozzi, nonché l'utilizzo di pozzi coperti scavati con delle trivelle.

    Gli agricoltori che vivono ai confini della Foresta di Gir utilizzano frequentemente rudimentali e illegali recinzioni elettrificate alimentate dalle linee aeree ad alta tensione. Il loro scopo principale è quello di proteggere i raccolti dalle incursioni dei nilgau, ma uccidono anche leoni e altri animali selvatici.

    Al declino dell'area della Foresta di Gir ha contribuito anche la presenza dei pastori nomadi conosciuti come Maldhari. Le loro comunità sono vegetariane e non praticano il bracconaggio, ma ogni famiglia possiede in media 50 bovini (le cosiddette «vacche di Gir») che arrecano notevoli danni di sovrapascolo[20]. La distruzione dell'habitat ad opera dei bovini e degli incendi boschivi appiccati per esigenze umane riducono il numero delle prede naturali e minacciano i leoni. Questi ultimi, costretti dalla mancanza di prede naturali, attaccano le mandrie e divengono a loro volta bersaglio degli uomini. Molti Maldhari sono stati trasferiti oltre i confini del parco dalle guardie forestali per garantire ai leoni un ambiente il più naturale possibile e una maggiore disponibilità di prede.

    Rischi di inincrocio

    Si dice che l'attuale popolazione selvatica di più di 400 leoni asiatici derivi tutta da soli 13 esemplari, il che la renderebbe molto suscettibile ai rischi derivanti dall'accoppiamento tra consanguinei. Tuttavia, è molto probabile che questa notizia, risalente al 1910, sia stata messa in giro per scoraggiare la caccia ai leoni. La caccia a questi animali, infatti, era un'attività molto popolare tra i coloni britannici e i reali indiani, che sterminarono tutti gli altri leoni dell'India. I dati dell'epoca, invece, indicano che la popolazione di leoni asiatici rimasti si aggirava sulle 100 unità[21]. Molti studi hanno dimostrato che le popolazioni in cui sono frequenti accoppiamenti tra consanguinei possono essere più suscettibili a malattie dovute ad indebolimento del sistema immunitario e a deformazioni negli spermatozoi, che porterebbe all'infertilità. In alcuni vecchi studi genetici lo scienziato Stephen O'Brien sosteneva che «se si applicasse la tecnica dell'impronta genetica sui leoni asiatici si scoprirebbe che gli esemplari attuali sarebbero come gemelli identici... poiché discendono tutti da poco più di una dozzina di esemplari rimasti in vita agli inizi del XX secolo[22]». Ciò renderebbe questi animali particolarmente vulnerabili alle malattie e provocherebbe la deformazione del 70-80% degli spermatozoi - motivo che porterebbe all'infertilità nel caso questi leoni venissero fatti accoppiare tra loro in cattività.

    Studi successivi, comunque, hanno suggerito che la bassa variabilità genetica potrebbe essere una caratteristica della popolazione originaria e non il risultato di incroci avvenuti in tempi recenti. Essi hanno mostrato anche che la variabilità negli immunotipi è simile a quella riscontrata nelle popolazioni di tigri e che non vi sono anomalie negli spermatozoi dell'attuale popolazione di leoni asiatici[23][24]. I risultati di questi studi sono stati però messi in questione a causa dell'utilizzo di tecniche RAPD, inadeguate per le ricerche di genetica delle popolazioni[25].

    Inquinamento genetico in cattività tra leoni asiatici e africani

    Fino ad anni recenti i leoni asiatici tenuti in cattività negli zoo indiani venivano fatti tranquillamente incrociare con leoni africani confiscati ai circhi, il che ha portato all'inquinamento genetico dei leoni asiatici in cattività. Questo fatto portò alla completa interruzione dei programmi di riproduzione in cattività di questo animale condotti sia dall'European Endangered Species Programme (EEP) europeo che dallo Species Survival Plan (SSP) americano, dal momento che si scoprì che gli animali progenitori, originariamente importati dall'India, erano ibridi derivati dall'accoppiamento tra leoni africani e asiatici. Da allora, l'India ha posto rimedio ai propri errori e adesso consente l'accoppiamento solo tra leoni asiatici puri; in tale modo ha ridato il via al programma europeo per l'accoppiamento in cattività di specie minacciate (EEP) inerente ai leoni asiatici. Tuttavia, l'SPP americano, che aveva completamente interrotto il programma di riproduzione in cattività già dall'inizio degli anni '80, ha di nuovo ricevuto dall'India leoni asiatici di razza pura allo scopo di ricostituire una nuova popolazione progenitrice per le riproduzioni in cattività negli zoo del continente americano[25][26][27][28].

    Reintroduzioni in natura

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    L'areale attuale del leone asiatico è molto inferiore rispetto a quello del leone africano.

    Per oltre un decennio sono stati effettuati dei tentativi per stabilire una seconda popolazione indipendente di leoni asiatici nel Santuario per la Natura di Palpur-Kuno, nello Stato indiano del Madhya Pradesh. I ricercatori dell'Istituto indiano per la Natura hanno infatti confermato che questo Santuario sia la località più promettente per ristabilire una popolazione selvatica di questi felini e i responsabili dell'area protetta hanno dichiarato di essere già pronti ad accogliere il primo stock di leoni[29] proveniente dal Santuario per la Natura di Gir, dove sono divenuti troppo numerosi. Il Santuario di Palpur-Kuno è stato scelto come sito di reintroduzione perché questa località è situata all'interno dell'areale storico dei leoni asiatici, dalla quale scomparvero nel 1873 in seguito alla caccia sconsiderata[29][30]. Tuttavia, lo Stato del Gujarat sta opponendo resistenza alla reintroduzione, dal momento che il Santuario di Gir perderebbe il suo status di unica dimora al mondo dei leoni asiatici. Il Gujarat ha sollevato varie obiezioni alla proposta e tutta la faccenda è ora in mano alla Corte Suprema Indiana. Nel frattempo, i gestori del Santuario di Kuno stanno portando avanti l'idea di rilasciare in natura dei leoni allevati in cattività, dopo averli addestrati alle tecniche di caccia e alle altre tecniche di sopravvivenza.

    I leoni asiatici in Europa ed Asia sud-occidentale

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    Panthera leo persica in uno schizzo di A. M. Kamarov (1826).

    Un tempo anche in Europa si trovavano i leoni. Aristotele ed Erodoto scrissero che erano presenti nei Balcani. Quando il re persiano Serse avanzò attraverso la Macedonia nel 480 a.C. vari cammelli che trasportavano le vettovaglie furono uccisi dai leoni. Si ritiene che questi felini siano scomparsi dai territori dell'attuale Grecia attorno all'80-100 d.C. Nell'arte mitologica greca la figura del leone di Nemea è strettamente associata alle raffigurazioni di Eracle/Ercole.

    Taluni studiosi ritengono la popolazione europea di leoni appartenente alla stessa sottospecie del leone asiatico (Panthera leo persica), ma altri la considerano una sottospecie separata, il leone europeo (Panthera leo europaea), o perfino un'ultima popolazione relitta del leone delle caverne (Panthera leo spelaea).

    In alcuni reperti di arte scita provenienti dall'Ucraina, risalenti al IV secolo a.C., sono raffigurati molto realisticamente dei cacciatori che danno la caccia ai leoni. I leoni sopravvissero nella regione del Caucaso fino al X secolo. Tale area dette dimora alla loro popolazione più settentrionale ed era l'unico luogo dell'ex Unione Sovietica ad aver ospitato dei leoni in epoca storica. Questi felini scomparvero dall'Armenia attorno all'anno 100 e dall'Azerbaigian e dalla Russia sud-occidentale nel corso del X secolo. Il motivo prevalente della loro scomparsa da queste zone fu la caccia data loro in quanto ritenuti dannosi predatori. Nella regione questi grandi felini davano la caccia a bisonti europei, alci, uri, tarpan, cervi ed altri ungulati.

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    Una pagina tratta dal Kelileh o Demneh (1429), proveniente da Herat; quest'opera è la traduzione persiana del Panchatantra dell'India antica (raccolta di racconti i cui protagonisti sono gli animali selvatici locali presenti nelle giungle dell'India, tra cui il leone asiatico/indiano) derivata dalla versione arabaKalila wa Dimna. In quest'immagine è raffigurato il manipolatore visir-sciacallo Dimna mentre cerca di convincere il suo re-leone ad entrare in guerra.

    I leoni rimasero ancora largamente diffusi fino alla metà del XIX secolo, quando l'avvento delle armi da fuoco li fece scomparire da vaste aree. In Iran l'ultimo avvistamento di un leone asiatico in vita risale al 1941 (in un'area tra Shiraz e Jahrom, nella Provincia di Fars). Nel 1944 venne ritrovato il corpo senza vita di una leonessa sulle rive del fiume Karun, nella Provincia di Khuzestan. Da allora non vi sono più state testimonianze attendibili sulla sopravvivenza del leone in Iran[31]. In Turchia, invece, il leone scomparve alla fine del XIX secolo[32][33].

    Il leone berbero

    Magnifying glass icon mgx2.svgLo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Panthera leo leo.

    Nel 1968 uno studio basato sul confronto tra i crani degli estinti leoni berberi (del Nordafrica) e del Capo con quelli di leoni asiatici e africani mostrò che quelli berberi e asiatici presentavano una stessa caratteristica - una barra orbitale molto sottile. Tale aspetto dimostra una stretta parentela tra i leoni delle regioni più settentrionali dell'Africa e quelli dell'Asia. Si ritiene che i leoni europei delle regioni meridionali del continente europeo, scomparsi attorno all'80-100 a.C., potrebbero aver rappresentato un anello di congiunzione tra i leoni nordafricani e quelli asiatici. Inoltre gli studiosi sostengono che i leoni berberi possedessero la stessa piega ventrale (nascosta sotto la criniera) presente nei leoni asiatici odierni.

    Il leone asiatico nella mitologia e nell'arte

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    La dea indù Durgā, una delle varie forme di Parvati, ha un leone asiatico come suo vahana (cavalcatura divina).
    • Il simbolo del leone è strettamente connesso con i popoli persiani. È risaputo che sui troni e sugli indumenti dei re achemenidi fossero presenti delle raffigurazioni di leoni. Lo Shir-va-Khorshid, o Leone e Sole, è uno dei più importanti simboli dell'Iran. Risale alla dinastia safavide e comparve sulla bandiera dell'Iran fino al 1979.
    • Molto presente su numerose bandiere e stemmi di Asia ed Europa, il leone asiatico compare anche sull'emblema nazionale dell'India.
    • Narasiṃha («uomo-leone», detto anche Narasingh o Narasinga) viene descritto come un'incarnazione (avatara) di Vishnu nei testi puranici dell'induismo ed è venerato come «Dio Leone»; nei tempi antichi, quindi, quando i leoni indiani o asiatici erano comuni in gran parte dell'India, venivano considerati sacri da tutti gli indù.
    • I Singalesi sono il più importante gruppo etnico dello Sri Lanka. Il nome Sinhala significa «popolo di leoni» e si riferisce ai miti legati all'origine del leggendario progenitore del popolo singalese 2500 anni fa, il Principe Vijaya.
    • Singh è un cognome molto comune tra i Sikh e gli Indù e significa «leone»; risale ad oltre 2000 fa, ai tempi dell'antica India. Deriva dal termine sanscrito «simha», che vuol dire «leone». Originariamente veniva utilizzato solamente dai Rajput, una kshatriya (o casta militare) indù, presente in India già nel VII secolo. Dopo la nascita dell'organizzazione dei Khalsa nel 1699, i Sikh adottarono il nome «Singh» in onore di Guru Gobind Singh. Oggi, oltre che tra milioni di Rajput indù, questo cognome è presente anche tra una decina di milioni di Sikh di tutto il mondo[34][35].
    • Singhāsana (letteralmente «sedia del leone») è il tradizionale nome sanscrito con cui veniva chiamato il trono dei re indù fin dall'antichità.
    • La nazione insulare di Singapore (Singapura) deve il nome alle parole malesi singa («leone») e pura («città»), a loro volta derivate dal sanscrito siṃha (सिंह) e pura (पुर)[36][37]. Secondo gli annali malesi, questo nome venne scelto da un principe malese di Sumatra del XIV secolo chiamato Sang Nila Utama, il quale, giunto sull'isola dopo un temporale, avvistò sulla costa un animale di buon auspicio che il suo ministro più importante identificò come un leone[38]. Recenti studi effettuati a Singapore, però, hanno indicato che sull'isola non vi sono mai stati dei leoni ed è quindi probabile che l'animale visto da Sang Nila Utama sia stato più propriamente una tigre.
    • Il leone asiatico compare più volte nella Bibbia; il più famoso di essi è quello che combatte contro Sansone nel Libro dei Giudici.
    • Il leone asiatico è l'animale che ha ispirato la cosiddetta danza del leone, parte importante delle celebrazioni tradizionali per il capodanno cinese e di altri Paesi asiatici.
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    Questo capitello romanico del XIII secolo raffigura Sansone e il leone.
    • In Cina sono molto diffusi i cosiddetti «leoni guardiani». I leoni non sono originari della Cina ma vivevano in regioni situate ai suoi confini, come l'India e il Tibet occidentale. I leoni[39] raffigurati nei templi indiani sono stati il modello di quelli presenti nell'arte cinese. In passato si riteneva che i monaci buddisti, o forse dei mercanti, avessero riportato in Cina la descrizione di questi leoni scolpiti posti all'ingresso dei templi. In seguito gli scultori cinesi utilizzarono tali descrizioni per realizzare i cosiddetti «Leoni Fo» («Fo», 佛, è il termine cinese per Buddha), modellando raffigurazioni di cani del luogo (probabilmente mastini tibetani) e aggiungendogli un'ispida criniera. Le più antiche raffigurazioni di questi «Leoni Fo» nell'arte religiosa cinese risalgono al 208 a.C.
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    Un dirham (moneta persiana) di Cosroe II proveniente da Sivas (638 d.C.).
    • Il leone delle nevi tibetano (in tibetano གངས་སེང་གེ་, traslitterato in Wylie come gangs seng ge) è un animale mitologico del Tibet. Simboleggia la mancanza di paura, l'allegria, il quadrante orientale e l'elemento della Terra. Si diceva che questo animale vivesse sulle montagne e viene comunemente raffigurato bianco con la criniera turchese. Due leoni delle nevi compaiono sulla bandiera del Tibet.
    • Un dakini dalla faccia di leone compare sia nell'induismo che nel buddhismo tibetano. Questa divinità indù è nota come «Narasimha» e la forma del buddhismo tibetano è detta «Simhamuka» in sanscrito e Senge Dongma (in Wylie seng ge gdong ma) in tibetano[40].
    • Il leone asiatico è apparso nel remake del 2010 del film del 1925 Il mondo perduto.

    Note

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    2. ^ Big cats - By Tom Brakefield, Alan Shoemaker, Books.google.com. URL consultato il 14 dicembre 2010.
    3. ^ Biodiversity and its conservation in India - By Sharad Singh Negi, Books.google.com. URL consultato il 14 dicembre 2010.
    4. ^ 411 lions in Gir forests, population up by 52, Deccanherald.com. URL consultato il 14 dicembre 2010.
    5. ^ Asiatic Lion population up from 411 to 523 in five years, DeshGujarat, 2015. URL consultato il 2 maggio 2017.
    6. ^ a b Himanshu Kaushik, Lion population roars to 650 in Gujarat forests, The Times of India, 4 agosto 2017. URL consultato il 9 agosto 2017.
    7. ^ a b Avinash Nandakumar, Gir forest Asiatic lion brimming population needs translocation to Madhya Pradesh, India Live Today, 3 agosto 2017. URL consultato il 9 agosto 2017 (archiviato dall'url originale il 9 agosto 2017).
    8. ^ You Deserve, We Conserve: A Biotechnological Approach to Wildlife Conservation - By M. W. Pandit, Books.google.com. URL consultato il 14 dicembre 2010.
    9. ^ Indian wildlife - By Budh Dev Sharma, Tej Kumari, Books.google.com. URL consultato il 14 dicembre 2010.
    10. ^ The English Cyclopaedia - edited by Charles Knight, Books.google.com. URL consultato il 14 dicembre 2010.
    11. ^ National Animal, Govt. of India Official website.
    12. ^ Ross Barnett1, Nobuyuki Yamaguchi, Ian Barnes e Alan Cooper, The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo), in Proc. R. Soc. B, vol. 273, n. 1598, settembre 2006, pp. 2119–2125.
    13. ^ O'Brien S.J, Martenson J.S, Packer C, Herbst L, De Vos V,; Joslin P,; Ott-Joslin J,; Wildt DE,; Bush M. 1987 Biochemical genetic variation in geographic isolates of African and Asiatic lions. Natl Geogr. Res . 3, 114–124
    14. ^ a b V.G Heptner & A.A. Sludskii, Mammals of the Soviet Union, Volume II, Part 2, ISBN 90-04-08876-8.
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    16. ^ a b Idem
    17. ^ Sterndale, R. A. 1884. Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon. Thacker, Spink and Co., Calcutta, 540 pp. (See No. 200. Felis leo).[1]
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    20. ^ a b The Gir Forest National Park, Momos Travels. URL consultato il 10 ottobre 2009.
    21. ^ The Asiatic Lion Information Centre. Retrieved January 2007.
    22. ^ National Geographic feature, Nationalgeographic.com. URL consultato il 14 dicembre 2010.
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    24. ^ Central Zoo Authority of India (CZA), Government of India, CZA. URL consultato il 4 maggio 2017 (archiviato dall'url originale il 28 marzo 2009).
    25. ^ a b authors? (1997) "Indians Look At Their Big Cats' Genes", Science, 278: 807 DOI: 10.1126/science.278.5339.807b
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    27. ^ G.S. Mudur (2004) BEASTLY TALES The Telegraph, Calcutta, India. Published December 26
      African-Asian lion problems were first spotted in the US. It's the price you pay for playing God. After toying with lion-breeding programmes for years, zoo officials in India are facing a man-made evolutionary disaster.
    28. ^ S.J. O'Brien et al. (1987) "Evidence for African Origins of the Founders of the Asiatic Lion SSP" Zoo Biology.
      The report's authors used genetic tests to compare the wild population in the Gir park with those in captivity. They have concluded that the captive population is not pure Asiatic. As a result of the O'Brien report, the SSP was discontinued. Asiatic Lion Information Centre Accessed on September 19, 2007
    29. ^ a b A.J.T. Johnsingh (2004) “Is Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary ready to play second home to Asiatic lions?", published in the Newsletter of Wildlife Institute of India (WII) 11 (4)
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    35. ^ Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume I
    36. ^ (EN) Singapore, bartleby.com. URL consultato il 4 maggio 2017 (archiviato dall'url originale il 13 maggio 2009).
    37. ^ (EN) History and origin of Singapore, newasia-singapore.com. URL consultato il 4 maggio 2017 (archiviato dall'url originale il 12 maggio 2017).
    38. ^ Early History, Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts, Singapore. URL consultato il 14 aprile 2006.
    39. ^ Where does the Lion come from in ancient Chinese culture? Celebrating with the Lion Dance by B. N. Goswamy, October 6, 2002, The Tribune Newspaper, Chandigarh, India, Tribuneindia.com. URL consultato il 14 dicembre 2010.
    40. ^ Simhamukha, Himalayanart.org. URL consultato il 14 dicembre 2010.

    Bibliografia

    • S.M.Nair (English edition); Translated by O. Henry Francis, Endangered Animals of India and their conservation (In Tamil), National Book Trust, 1999.
    • Kaushik, H. 2005. Wire fences death traps for big cats. Times of India, Thursday, October 27, 2005.
    • Nowell, K. and Jackson, P. (compilers and editors), Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 1996.
    • Chellam, Ravi, and A. J. T. Johnsingh. "Management of Asiatic Lions in the Gir Forest, India" Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. (1993), No. 65, 409-424.

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    Panthera leo persica: Brief Summary ( Italian )

    provided by wikipedia IT

    Il leone asiatico (Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826), chiamato anche leone indiano o leone di Gir è una sottospecie di leone. In natura sopravvive solamente nella Foresta di Gir, nello Stato indiano del Gujarat. Nel 2010 il governo di questo Stato ha dichiarato che nell'area ne sono stati censiti 411 esemplari, 52 in più rispetto al precedente censimento del 2005, mentre nel 2015 il numero è cresciuto a 523 esemplari e nel 2017 a 650.

    Il leone asiatico è uno dei cinque grandi felini dell'India, insieme alla tigre del Bengala, al leopardo indiano, al leopardo delle nevi e al leopardo nebuloso. Un tempo il suo areale si estendeva dal Mediterraneo alle regioni nord-orientali del subcontinente indiano, ma la caccia eccessiva, l'inquinamento idrico e la diminuzione delle prede naturali ne hanno ridotto notevolmente l'estensione. In passato il leone asiatico veniva suddiviso in tre razze: leoni del Bengala, d'Arabia e persiani. È tutt'oggi oggetto di dibattito se i leoni che vivevano in Europa (nei Balcani, in Macedonia e in Grecia) durante l'epoca ellenica fossero leoni asiatici o se appartenessero a un'altra sottospecie. Talvolta viene considerato l'animale nazionale dell'India, ma tale affermazione è sbagliata, dato che l'animale simbolo dell'India è la tigre (Panthera tigris).

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    Azijinis liūtas ( Lithuanian )

    provided by wikipedia LT
    Binomas Panthera leo persica
    Paplitimas

    Azijinis liūtas (lot. Panthera leo persica) – liūtų (Panthera leo) porūšis, kurio arealas dabar apima tik Giro mišką Gudžarate (Indija).[1][2] 2005 m. Gudžarato vyriausybė pranešė, kad Giro miške aptikti 359 azijiniai liūtai.[3]

    Azijinis liūtas yra viena iš trijų didžiųjų Indijos kačių – kitos dvi yra bengalinis tigras ir indinis leopardas[4] Anksčiau azijiniai liūtai gyveno nuo Viduržemio jūros regiono iki Indijos subkontinento šiaurrytinės dalies. Liūtų išmedžiojimas ir grobio stygius lėmė azijinių liūtų skaičiaus mažėjimą.[5]
    Istoriškai azijiniai liūtai buvo skirstomi į bengalinius, arabinius ir persinius liūtus.[6] Azijiniai liūtai yra mažesni ir lengvesni už afrikinius liūtus.

    Biologija ir elgsena

     src=
    Azijinė liūtė

    Azijiniai liūtai yra panašūs į afrikinius, nors jų kaukolėse yra skirtumų. Kailio spalva kinta nuo raudonai rudos iki dėmėtos juodos ar smėliškai cinamoninės pilkos.[7]

    Azijiniai liūtai dydžiu nesiskiria nuo centrinės Afrikos liūtų. Didžiausias suaugusių patinų kaukolių ilgis – 330–340 mm, o patelių – 266–277 mm.[7] Patinų kūno masė – iki 160–190 kg, o patelių – iki 110–120 kg.[8] Didžiausias užregistruotas patino ilgis – 292 cm,[9], aukštis per pečius – 107 cm.[10] Vienas sumedžiotų patinų buvo 268 cm ilgio ir 222,3 kg masės (be vidurių).[9] Didžiausias žinomas sumedžiotas laukinis patinas buvo lygiai 3 m ilgio.[11]

    Azijiniai liūtai yra bendruomeniniai gyvūnai, gyvenantys praiduose. Jų praidai yra mažesni, negu afrikinių liūtų, nes jų praiduose dažniausiai būna dvi patelės (afrikinių praiduose – nuo keturių iki šešių patelių). Patinai prisijungia prie praidų prieš poruojantis ar stambaus grobio medžioklei. Tai aiškinama tuo, kad Indijoje liūtų grobis smulkesnis, todėl tereikia mažiau medžiojančių liūtų grobiui įveikti.[12]

    Azijiniai liūtai daugiausia medžioja elnius (indinis zambaras ir aksis), antilopes (mėlynoji antilopė), indines gazeles, šernus, azijinius buivolus ir naminius galvijus.

    Aplinkosauginė padėtis

    Giro miško nacionaliniame parke (vakarų Indija) 2006 m. balandžio mėnesį buvo suskaičiuoti 359 liūtai, kurie gyveno 1412 km² ploto draustinyje, apaugusiame krūmais ir retu lapus metančių lapuočių miškais. Buvo teigiama, kad 1907 m., kai liūtus ėmė saugoti, populiaciją sudarė tik 13 liūtų. Tam prieštarauja faktas, kad 1936 m. apskaitos metu Giro miške buvo aptikti 234 liūtai.

    Iki maždaug 1800 m. azijiniai liūtai ir azijiniai gepardai gyveno daugelyje vakarų ir centrinės Indijos rajonų, kur konkuravo su bengaliniais tigrais ir indiniais leopardais. Gepardai mėgo atviras žolines lygumas, o azijiniai liūtai mėgo retus miškus pramaišiui su žolinėmis lygumomis, kur mėgo gyventi ir tigrai su leopardais. Spėjama, kad buvo metas, kai bengalinis tigras ir azijinis liūtas smarkiai konkuravo dėl grobio ir teritorijų.

    Indijos didžiosios katės prarado beveik visas retąsias džiungles ir žolines lygumas, kurias žmonės pavertė dirbamomis žemėmis. Šias kates dažnai medžiojo vietiniai medžiotojai ir britai, tarnavę kolonijinėje administracijoje.

    Nuorodos

    1. Big cats – By Tom Brakefield, Alan Shoemaker
    2. Biodiversity and its conservation in India – By Sharad Singh Negi
    3. Highest-ever lion count at 359 in Gir sanctuary
    4. You Deserve, We Conserve: A Biotechnological Approach to Wildlife Conservation – By M. W. Pandit
    5. Indian wildlife – By Budh Dev Sharma, Tej Kumari
    6. The English Cyclopaedia – edited by Charles Knight
    7. 7,0 7,1 V.G Heptner & A. A. Sludskii. Mammals of the Soviet Union, Volume II, Part 2. ISBN 9004088768.
    8. Nowell K, Jackson P (1996). “Panthera Leo”, Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (PDF), Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat hi ialist Group, 17–21. ISBN 2-8317-0045-0.
    9. 9,0 9,1 Idem
    10. Sterndale, R. A. 1884. Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon. Thacker, Spink and Co., Calcutta, 540 pp. (See No. 200. Felis leo).
    11. Wood, The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. Sterling Pub Co Inc (1983), ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9
    12. [http://www.bristolzoo.org.uk/learning/animals/mammals/asiatic-lion Asiatic lion
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    Azijinis liūtas: Brief Summary ( Lithuanian )

    provided by wikipedia LT

    Azijinis liūtas (lot. Panthera leo persica) – liūtų (Panthera leo) porūšis, kurio arealas dabar apima tik Giro mišką Gudžarate (Indija). 2005 m. Gudžarato vyriausybė pranešė, kad Giro miške aptikti 359 azijiniai liūtai.

    Azijinis liūtas yra viena iš trijų didžiųjų Indijos kačių – kitos dvi yra bengalinis tigras ir indinis leopardas Anksčiau azijiniai liūtai gyveno nuo Viduržemio jūros regiono iki Indijos subkontinento šiaurrytinės dalies. Liūtų išmedžiojimas ir grobio stygius lėmė azijinių liūtų skaičiaus mažėjimą.
    Istoriškai azijiniai liūtai buvo skirstomi į bengalinius, arabinius ir persinius liūtus. Azijiniai liūtai yra mažesni ir lengvesni už afrikinius liūtus.

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    Āzijas lauva ( Latvian )

    provided by wikipedia LV

    Āzijas lauva jeb Indijas lauva, arī Persijas lauva (Panthera leo persica) ir lauvas pasuga, kas mūsdienās sastopama tikai Gudžarātas štatā Indijā, Gīra nacionālajā parkā. Mazās populācijas dēļ tas saskaņā ar Starptautiskās dabas un dabas resursu aizsardzības savienības datiem iekļauts apdraudēto sugu (angļu: Endangered) sarakstā.[1]

    Āzijas lauva ir viena no četrām lielo kaķu sugām Indijā. Pārējās trīs sugas ir: Bengālijas tīģeris, Indijas leopards un sniega leopards.[1][2] Kopš 2010. gada Āzijas lauvas populācija Gīra nacionālajā parkā ir nepārtraukti palielinājusies.[3] 2015. gadā parkā (20 000 m²) dzīvoja 523 īpatņi: 109 pieauguši tēviņi, 201 pieaugusi mātīte un 213 lauvēni.[4][5]

    Evolūcija

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    Cilnis Ninīves pilī ar Asīrijas valdnieka Ašurbanipala lauvu medībām, 7. gadsimts p.m.ē.

    Mūsdienu lauvu ģenētisko pētījumu rezultāti liecina, ka Subsahāras Āfrikas lauvas ģenētiski ir priekšteces visām mūsdienās dzīvojošajām lauvām. Lauvu evolūcija, visticamākais, sākusies Āfrikas dienvidaustrumos, no kurienes tās vēlāk izplatījušās rietumu un ziemeļu virzienā, un pēdējo 20 000 gadu laikā cauri Arābijas pussalai sasniegušas Turciju, Eiropas dienvidus un Indijas ziemeļus. Lauvu izplatībai dabīgie šķēršļi ir bijuši Sahāras tuksnesis, ekvatoriālie lietus meži un Austrumāfrikas lūzumzona.[6]

    Pētījumā par lauvu evolūciju tika noskaidrots, ka mūsdienu lauvu populācijas veidojušās no četrām līnijām: Kenijas līnijas, Dienvidu Āfrikas līnijas, Centrālāfrikas un Ziemeļāfrikas līnijas (tā sasniedza Āziju), Austrumāfrikas un Dienvidu Āfrikas līnijas. Pirmais lauvu migrācijas un ekspansijas vilnis ir noticis pirms apmēram 118 000 gadiem, lauvām ceļojot no Austrumāfrikas uz Rietumāfriku, otrais vilnis noticis pleistocēna beigās un holocēna sākumā virzienā no Dienvidu Āfrikas uz Austrumāfriku.[7] Lauvas Dienvidu Āfrikā un Austrumāfrikā ģenētiski ir spēcīgi atšķirīgas no Centrālāfrikas un Rietumāfrikas lauvām, kuras savukārt ir tuvāk radniecīgas Āzijas un Ziemeļāfrikas lauvām.[8]

    Aizvēsturiskās lauvas Āzijā

    Fosiliju atradumi liecina, ka Eiropā, Sibīrijā un Aļaskas rietumos pirms 600 000 gadiem mājoja milzīgā auguma Eiropas alu lauva (Panthera leo spelaea), kura pleistocēna beigās joprojām bija sastopama Balkānos un Tuvajos Austrumos, un, iespējams, arī Indijas ziemeļos.[9] DNS analīžu rezultāti liecina, ka alu lauvas ģenētiski ir bijušas izolētas no mūsdienu Āfrikas un Āzijas lauvām. Tās izmira, neatstājot nevienu mitohondriālo pēcnācēju.[10][11]

    Toties pleistocēna fosilijas Šrilankā pieder aizvēsturiskajai Šrilankas lauvai (Panthera leo sinhaleyus), kas izmira pirms apmēram 39 000 gadiem. Tā arī nav ģenētiski radniecīga ar mūsdienu Āzijas lauvu.[12]

    Vēsturiskā izplatība

    Vēsturiski Āzijas lauva kādreiz mājoja arī Austrumeiropā, Turcijā, Persijā, Palestīnā, Mezopotāmijā, Pakistānā, Irānā un Afganistānā, kā arī tā izplatība Indijā kādreiz bija daudz lielāka, sākot ar Indas upes austrumdaļu un beidzot ar Narmadas upi Indijas centrālajā daļā.[13][14] Austrumeiropā tas bija sastopams Balkānu pussalas dienvidos (līdz Maķedonijai un, iespējams, pat līdz Donavai) un Kaukāzā. Grieķijā Āzijas lauva izzuda apmēram 1. gadsimtā, bet Kaukāzā tas izmira ap 10. gadsimtu.[15]

    Līdz 19. gadsimta vidum Āzijas lauva joprojām mājoja Mezopotāmijā un Sīrijā. Pēdējo reizi Eifratas upes augštecē tas tika novērots 1870. gados.[15][16] 19. gadsimta beigās tas izmira arī Turcijā.[17] Irānā pēdējā populācija patvērās Zāgrosa kalnu ielejās, un dzīvs Āzijas lauva pēdējo reizi tika novērots 1941. gadā, bet mirusi lauvene tika atrasta 1944. gadā.[18][19]

    Izskats

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    Visiezīmīgākā Āzijas lauvas morfoloģiskā pazīme ir vaļīgā vēdera ādas kroka, kas stiepjas visā vēdera garumā

    Indijā Āzijas lauva ir otrais lielākais plēsējs pēc Bengālijas tīģera.[20][21] Tas ir mazāks par Āfrikas lauvām, apmēram Indoķīnas tīģera lielumā.[22] Āzijas lauvas ķermeņa garums tēviņam bez astes ir apmēram 1,7—2,5 m, mātītei 1,4—1,75 m, astes garums 70–105 cm, augstums plecos 107–110 cm. Pieaudzis tēviņš sver 160—190 kg, mātīte 110–120 kg.[23][24][25][26]

    Āzijas lauvas kažoka krāsa variē no rudas ar melniem plankumiem līdz gaišai, smilšu brūnai vai silti pelēkai, reizēm matojumam ir sudrabains spīdums. Tēviņa krēpes ir vidēji garas un izskatās pinkainas, krēpes uz vaigiem un pazodes ir īsākas (līdz 10 cm), tādēļ ausis vienmēr ir redzamas. Salīdzinot ar Āfrikā dzīvojošajām lauvām, Āzijas lauvai krēpes ir plānākas, toties astes pušķis ir kuplāks un uz elkoņiem bieži aug pagarināts matojums.[13][14][24] Visiezīmīgākā Āzijas lauvas morfoloģiskā pazīme ir vaļīgā vēdera ādas kroka, kas stiepjas visā vēdera garumā.[13]

    Āzijas lauvam raksturīgi, ka krēpes aug kuplākas un garākas, jo vairāk tas dzīvo virzienā uz ziemeļiem. Ziemeļu valstu zoodārzos Āzijas lauvām krēpes ir garākas un kuplākas nekā Indijas savvaļas lauvam.[27] Kopumā krēpes liecina par īpatņa veselību un auglību.[23]

    Uzvedība

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    Āzijas lauvas tēviņš nostiprina un apsargā savu teritoriju, kurā mājo arī viņam pakļauts lauveņu bars

    Āzijas lauva mājo sausos jauktu koku mežos, sausos tuksnešainos krūmājos un savannā. Baros apvienojas tikai pieaugušas mātītes, bet tēviņš, atšķirībā no Āfrikas lauvām, tām parasti pievienojas tikai lielāka dzīvnieka medību laikā vai uz pārošanās brīdi.[13] Āzijas lauvu ģimenē parasti ir divas pieaugušas mātītes, ļoti reti līdz 5 lauvenēm.[13][21] Lauveņu bara lielums, salīdzinot ar Āfrikas lauvām, ir mazāks (Āfrikā barā ir 4—6 lauvenes[13]). Izņēmums ir Centrālāfrikā un Rietumāfrikā dzīvojošās lauvas, kuras ir līdzīgākas Āzijas lauvām, nekā pārējām Āfrikas lauvām.[8] Tēviņš aizsargā noteiktu teritoriju, kurā medī pats un tā lauveņu bars. Reizēm savstarpējās tēviņu cīņās viens no lauvām iet bojā, tad uzvarētājs pārņem teritoriju ar tam piederošo lauveņu baru. Teritorija tiek iezīmēta ar urīnu, skrāpējumiem uz zemes un skaļu rēkšanu.[23]

    Ļoti svarīgs saziņas veids ir rēkšana. Tēviņi iemācās skaļi rēkt apmēram gada vecumā, mātītes drīz pēc tam. Tēviņa rēciens ir daudz skaļāks un spēcīgāks, to var dzirdēt vairāku kilometru attālumā.[23]

    Medījums

    Tā kā lauveņu bars ir samērā neliels, arī medījums ir mazāks, nekā Āfrikas lauvām, galvenokārt tie ir dažādi pārnadži (brieži, antilopes un meža cūkas).[23] Iecienīts Āzijas lauvas medījums ir aksisbriedis, kurš sver apmēram 50 kg,[28] tomēr, ja ir iespēja, lauvas labprāt medī lielākus dzīvniekus, kas sver 190–550 kg. Lielāko zālēdāju medības norit tikai lielākā grupā, lauvām savstarpēji sadarbojoties.[23][29] Tēviņš var piebiedroties lauvenēm uz pusdienām arī tad, kad pats nav piedalījies medībās.[23] Āzijas lauva samērā bieži uzbrūk mājlopiem.[14] Dienas laikā tas ir aktīvs apmēram 4 stundas, pārējo laiku lauva guļ un atpūšas.[23]

    Vairošanās

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    Lauvēni pirmos trīs menešus barojas tikai ar mātes pienu

    Āzijas lauvai nav noteiktas vairošanās sezonas, pārošanās var notikt visa gada garumā.[13] Tēviņš dzimumbriedumu sasniedz 5 gadu vecumā, mātīte 4 gados. Grūsnības periods ilgst 100—119 dienas. Piedzimst vairāki mazuļi, bet to skaits nepārsniedz 6 lauvēnus. Tie ir akli un nevarīgi, to acis atveras 11 dienu vecumā, staigāt lauvēni sāk 15 dienu vecumā, bet skriet 1 mēneša vecumā.[23] Par lauvēniem rūpējas visas bara mātītes.[23] Pirmos 3 mēnešus māte mazuļus zīda ar pienu, bet pēc tam tie pamazām sāk baroties arī ar gaļu, bet 6 mēnešu vecumā tie barojas tikai ar gaļu. Apmēram 9 mēnešu vecumā tie ir jau apguvuši medību paņēmienus.[13]

    Ja teritoriju pārņem jauns dominantais tēviņš, viņš mazuļus parasti nogalina, lai lauvenes pēc iespējas ātrāk sāktu atkal meklēties (tas parasti notiek pēc dažām nedēļām).[23] Āzijas lauvas mātītes dzīvo līdz 17—18 gadu vecumam, tēviņi vidēji līdz 16 gadiem.[23]

    Reintrodukcija

    Sugas aizsardzība uzsākās, kad Āzijas lauva bija gandrīz izmiris, savvaļā tajā laikā mājoja vairs tikai 12 īpatņi.[23] Pateicoties rūpīgajai aizsardzības programmai, Gīra nacionālajā parkā Āzijas lauvu populācija ir atkopusies. Ir nolemts lielo plēsēju reintroducēt jaunās teritorijās — Madhja Pradēšas štata Kuno savvaļas rezervātā. Jāatzīmē, ka šajā rezervātā mājo arī Bengālijas tīģeris, kurš nav sastopamas Gīra nacionālajā parkā. Pēdējais ir nedaudz lielāks, un vēsturiski ir bijušas novērotas abu plēsēju savstarpējās cīņas. Tieši Bengālijas tīģera dēļ Āzijas lauva nekad nav apdzīvojis visu Indiju.[14][23]

    Atsauces

    1. 1,0 1,1 Panthera leo ssp. persica
    2. Status of tigers, co-predators and prey in India, 2010.
    3. A conservation success story in the otherwise dire megafauna extinction crisis: The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) of Gir forest
    4. Asiatic Lion population up from 411 to 523 in five years
    5. Asiatic lion population in Gujarat rises to 523
    6. The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo)
    7. The Evolutionary Dynamics of the Lion Panthera leo Revealed by Host and Viral Population Genomics
    8. 8,0 8,1 Researchers confirm West and Central African lion is different from other lions
    9. Kurtén, B. (1968). Pleistocene Mammals of Europe. Transaction Publishers, 2007. p. 317. ISBN 0202309533.
    10. Mitogenomics of the Extinct Cave Lion, Panthera spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810), Resolve its Position within the Panthera Cats
    11. Burger, J., Rosendahl, F., Loreille, O., Hemmer, H., Eriksson, T., Götherström, A., Hiller, J., Collins, M. J., Wess, T., Alt, K. W. (2004). "Molecular phylogeny of the extinct cave lion Panthera leo spelaea". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (3): 841–849. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.07.020. PMID 15012963
    12. A second extinct big cat from the late Quaternary of Sri Lanka
    13. 13,0 13,1 13,2 13,3 13,4 13,5 13,6 13,7 Big Cats: Asiatic Lion
    14. 14,0 14,1 14,2 14,3 Pocock, R. I. (1939) "Panthera leo" The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis Ltd. pp. 212–222.
    15. 15,0 15,1 Heptner, V. G., Sludskij, A. A. (1992) [1972]. "Lion". Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola [Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2. Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats)]. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 83–95.
    16. Humphreys, P., Kahrom, E. (1999). Lion and Gazelle: The Mammals and Birds of Iran
    17. Üstay, A. H. (1990). Hunting in Turkey. Istanbul: BBA.
    18. Guggisberg, C. A. W. (1961). Simba: The Life of the Lion. Cape Town: Howard Timmins.
    19. Mitra, S. (2005). Gir Forest and the saga of the Asiatic lion New Delhi: Indus. ISBN 8173871833. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
    20. Mammalian Species: Panthera leo
    21. 21,0 21,1 «Wild Cats: Asiatic lion». Arhivēts no oriģināla, laiks: 2011. gada 24. maijā. Skatīts: 2011. gada 24. maijā.
    22. Mammal Species: Panthera tigris
    23. 23,00 23,01 23,02 23,03 23,04 23,05 23,06 23,07 23,08 23,09 23,10 23,11 23,12 23,13 Animal Spot: Asiatic Lion
    24. 24,0 24,1 WWF India: Asiatic lion
    25. Wildlife: The Lions of the World (Panthera Leo)
    26. Chellam, R. and A. J. T. Johnsingh. (1993). Management of Asiatic lions in the Gir Forest, India. In N. Dunstone and M. L. Gorman (eds.) Mammals as predators: the proceedings of a symposium held by the Zoological Society of London and the Mammal Society, London. Volume 65 of Symposia of the Zoological Society of London. Zoological Society of London, London. Pp. 409–423.
    27. Lion mane linked to climate | The Field Museum
    28. Johnsingh, A.J.T. and R. Chellam (1991). Asiatic lions. pp. 92–93 in: Seidensticker, J., Lumpkin, S. and F. Knight. (eds.) Great Cats. London: Merehurst.
    29. Prey preferences of the lion (Panthera leo)

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    Āzijas lauva: Brief Summary ( Latvian )

    provided by wikipedia LV

    Āzijas lauva jeb Indijas lauva, arī Persijas lauva (Panthera leo persica) ir lauvas pasuga, kas mūsdienās sastopama tikai Gudžarātas štatā Indijā, Gīra nacionālajā parkā. Mazās populācijas dēļ tas saskaņā ar Starptautiskās dabas un dabas resursu aizsardzības savienības datiem iekļauts apdraudēto sugu (angļu: Endangered) sarakstā.

    Āzijas lauva ir viena no četrām lielo kaķu sugām Indijā. Pārējās trīs sugas ir: Bengālijas tīģeris, Indijas leopards un sniega leopards. Kopš 2010. gada Āzijas lauvas populācija Gīra nacionālajā parkā ir nepārtraukti palielinājusies. 2015. gadā parkā (20 000 m²) dzīvoja 523 īpatņi: 109 pieauguši tēviņi, 201 pieaugusi mātīte un 213 lauvēni.

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    Singa Asia ( Malay )

    provided by wikipedia MS

    Singa Asia (Panthera leo persica), juga dikenali sebagai singa India dan singa Parsi,[3][4] merupakan salah satu subspesies singa yang hidup sebagai satu populasi tunggal di Gujarat, India. Ia tersenarai sebagai Terancam dalam Senarai Merah IUCN kerana saiz populasinya kecil.[1]

    Singa Asia mula-mula dihuraikan oleh ahli zoologi Austria Johann N. Meyer di bawah trinomen Felis leo persicus.[5] Taburan sejarahnya mencakupi negara-negara Turki, Iran, Mesopotamia, dan India Tengah mulai timur Sungai Indus di bekas Wilayah Sind hingga Benggala dan Sungai Narmada.[6][7]

    Sejak tahun 2010, populasi singa di dalam dan sekitar Taman Negara Hutan Gir meningkat stabil.[8] Pada Mei 2015, Banci Singa Asia ke-14 diadakan di kawasan seluas 20,000 km²; populasi singa dianggarkan sebanyak 523 ekor individu, iaitu 109 jantan dewasa, 201 betina dewasa dan 213 anak.[9][10] Pada Ogos 2017, Banci Singa Asia mendapati 650 ekor individu liar.[11][12]

    Singa Asia merupakan salah satu daripada lima jenis rumpun harimau yang diketahui hidup di India, di samping harimau Benggala, harimau bintang India, harimau bintang salji dan harimau dahan.[13][14]

    Rujukan

    1. ^ a b Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D. P., Ahmad Khan, J. and Driscoll, C. (2008). "Panthera leo ssp. persica". Senarai Merah Spesies Terancam IUCN Versi 2017-1. Kesatuan Pemuliharaan Alam Sekitar Antarabangsa.Selenggaraan CS1: Pelbagai nama: senarai pengarang (link)
    2. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". dalam Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (edisi 3rd). Johns Hopkins University Press. m/s. 546. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
    3. ^ Heptner, V. G.; Sludskii, A. A. (1992) [1972]. "Lion". Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola [Mammals of the Soviet Union, Volume II, Part 2]. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. m/s. 83–95. ISBN 90-04-08876-8.
    4. ^ Humphreys, P., Kahrom, E. (1999). Lion and Gazelle: The Mammals and Birds of Iran. Images Publishing, Avon.
    5. ^ Meyer, J. N. (1826). Dissertatio inauguralis anatomico-medica de genere felium. Doctoral thesis, University of Vienna.
    6. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1939). "Panthera leo". The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis Ltd. m/s. 212–222.
    7. ^ Nowell, K., Jackson, P. (1996). "Asiatic lion". Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (PDF). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. m/s. 17–21. ISBN 2-8317-0045-0.Selenggaraan CS1: Menggunakan parameter authors (link)
    8. ^ Singh, H. S.; Gibson, L. (2011). "A conservation success story in the otherwise dire megafauna extinction crisis: The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) of Gir forest" (PDF). Biological Conservation. 144 (5): 1753–1757. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.02.009.
    9. ^ Anonymous (2015). "Asiatic Lion population up from 411 to 523 in five years". DeshGujarat. Dicapai 10 May 2015.
    10. ^ Anonymous (2015). "Asiatic lion population in Gujarat rises to 523". Deccan Herald.
    11. ^ Himanshu Kaushik (4 August 2017). "Lion population roars to 650 in Gujarat forests". The Times of India. Dicapai 9 August 2017.
    12. ^ Avinash Nandakumar (3 August 2017). "Gir forest Asiatic lion brimming population needs translocation to Madhya Pradesh". India Live Today. Dicapai 9 August 2017.
    13. ^ Jhala, Y. V., Qureshi, Q., Sinha, P. R. (Eds.) (2011). Status of tigers, co-predators and prey in India, 2010. National Tiger Conservation Authority, Govt. of India, New Delhi, and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. TR 2011/003 pp-302
    14. ^ Pandit, M. W.; Shivaji, S.; Singh, L. (2007). You Deserve, We Conserve: A Biotechnological Approach to Wildlife Conservation. New Delhi: I. K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 9788189866242.
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    Singa Asia: Brief Summary ( Malay )

    provided by wikipedia MS

    Singa Asia (Panthera leo persica), juga dikenali sebagai singa India dan singa Parsi, merupakan salah satu subspesies singa yang hidup sebagai satu populasi tunggal di Gujarat, India. Ia tersenarai sebagai Terancam dalam Senarai Merah IUCN kerana saiz populasinya kecil.

    Singa Asia mula-mula dihuraikan oleh ahli zoologi Austria Johann N. Meyer di bawah trinomen Felis leo persicus. Taburan sejarahnya mencakupi negara-negara Turki, Iran, Mesopotamia, dan India Tengah mulai timur Sungai Indus di bekas Wilayah Sind hingga Benggala dan Sungai Narmada.

    Sejak tahun 2010, populasi singa di dalam dan sekitar Taman Negara Hutan Gir meningkat stabil. Pada Mei 2015, Banci Singa Asia ke-14 diadakan di kawasan seluas 20,000 km²; populasi singa dianggarkan sebanyak 523 ekor individu, iaitu 109 jantan dewasa, 201 betina dewasa dan 213 anak. Pada Ogos 2017, Banci Singa Asia mendapati 650 ekor individu liar.

    Singa Asia merupakan salah satu daripada lima jenis rumpun harimau yang diketahui hidup di India, di samping harimau Benggala, harimau bintang India, harimau bintang salji dan harimau dahan.

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    Perzische leeuw ( Dutch; Flemish )

    provided by wikipedia NL

    De Perzische, Indische of Aziatische leeuw (Panthera leo persica) is een ondersoort van de leeuw. De dieren zijn slechts iets kleiner dan de Afrikaanse leeuwen en hebben een huidplooi midden over de buik. De manen van de mannelijke leeuw zijn eveneens kleiner. De familiegroepen zijn ook kleiner, meestal twee verwante vrouwtjes met hun jongen.

    In het begin van de jaartelling leefde de Perzische leeuw in een min of meer aaneengesloten leefgebied van Griekenland via Turkije en Syrië naar Irak, Iran en van Pakistan tot in Noord-India. De aantallen van deze leeuwensoort zijn enorm geslonken door vernietiging van hun habitat alsook door plezierjacht tot er rond 1900 nog maar 15 leeuwen overbleven. De laatste jaren stijgt het aantal exemplaren. In 2010 waren er 411 Perzische leeuwen (vgl. 359 in 2005, 327 in 2001). Ze leven allemaal in het Gir Forest National Park in Noordwest-India.

    Relatie met de mens

    Meestal wordt in dierentuinen de Afrikaanse leeuw gehouden, maar men kan de Aziatische leeuw op één plek in Nederland aantreffen: Blijdorp. Ook in België leven er nog Perzische leeuwen in het dierenpark Planckendael nabij Mechelen.

    In religie en cultuur

     src=
    Alexander de Grote op leeuwenjacht, één van de aan hem toegeschreven daden.

    De leeuw waar in de Bijbel over gesproken wordt (denk aan ‘Daniël in de leeuwenkuil’) is een Perzische leeuw. En ditzelfde geldt voor de afbeelding van Alexander de Grote met een leeuw. Het is zelfs zeer waarschijnlijk dat de leeuwen die in de Romeinse arena’s werden gehouden om te vechten met gladiatoren, maar ook om christenen te doden, voor een belangrijk deel Perzische leeuwen waren.

    Bronnen, noten en/of referenties
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    Perzische leeuw: Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )

    provided by wikipedia NL

    De Perzische, Indische of Aziatische leeuw (Panthera leo persica) is een ondersoort van de leeuw. De dieren zijn slechts iets kleiner dan de Afrikaanse leeuwen en hebben een huidplooi midden over de buik. De manen van de mannelijke leeuw zijn eveneens kleiner. De familiegroepen zijn ook kleiner, meestal twee verwante vrouwtjes met hun jongen.

    In het begin van de jaartelling leefde de Perzische leeuw in een min of meer aaneengesloten leefgebied van Griekenland via Turkije en Syrië naar Irak, Iran en van Pakistan tot in Noord-India. De aantallen van deze leeuwensoort zijn enorm geslonken door vernietiging van hun habitat alsook door plezierjacht tot er rond 1900 nog maar 15 leeuwen overbleven. De laatste jaren stijgt het aantal exemplaren. In 2010 waren er 411 Perzische leeuwen (vgl. 359 in 2005, 327 in 2001). Ze leven allemaal in het Gir Forest National Park in Noordwest-India.

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    Asiatisk løve ( Norwegian )

    provided by wikipedia NN

    Asiatisk løve (Panthera leo persica) er den einaste nolevande underarten av løve (Panthera leo) som lever vilt utanfor Afrika. I dag finst asiatiske løver berre i Gir-skogen nasjonalpark vest i India. Tidlegare levde dei i eit større område i Sørvest-Asia. og før det igjen så langt vest som til Hellas og Nord-Afrika.[1]

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    Asiatisk holøve

    Skildring

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    Asiatisk hannløve

    Asiatisk løve skil seg frå den afrikanske gjennom mindre storleik, forskjellar i hårdekket, hudfoldar under magen og utforminga av kraniet.

    Hoene er normalt 140-175 cm lange veg ca. 120-180 kg. Hannane er 170-250 cm lange og veg ca. 150-250 kg.[2]

    Asiatisk løve skil seg anatomisk gjennom utforminga av skallen. Asiatiske løver har to små hol på kvar side av skallen til nervebanar og blodkar til augo. Hjå afrikanske løver har skallen berre eitt hol på kvar side. Langs lengderetningen på magen har asiatiske løver typisk fleire hudfoldar, noko som er uvanleg hjå den afrikanske.[2]

     src=
    Typiske mankedekke på asiatisk løvehann.

    Asiatisk hannløve har eit større mankedekke enn den afrikanske løva, med meir hår på halen og olbogen av framfoten.[3] Håret oppå hovudet er derimot kortare. Ein kan dermed sjå øyrene til hannløva, medan manken dekkjer dei hjå den afrikanske løva.[2]

    Levesett

    Løvene lever i små flokkar, typisk ein eller to hann og to-tre hoer saman. Både desse og territoria deira er mindre enn dei til afrikanske løver.[2]

    Asiatisk løve tek gjerne store byttedyr som vassbøffel, villsvin, hjort og antilope, men det vanlegaste byttedyret deira er den vesle aksishjorten.[4] Dei tek også husdyr som storfe, noko som har skapt konflikt med lokalbefolkninga.[2]

    Gjennomsnittsalderen er 17-18 år blant holøver, medan hannane gjerne blir rundt 16 år gamle. Ei slik levetid enn er lengre enn den til afrikanske løver.[2]

    Fostertida er 100-119 dagar, med eit gjennomsnitt på 103 dagar. Løveungar blir vaksne etter 18 månader til 2 år.[2]

    Leveområde

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    Holøve i Gujarat.

    Då asiatisk løve blei vitskapleg klassifisert i 1826 skildra ein eit eksemplar frå Persia, følgd av eit frå Panjab og eit frå Basra-provinsen. Jakt med skytevåpen stod bak ein sterk tilbakegang, og ved slutten av 1800-talet var løvene utrydda i Tyrkia. I 1963 blei den siste flokken drepen i Iran. Det store utbreiingsområdet deira i India skrumpa inn til nawaben av Junagarh sitt jaktreservat i Gir-skogen i Gujarat.[2] Dette er ein teakskog som også inneheld kratt og småskog. Ein del løver har slått seg til i nærliggjande område (Girnar, Bali Tana og ved kysten) ettersom skogen er full.[1]

    Populasjon

    Etter at asiatisk løve fekk status som «kritisk truga» i 2000 har bestanden vore stabil, og hovudtrugsmålet mot dyra er det låge talet på dei og det at det berre finst éin populasjon. Ei teljing i 2004 fann 327 individ i den verna Gir-skogen. Det er gjort forsøk på å etablera koloniar for å sikra underarten mot plutseleg sjukdom eller katastrofar.[1] Det finst rundt 80 individ i fangenskap, men desse har liten genetisk variasjon.[2]

    Kjelder

    1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D.P., Ahmad Khan, J. & Driscoll, C., Panthera leo ssp. persica (2008), IUCN Red List, Version 2012.2. . Henta 19. juni 2013.
    2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 2,7 2,8 Asiatic Lions - Panthera leo persica, tigerhomes.org
    3. Pocock, R. I. (1939). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. Taylor and Francis Ltd., London. pp. 212–222
    4. Johnsingh, A.J.T. and R. Chellam. (1991). Asiatic lions. pp. 92–93 in: Seidensticker, J., Lumpkin, S. and F. Knight. (eds.) Great Cats. London, Merehurst. Oppgjeve av Engelsk Wikipedia.

    Bakgrunnsstoff

    Commons-logo.svg Commons har multimedia som gjeld: Asiatisk løve
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    Asiatisk løve: Brief Summary ( Norwegian )

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    Asiatisk løve (Panthera leo persica) er den einaste nolevande underarten av løve (Panthera leo) som lever vilt utanfor Afrika. I dag finst asiatiske løver berre i Gir-skogen nasjonalpark vest i India. Tidlegare levde dei i eit større område i Sørvest-Asia. og før det igjen så langt vest som til Hellas og Nord-Afrika.

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    Asiatisk løve ( Norwegian )

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    Asiatisk løve Asiatisk løvinne
    Asiatisk løvinne Vitenskapelig(e)
    navn
    : Panthera leo persica Alt. navn: persisk løve, indisk løve, orientalsk løve m.m. Artstilhørighet: løver, kattefamilien, rovdyr Rødlistestatus: ver 3.1
    CR - Kritisk truet

    CR — Kritisk truet[1] ver 3.1 (2001)

    Habitat: kratt- småskog og teakskog Utbredelse: se kartet Utbredelseskart for Asiatisk løve
    Utbredelse av asiatisk løve i India

    Asiatisk løve (Panthera leo persica) er den eneste nålevende underarten av løve (Panthera leo) som holder til utenfor Afrika, nærmere bestemt i Asia.

    Beskrivelse

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    Asiatisk hannløve

    Asiatisk løve skiller seg fra de afrikanske gjennom å være gjennomgående noe mindre. Løvinnene veier normalt ca. 120-180 kg, hannene ca. 150-250 kg. Lengden er henholdsvis 140-175 cm hos hunner og 170-250 cm hos hanner.

    Asiatisk løve har også en rikere behåring på haledusken og mer behåring på albuene, samt hudfolder i lengderetningen på magen. Hannene har dessuen mindre rik mankeprakt enn sine afrikanske artsfrender. Anatomisk er det også en forskjell på skallen. Asiatiske løver har to små hull på hver side av skallen som gir passasje til nervebaner og blodkar til øynene, mens afrikaske løver bare har ett hull på hver side. Det er også genetiske forskjeller, men disse er relativt små.

    Asiatiske hannløver har mindre harem (ofte bare 2-3 hunner) og territorier enn sine afrikanske slektninger.

    Utbredelse

    I Asia finnes det nå løver kun i et svært begrenset område i delstaten Gujarat i India, nærmere bestemt i Gir Forest-reservatet på grensen mellom Junaghad og Amreli. I tidligere tider fantes det løver fra Hellas i vest til sentrale strøk av India i øst.

    Asiatiske løver trives helst i kratt- og småskog, samt teakskog.

    Levetid

    Asiatiske løver lever lenger enn sine afrikanske artsfrender. Gjennomsnittsalderen er 17-18 år blant løvinner, men det finnes eksempler på at de kan bli nærmere 21 år gamle. Hannene blir gjerne omkring 16 år gamle.

    Status og trusler

    I 2000 estimerte IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group ( Nowell, K., Breitenmoser, U., Breitenmoser, C. & Jackson, P.) at totalbestanden av asiatisk løve var på omkring 250 voksne individer, samtidig som den fikk endret status fra truet til kritisk truet (CR C2a(ii) ver 3.1 (2001)). Underarten står også på CITES Appendix I liste over truete arter.

    Referanser

    Kilder

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    Asiatisk løve: Brief Summary ( Norwegian )

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    Asiatisk løve (Panthera leo persica) er den eneste nålevende underarten av løve (Panthera leo) som holder til utenfor Afrika, nærmere bestemt i Asia.

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    Lew azjatycki ( Polish )

    provided by wikipedia POL
    Commons Multimedia w Wikimedia Commons

    Lew azjatycki, lew perski , lew indyjski (Panthera leo persica) − podgatunek lwa afrykańskiego, ssaka z rodziny kotowatych (Felidae).

    Park narodowy w Gir Forest w stanie Gudźarat, w północno-zachodnich Indiach jest ostatnim naturalnym siedliskiem dla ponad 500 lwów azjatyckich[3], które oddzieliły się od lwów afrykańskich ok. 100 tysięcy lat temu. Rezerwat ma powierzchnię ok. 1412 km2. Ten podgatunek zagrożony jest wymarciem. W planie jest próba reintrodukcji do parku narodowego Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary w stanie Madhja Pradeś w Indiach dla długotrwałej ochrony gatunku w razie epidemii i naturalnych kataklizmów.

    W europejskich ogrodach zoologicznych przebywa około 60 lwów azjatyckich.

    Lwy azjatyckie, w czasach historycznych egzystowały w Grecji, Kaukazie, Persji i od Macedonii, aż do Indii. Lwy przetrwały do czasów współczesnych tylko w parku narodowym Gir Forest w zachodnich Indiach. W 1907 roku liczebność podgatunku spadła do zaledwie 13 osobników. Objęta ścisłą ochroną populacja lwów zaczęła się stopniowo odradzać – w kwietniu 2015 roku liczyła już 523 osobniki, w tym 109 samców, 201 samic i 213 młodych[4], podczas gdy w 2010 było to jedynie 411 osobników. Rząd Indii planuje przenieść część populacji do zlokalizowanego w innym stanie rezerwatu Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, by zabezpieczyć gatunek przed wymarciem na skutek zarazy lub katastrofy naturalnej[3].

    Dzisiejszy lew azjatycki nie ma styczności z tygrysem azjatyckim, również żyjącym w Indiach na wolności, ponieważ tygrys wyginął w parku narodowym Gir Forest.

    Projekt reintrodukcji lwa azjatyckiego

    Naukowcy zamierzają stworzyć drugą populację lwa azjatyckiego w parku narodowym Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary w stanie Madhya Pradesh, aby uratować ostatnie lwy azjatyckie przed wyginięciem w razie epidemii lub w wyniku naturalnych kataklizmów.

    Tryb życia

    Lew azjatycki charakteryzuje się mniejszym stopniem socjalizacji od swojego kuzyna z Afryki. Spotyka się rodzinne stada liczące zazwyczaj 1-2 dorosłe samice i młode, oraz grupy samców (najprawdopodobniej spokrewnionych), które bronią swoich terytoriów zawierających jedno lub dwa stada rodzinne, i łączące się z nimi jedynie na czas godów i polowań na większą zdobycz.

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    Dorosła samica
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    Dorosły samiec
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    Osobnik młodociany

    Wielkość

    Lwy azjatyckie są mniejsze od podgatunków afrykańskich, jednak podobnie jak u osobników z Afryki samce są większe od samic.

    Długość ciała: samice 140-170 cm, samce 170-200 cm

    Długość ogona: 70-100 cm

    Wysokość w kłębie: 70-100 cm

    Masa ciała: samice 120-140 kg, samce 175-225 kg

    Wygląd

    Sierść lwów jest jasnobrązowa, biała na brzuchu i wewnętrznych częściach nóg, grzbiet i uszy czarne, grzywa samca od brązowej do czarnej. Młode mają cętki, które zanikają z wiekiem. Lwy azjatyckie są nieco mniejsze od swoich afrykańskich kuzynów. Samiec, łatwo rozpoznawalny po grzywie, może ważyć do 225 kg i osiągać wysokość do 1 m w kłębie. Samice są znacznie mniejsze, ważą do 140 kg i nie posiadają charakterystycznej grzywy. Naukowcy zaobserwowali, że lew azjatycki ryczy znacznie częściej od swojego afrykańskiego kuzyna.

    Pożywienie

    Lwy polują głównie na ssaki kopytne, również bydło domowe, antylopy, gazele.

    Rozród

    Młode rodzą się od 2 do 4 o każdej porze roku, po ciąży trwającej 100-119 dni i stają się całkowicie niezależne od matki w wieku około dwóch i pół roku.

    Rozwój

    3-11 dni: otwierają oczy;
    10-15 dni: młode zaczynają chodzić. Zanim zaczną dobrze biegać, upłynie trzy do czterech tygodni;
    4 tygodnie: zwierzętom wyrastają mleczne zęby;
    1-2 miesięcy: pierwsze wyprawy;
    3 miesiące: znikają plamy na futrze;
    11 miesięcy: lwy uczestniczą w polowaniach;
    16 miesięcy: samodzielność;
    2 lata: samcom wyrastają grzywy;
    2,5 roku: samce stają się dojrzałe płciowo;
    2,5-4 lat: samice mają pierwsze potomstwo.

    Przypisy

    1. Panthera leo persica, w: Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ang.).
    2. Bauer, H., Packer, C., Funston, PF, Henschel, P. & Nowell, K. 2008, Panthera leo ssp. persica [w:] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015 [online], wersja 2015.1 [dostęp 2015-06-30] (ang.).
    3. a b Zobaczysz je tylko w jednym miejscu na Ziemi. Na szczęście czują się tam doskonale, www.national-geographic.pl [dostęp 2016-08-11] .
    4. Asiatic Lion population up from 411 to 523 in five years (ang.). Desh Gujarat. [dostęp 21 listopada 2015].
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    Lew azjatycki: Brief Summary ( Polish )

    provided by wikipedia POL

    Lew azjatycki, lew perski , lew indyjski (Panthera leo persica) − podgatunek lwa afrykańskiego, ssaka z rodziny kotowatych (Felidae).

    Park narodowy w Gir Forest w stanie Gudźarat, w północno-zachodnich Indiach jest ostatnim naturalnym siedliskiem dla ponad 500 lwów azjatyckich, które oddzieliły się od lwów afrykańskich ok. 100 tysięcy lat temu. Rezerwat ma powierzchnię ok. 1412 km2. Ten podgatunek zagrożony jest wymarciem. W planie jest próba reintrodukcji do parku narodowego Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary w stanie Madhja Pradeś w Indiach dla długotrwałej ochrony gatunku w razie epidemii i naturalnych kataklizmów.

    W europejskich ogrodach zoologicznych przebywa około 60 lwów azjatyckich.

    Lwy azjatyckie, w czasach historycznych egzystowały w Grecji, Kaukazie, Persji i od Macedonii, aż do Indii. Lwy przetrwały do czasów współczesnych tylko w parku narodowym Gir Forest w zachodnich Indiach. W 1907 roku liczebność podgatunku spadła do zaledwie 13 osobników. Objęta ścisłą ochroną populacja lwów zaczęła się stopniowo odradzać – w kwietniu 2015 roku liczyła już 523 osobniki, w tym 109 samców, 201 samic i 213 młodych, podczas gdy w 2010 było to jedynie 411 osobników. Rząd Indii planuje przenieść część populacji do zlokalizowanego w innym stanie rezerwatu Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, by zabezpieczyć gatunek przed wymarciem na skutek zarazy lub katastrofy naturalnej.

    Dzisiejszy lew azjatycki nie ma styczności z tygrysem azjatyckim, również żyjącym w Indiach na wolności, ponieważ tygrys wyginął w parku narodowym Gir Forest.

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    Leão-asiático ( Portuguese )

    provided by wikipedia PT
    Nome trinomial Panthera leo leo
    (Meyer, 1826) Distribuição geográfica Distribuição atual, pequena região da floresta de Gir, na Índia.
    Distribuição atual, pequena região da floresta de Gir, na Índia.
    Sinónimos
    • Panthera leo persica

    O leão-asiático(Panthera leo leo), também chamado de leão indiano ou leão persa, é uma população de leão que está listada como em perigo de extinção pela UICN, devido a sua pequena população. Desde 2010, a população de leões asiáticos vem aumentando de forma constante ao redor do Parque Nacional da Floresta de Gir no oeste da Índia. Em maio de 2015, o censo de leões asiáticos conduzido em uma área de 20.000 quilômetros quadrados estimou a população em 523 indivíduos, sendo eles 109 machos adultos, 201 fêmeas adultas e 213 filhotes. O censo mais recente realizado em agosto de 2017, mostra que a população de leões asiáticos aumentou para 650 indivíduos selvagens.

    O leão asiático foi descrito pela primeira vez pelo zoólogo austríaco Johann N. Meyer sob o trinômio de Felis leo persicus. Sua ocorrência histórica incluiu o leste da Turquia, Irã, Mesopotâmia e leste do rio Indus, bengala e rio narmada na Índia central. O leão asiático é um dos 5 grandes felinos que habitam a Índia atualmente, junto com o tigre de bengala, o leopardo das neves, o leopardo nebuloso e o leopardo indiano.

    Ao contrário do tigre, que prefere as florestas densas, o leão-asiático habita as florestas de folha caduca. Hoje, o leão-asiático não tem mais contato com o tigre, porém já tiveram no passado, antes do final século 19 o leão asiático coexistiu com o tigre em grande parte da Ásia, e confrontos entre eles já foram relatados. Especificamente o leão coexistiu com o tigre de bengala na Índia, além de ter ocorrido também em áreas onde o extinto tigre do Cáspio viveu, como o norte do Iraque, norte da Pérsia e no trans-cáucaso.

    Desde 2017 devido às grandes semelhanças genéticas e morfológicas com o Leão Norte Africano e Leão da África Ocidental, e o Leão da África Central, a subspécie passou a estar agrupada como Panthera Leo Leo, abandonando-se assim a designação Panthera Leo Persica.

    Características

     src=
    leão-asiático macho adulto

    Os leões-asiáticos são um pouco menores que os leões-africanos. Os machos adultos pesam de 160 a 190 kg, enquanto que as fêmeas pesam de 110 a 120 kg. O comprimento total é de 2,82 a 2,87 respectivamente, o leão indiano mais comprido já registrado possuia 2,92 m, incluindo a cauda. A altura no ombro é de cerca de 1,10 m. O maior leão-asiático no registo tinha cerca de 306kg e foi morto na década de 1620.[2] Possuem uma juba bem mais rala e menos volumosa bem como uma dobra de pele longitudinal ao longo da barriga, o que os difere do leão-africano. O leão asiático é semelhante em tamanho aos leões da África central, mas são menores do que os grandes leões sul-africanos. O número de indivíduos em estado selvagem foi de aproximadamente 650, em 2017.

    Comportamento

     src=
    família de leões-asiáticos na floresta de Gir

    O leão asiático vive em grupos, e o tamanho médio dos bandos, medido pelo número de fêmeas adultas tendem a ser menores do que os dos leões africanos, refletindo no fato dos leões asiáticos caçarem presas menores do que seus primos da africa, sendo a presa mais consumida o chital que pesa 50 kg e compreende até 45% das presas consumidas pelos leões asiáticos, a maioria dos grupos possuem apenas duas fêmeas adultas e seus filhotes, os machos geralmente vivem sozinhos ou em duplas, mas ao contrario dos machos de leões africanos os machos asiáticos geralmente se juntam as fêmeas somente para acasalar ou quando abatem uma grande presa.[3]

    Em geral os leões preferem presas grandes que pesem entre 190 e 550 kg, independente da disponibilidade, porém quando elas estão ausentes eles podém acabar predando o gado doméstico que tem historicamente sido um componente importante na dieta dos leões asiáticos. A estratégia de caça em grupos dos leões permitem a eles abaterem grandes presas e o sucesso das caçadas geralmente está associado com o tamanho dos grupos e das estratégias usadas por eles, bem como por fatores ambientais como cobertura vegetal a hora do dia entre outros.[4]

    Leões-asiáticos na Europa

     src=
    leoa asiática.

    O leão-asiático habitou em tempos historicos também a Europa. Aristóteles e Heródoto escreveram que leões eram encontrados nos Balcãs em meados do primeiro milênio a.C., habitando áreas das atuais Bulgária, Grécia, Albânia, Macedônia do Norte e Iugoslávia, e possivelmente seu habitat se estendia até a França. Quando Xerxes I avançou pela Macedónia em 480 a.C., inúmeros dos seus camelos de carga foram mortos por ataques de leão. Acredita-se que os leões se extinguiram no interior das fronteiras da atual Grécia por volta dos anos 80-100 d.C. Por conta da caça, competição com cães ferais e o uso excessivo para lutarem no Coliseu Romano que os leões foram extintos da Península Balcânica. Esta população europeia de leões é considerada por alguns como uma subespécie separada do leão-asiático, o leão-europeu (Panthera leo europaea), enquanto que por outros é considerada como uma população integrante do leão-asiático.

    Extinção por região

    Após serem extintos da Europa, os leões-asiáticos se extinguiram no século X do Cáucaso e no século XII, em plena época das Cruzadas, se extinguiram da Palestina, área na qual foi muito comum nos tempos bíblicos. Continuou espalhado por outras áreas até meados do século XIX, quando o advento das armas de fogo levou à sua extinção por grandes áreas (Guggisber 1961). No final do século XIX o leão tinha já desaparecido da Turquia (Ustay 1990). No Oriente Médio foi extinto por volta de 1800 da Anatólia, em 1870 do Curdistão turco, em 1891 da Síria, em 1918 do Iraque, em 1923 da Arábia Saudita e em 1942 do Irã. Já no subcontinente indiano foi extinto em 1810 do atual território do Paquistão. Na Índia centro-ocidental foram extintos do vale do rio Narmada em 1848 e das áreas ao redor de Déli uma década depois. A última vez em que foram vistos fora da área da floresta de Gir foi em 1884.

     src=
    quando mantidos em cativeiro ou em climas frios, os leões asiáticos podem desenvolver jubas bastante proeminentes, e ficam semelhantes em aparência ao seu parente extinto: o leão do Atlas.

    No final do século XIX, as autoridades coloniais britânicas passaram a considerar que o leão indiano caminhava diretamente para a extinção. Em 1900, após pressionar o Nawab (governador) de Junagadh, foi concedida uma reserva de 5000 km2 ao redor da floresta de Gir, atualmente o último bastião dos leões na Ásia. Apesar disso, alguns anos depois, devido a um forte período de secas, as presas tradicionais dos leões foram dizimadas. Sem outra alternativa, os leões passaram a atacar o gado e os seres humanos, razão pela qual foram perseguidos de forma contundente. Como resultado restavam apenas 20 leões na Índia em 1913.

    O parente norte-africano

    Em 1968, um estudo sobre os crânios dos extintos leões-do-atlas (norte-africano) e do leão-do-cabo, asiático e africano, provou que as mesmas características quanto ao crânio apenas se encontravam nos leões do Atlas e asiático. Isto evidencia que existiria uma relação muito próxima entre os leões da parte mais ao norte de África e Ásia. De igual forma, acredita-se que o leão do sul da Europa que se extinguiu nos anos 80-100 d.C. poderia ter representado o elo entre os leões norte-africano e asiático. Julga-se que os leões-do-atlas possuíssem a mesma prega na barriga (escondida debaixo de toda a juba) que existe nos leões-asiáticos de hoje.

    Commons
    O Commons possui imagens e outros ficheiros sobre Leão-asiático

    Ligações externas

    Referências

    1. Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D. P., Ahmad Khan, J. and Driscoll, C. (2008). Panthera leo ssp. persica (em Inglês). IUCN . Lista Vermelha de Espécies Ameaçadas da IUCN de Versão 2012.2. Página visitada em 1 de maio de 2013.
    2. https://books.google.pt/books?id=szBm5kPeC-cC&lpg=PP1&hl=pt-PT&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false
    3. «Asiatic lion». Wikipedia (em inglês). 10 de novembro de 2017
    4. «Asiatic lion». Wikipedia (em inglês). 10 de novembro de 2017

    Bibliografia

    • NAIR, S.M., Endangered Animals of India and their conservation, National Book Trust : 1999.
    • GUGGISBERG, C.A.W., Simba: the life of the lion, Howard Timmins, Cape Town : 1961.
    • NOWELL, K. e JACKSON, P. (compiladores e editores), Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. : 1996.
    • USTAY, A.H., Hunting in Turkey, BBA, Istanbul : 1961.
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    Leão-asiático: Brief Summary ( Portuguese )

    provided by wikipedia PT

    O leão-asiático(Panthera leo leo), também chamado de leão indiano ou leão persa, é uma população de leão que está listada como em perigo de extinção pela UICN, devido a sua pequena população. Desde 2010, a população de leões asiáticos vem aumentando de forma constante ao redor do Parque Nacional da Floresta de Gir no oeste da Índia. Em maio de 2015, o censo de leões asiáticos conduzido em uma área de 20.000 quilômetros quadrados estimou a população em 523 indivíduos, sendo eles 109 machos adultos, 201 fêmeas adultas e 213 filhotes. O censo mais recente realizado em agosto de 2017, mostra que a população de leões asiáticos aumentou para 650 indivíduos selvagens.

    O leão asiático foi descrito pela primeira vez pelo zoólogo austríaco Johann N. Meyer sob o trinômio de Felis leo persicus. Sua ocorrência histórica incluiu o leste da Turquia, Irã, Mesopotâmia e leste do rio Indus, bengala e rio narmada na Índia central. O leão asiático é um dos 5 grandes felinos que habitam a Índia atualmente, junto com o tigre de bengala, o leopardo das neves, o leopardo nebuloso e o leopardo indiano.

    Ao contrário do tigre, que prefere as florestas densas, o leão-asiático habita as florestas de folha caduca. Hoje, o leão-asiático não tem mais contato com o tigre, porém já tiveram no passado, antes do final século 19 o leão asiático coexistiu com o tigre em grande parte da Ásia, e confrontos entre eles já foram relatados. Especificamente o leão coexistiu com o tigre de bengala na Índia, além de ter ocorrido também em áreas onde o extinto tigre do Cáspio viveu, como o norte do Iraque, norte da Pérsia e no trans-cáucaso.

    Desde 2017 devido às grandes semelhanças genéticas e morfológicas com o Leão Norte Africano e Leão da África Ocidental, e o Leão da África Central, a subspécie passou a estar agrupada como Panthera Leo Leo, abandonando-se assim a designação Panthera Leo Persica.

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    Lev perzský ( Slovak )

    provided by wikipedia SK

    Lev perzský[3] (iné názvy: lev indický[3], lev ázijský[4], neformálne: ázijský lev[5]; lat. Panthera leo leo; lat. synonymá pozri dole) je ohrozená populácia leva púšťového žijúca v Indii.

    V roku 2017 bol lev perzský zaradený do skupiny P. l. leo kvôli blízkym morfologickým a molekulárnym genetickým podobnostiam so vzorkami leva berberského.[6][7]

    Synonymá

    Panthera leo persicus, Panthera leo asiaticus/asiatica, Panthera leo bengalensis, Panthera leo goojratensis, Panthera leo googjrattensis, Panthera leo goorgratensis, Panthera leo gougeratensis, Panthera leo guzeratensis, Panthera leo indica/indicus

    Opis

    Lev ázijský žije len v rezervácii Gir v počte asi 650 jedincov[8]. Žije v svorkách v počte 5 až 6 zvierat. Samce majú menej hustú hrivu ako ich africkí príbuzní (až na jedincov chovaných v zoo). Loví divoké aj domáce zvieratá. V roku 1910 miestny vládca zakázal ich lov.

    Lev ázijský je vysoký 90 cm a jeho dĺžka sa pohybuje okolo 200 – 280 cm. Samec má hrivu, zatiaľ čo samica nie. Samce majú huňatejšiu kožušinu a dlhšie chlpy na konci chvosta. Vážia okolo 200 – 275 kg.

    Referencie

    1. Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D.P., Ahmad Khan, J. & Driscoll, C. 2008. Panthera leo ssp. persica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T15952A5327221. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T15952A5327221.en. Prístup 13. september 2019.
    2. WILSON, Don E.; DeeAnn M. Reeder. Mammal Species of the World (A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference). [s.l.] : JHU Press, 2005. 2142 s. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.
    3. a b LUPTÁK, Peter. Slovenské mená cicavcov sveta. [1. vyd.] Bojnice : Zoologická záhrada, 2003. 218 s. ISBN 80-969059-9-6. S. 70.
    4. 346/2002 Vyhláška Ministerstva životného prostredia Slovenskej republiky
    5. BURNIE, David; KOVÁČ, Vladimír, a kol. Zviera: Obrazová encyklopédia živočíšnej ríše. Bratislava : Ikar, 2002. ISBN 80-551-0375-5.
    6. A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group. Cat News, 2017, s. 71–73. Dostupné online.
    7. Divided infraorbital foramen in the lion (Panthera leo): its implications for colonisation history, population bottlenecks, and conservation of the Asian lion (P. l. persica). Contributions to Zoology, 2009, s. 77–83. Dostupné online. DOI: 10.1163/18759866-07802004.
    8. AUG 4, Himanshu Kaushik | TNN | Updated:; 2017; IST, 11:57. Gir National Park: Lion population roars to 650 in Gujarat forests | Ahmedabad News - Times of India [online]. The Times of India, [cit. 2020-02-05]. Dostupné online. (po anglicky)

    Iné projekty

    Zdroj

    Tento článok je čiastočný alebo úplný preklad článku Lev indický na českej Wikipédii.

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    Lev perzský: Brief Summary ( Slovak )

    provided by wikipedia SK

    Lev perzský (iné názvy: lev indický, lev ázijský, neformálne: ázijský lev; lat. Panthera leo leo; lat. synonymá pozri dole) je ohrozená populácia leva púšťového žijúca v Indii.

    V roku 2017 bol lev perzský zaradený do skupiny P. l. leo kvôli blízkym morfologickým a molekulárnym genetickým podobnostiam so vzorkami leva berberského.

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    Asiatiskt lejon ( Swedish )

    provided by wikipedia SV
     src=
    Gir Forest nationalpark

    Asiatiskt lejon (Panthera leo persica) är en underart till lejonet.

    2018 uppskattas antalet lejon till fler än 600. De lever framför allt i staten Gujarat i Indien.

    Kännetecken

    Det asiatiska lejonet liknar sina afrikanska släktingar. Hanar har en kroppslängd mellan 170 och 220 cm och väger mellan 150 och 225 kg. Honorna är mindre och har en kroppslängd mellan 140 och 170 cm och väger mellan 100 och 150 kg. Pälsens färg är beige eller sandfärgade. Denna underart är vanligtvis lite mindre än de afrikanska lejonen. Den har en liten man och ett hudveck som finns på bukens mitt. Enligt genetiska undersökningar skilde sig underarten för 50 000 till 100 000 år sedan från de afrikanska lejonen.[2]

    Utbredning

    Tidigare sträckte sig djurets utbredningsområde till Sydosteuropa och Mellanöstern. Det fanns en tid då det asiatiska lejonet nästan var utrotat. Tidvis fanns bara 20 individer kvar. Efter inrättningen av nationalparken Gir Forest i Indien återhämtade sig populationen lite.

    Trots allt hotas underarten fortfarande av inavel. Om de nu levande individerna är tillräcklig för underartens överlevnad är oviss. Det asiatiska lejonet listas därför av IUCN som starkt hotad (endangered).

    Föda

    Jakten är honornas uppgift. Bara i undantagsfall deltar flockens hane i jakten. Dessa djur jagar oftast under dagens mörka timmar eller under svalare timmar på morgonen. Potentiella byten är axishjortar, indiska gaseller, antilopen nilgau (Boselaphus tragocamelus), sambarhjortar (Cervus unicolor), fyrhornsantiloper, vildsvin och Chitalhjort. Dessutom äter dessa lejon as.

    Fortplantning

    I flocken finns vanligtvis inte lika många individer som hos de afrikanska underarterna. Efter dräktigheten som varar i ungefär 110 dagar föder honan två till fyra ungdjur. När ungarna är 6 månader gamla slutar honan att ge di. Efteråt stannar ungarna ungefär två år vid moderdjuret.

    Källor

    Den här artikeln är helt eller delvis baserad på material från tyskspråkiga Wikipedia

    Tryckta källor

    • David Macdonald: Die große Enzyklopädie der Säugetiere. Deutsche Ausgabe: Könemann in der Tandem Verlag GmbH, 2004 ISBN 3-8331-1006-6
    • Ronald M. Nowak: Walker's Mammals of the World, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999 ISBN 0-8018-5789-9

    Noter

    1. ^ Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D.P., Ahmad Khan, J. & Driscoll, C. 2008 Panthera leo ssp. persica Från: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 <www.iucnredlist.org>. Läst 2017-01-17.
    2. ^ VOX-TV – Asiatiskt lejon

    Externa länkar

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    Asiatiskt lejon: Brief Summary ( Swedish )

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     src= Gir Forest nationalpark

    Asiatiskt lejon (Panthera leo persica) är en underart till lejonet.

    2018 uppskattas antalet lejon till fler än 600. De lever framför allt i staten Gujarat i Indien.

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    Asya aslanı ( Turkish )

    provided by wikipedia TR

    Asya aslanı (Panthera leo persica), kedigiller (Felidae) familyasından Hindistan'ın batısında, Gucerat bölgesinde, Gir Ormanları'nda yaşayan bir aslan alt türü.

    Eskiden Asya aslanı Hindistan'dan İran'a, Arap Yarımadası'ndan Yunanistan'a kadar çok geniş bir coğrafyada yaygındı. Günümüzde ise sadece Hindistan'ın batısında bulunan Gir Ormanı'nda yaşamaktadır. 2010 sayımına göre toplam nüfusu 411 kadardır.

    Türkiye'de Orta, Doğu ve Güneydoğu Anadolu'da yaşadığı bilinen Asya aslanının Anadolu'da nesli tükenmiştir. Son olarak 13. yüzyılda Anadolu'da yaşadığı tahmin edilmektedir.[1]

    Asya aslanı Afrika aslanından daha küçük ve daha az sayıdadır.Bir Afrika aslanı 200 kg olarak hayatını sürdürürken Asya aslanı 100–140 kg arasında değişir.

    Kaynakça

    1. ^ "Anadolu'da Aslan". Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi. Şubat 2011. s. 93. |erişim-tarihi= kullanmak için |url= gerekiyor (yardım)
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    Asya aslanı: Brief Summary ( Turkish )

    provided by wikipedia TR

    Asya aslanı (Panthera leo persica), kedigiller (Felidae) familyasından Hindistan'ın batısında, Gucerat bölgesinde, Gir Ormanları'nda yaşayan bir aslan alt türü.

    Eskiden Asya aslanı Hindistan'dan İran'a, Arap Yarımadası'ndan Yunanistan'a kadar çok geniş bir coğrafyada yaygındı. Günümüzde ise sadece Hindistan'ın batısında bulunan Gir Ormanı'nda yaşamaktadır. 2010 sayımına göre toplam nüfusu 411 kadardır.

    Türkiye'de Orta, Doğu ve Güneydoğu Anadolu'da yaşadığı bilinen Asya aslanının Anadolu'da nesli tükenmiştir. Son olarak 13. yüzyılda Anadolu'da yaşadığı tahmin edilmektedir.

    Asya aslanı Afrika aslanından daha küçük ve daha az sayıdadır.Bir Afrika aslanı 200 kg olarak hayatını sürdürürken Asya aslanı 100–140 kg arasında değişir.

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    Азійський лев ( Ukrainian )

    provided by wikipedia UK

    Зовнішній вигляд

    Азійські леви подібні до африканських. Колір коливається від червонувато-коричневого до сірого. Їх розмір відповідає розміру центральноафриканських левів. У дорослих самців максимальна довжина черепа становить 330—340 мм, у самиць 266—277 мм. Самці важать 160—190 кг, самиці 110—120 кг. Найбільший самець, який був помічений, мав 2,92 метри в довжину, включаючи хвіст[1].

    Ареал

    Був поширений на території Південної Євразії від Греції до Індії. Зараз збереглося близько 300 особин в Гирському заповіднику в штаті Гуджарат, Індія.

    Поведінка і харчування

    Азійські леви дуже соціальні тварини, вони живуть у прайдах. Леви полюють на оленевих, антилоп, газель, диких свиней, індійських буйволів і різну худобу.

    Кількість особин

    В Лісовому Національному Парку Гір, в Західній Індії, налічується приблизно 356 левів (квітень 2006 р.). В 1907 р. азійські леви були майже винищені, проте їх кількість зміг поновити Наваб Джунагадх. В 1936 р. левів стало 234, згодом кількість росла. Через деякий час левів почали відпускати на волю.

    Азійський лев в культурі

    Азійський лев має велике значення в культурі місцевого населення:

    • Азійський лев зображений на емблемі Індії.
    • Індуїстський бог Нарасімга є напівлюдиною-напівлевом.
    • Singh означає лев. Це слово було знайдено на храмах, яким 2000 років.
    • Назва міста Сингапур розшифровується як singa (лев) та pura (місто).
    • Азійський лев також з'являється в Біблії.


    Примітки

    1. Sinha, S. P. (1987). Ecology of wildlife with special reference to the lion (Panthera leo persica) in Gir Wildlife Sanctuary, Saurashtra, Gujurat. Ph.D. thesis, Saurashtra University, Rajkot ISBN 3844305459.
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    Sư tử châu Á ( Vietnamese )

    provided by wikipedia VI

    Sư tử châu Á hay sư tử Ấn Độ, sư tử Á-Âu[3][4][5] (danh pháp ba phần: Panthera leo persica là một phân loài sư tử. Hiện tại còn 500 con sinh sống ở rừng Gir, Ấn Độ[6][7]. Đã từng sinh sống rộng từ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ tới Bangladesh, nhưng bầy đàn lớn và các hoạt động ban ngày làm cho chúng bị săn dễ dàng hơn so với hổ hay báo hoa mai. Sư tử châu Á là một trong năm loài mèo lớn tìm thấy ở Ấn Độ, những loài mèo khác là hổ Bengal, báo hoa mai Ấn Độ, báo tuyếtbáo gấm[8]. Sư tử châu Á đã từng hiện diện từ Địa Trung Hải để phần đông bắc củaTiểu lục địa Ấn Độ, nhưng săn bắn quá mức, ô nhiễm nước và suy giảm con mồi tự nhiên làm giảm môi trường sống của chúng[9] Trong lịch sử, sư tử châu Á đã được phân loại thành ba loại sư tử Bengal, Ả Rập và Ba Tư..[10]. Sư tử châu Á nhỏ hơn sư tử châu Phi nhưng hung hãn như sư tử châu Phi.

    Hình ảnh

    Chú thích

    1. ^ Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D. P., Ahmad Khan, J. and Driscoll, C. (2008). “Panthera leo ssp. persica”. Sách Đỏ IUCN các loài bị đe dọa. Phiên bản 2014.3. Liên minh Bảo tồn Thiên nhiên Quốc tế.
    2. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). “Order Carnivora”. Trong Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World . Nhà in Đại học Johns Hopkins. tr. 546 |các trang= hay |at= dư (trợ giúp). ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
    3. ^ Websters Dictionary - http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/definitions/lion?cx=partner-pub-0939450753529744%3Av0qd01-tdlq&cof=FORID%3A9&ie=UTF-8&q=lion&sa=Search#906
    4. ^ Alexander the Great and the Persian Lion - G. F. Hill, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 43, Part 2 (1923), pp. 156-161
    5. ^ The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica, Meyer 1826) in Palestine and the Arabian and Islamic Region - The Book: Carnivora Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 2005-2008, by Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa
    6. ^ Big cats - By Tom Brakefield, Alan Shoemaker. Truy cập ngày 14 tháng 12 năm 2010.
    7. ^ Biodiversity and its conservation in India - By Sharad Singh Negi. Truy cập ngày 14 tháng 12 năm 2010.
    8. ^ You Deserve, We Conserve: A Biotechnological Approach to Wildlife Conservation - By M. W. Pandit. Truy cập ngày 14 tháng 12 năm 2010.
    9. ^ Indian wildlife - By Budh Dev Sharma, Tej Kumari. Truy cập ngày 14 tháng 12 năm 2010.
    10. ^ The English Cyclopaedia - edited by Charles Knight. Truy cập ngày 14 tháng 12 năm 2010.

    Nghiên cứu thêm

    Liên kết ngoài

     src= Wikimedia Commons có thư viện hình ảnh và phương tiện truyền tải về Sư tử châu Á  src= Wikispecies có thông tin sinh học về Sư tử châu Á


    Hình tượng sơ khai Bài viết về các loài trong bộ thú ăn thịt này vẫn còn sơ khai. Bạn có thể giúp Wikipedia bằng cách mở rộng nội dung để bài được hoàn chỉnh hơn.
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    Sư tử châu Á: Brief Summary ( Vietnamese )

    provided by wikipedia VI

    Sư tử châu Á hay sư tử Ấn Độ, sư tử Á-Âu (danh pháp ba phần: Panthera leo persica là một phân loài sư tử. Hiện tại còn 500 con sinh sống ở rừng Gir, Ấn Độ. Đã từng sinh sống rộng từ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ tới Bangladesh, nhưng bầy đàn lớn và các hoạt động ban ngày làm cho chúng bị săn dễ dàng hơn so với hổ hay báo hoa mai. Sư tử châu Á là một trong năm loài mèo lớn tìm thấy ở Ấn Độ, những loài mèo khác là hổ Bengal, báo hoa mai Ấn Độ, báo tuyếtbáo gấm. Sư tử châu Á đã từng hiện diện từ Địa Trung Hải để phần đông bắc củaTiểu lục địa Ấn Độ, nhưng săn bắn quá mức, ô nhiễm nước và suy giảm con mồi tự nhiên làm giảm môi trường sống của chúng Trong lịch sử, sư tử châu Á đã được phân loại thành ba loại sư tử Bengal, Ả Rập và Ba Tư... Sư tử châu Á nhỏ hơn sư tử châu Phi nhưng hung hãn như sư tử châu Phi.

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    Азиатский лев ( Russian )

    provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию
    Латинское название Panthera leo persica (A.B.Meyer, 1826) Ареал
    изображение

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    Систематика
    на Викивидах

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    Изображения
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    ITIS 622026 NCBI 83386 Международная Красная книга
    Status iucn3.1 EN ru.svg
    Вымирающие виды
    IUCN 3.1 Endangered: 15952

    Азиа́тский лев[1][2] (Panthera leo persica) был распространён на территории Южной Евразии от Греции до Индии. Сейчас сохранилось около 523[3] особей в Гирском заповеднике в штате Гуджарат, Индия. В 1990-е годы для сохранения исчезающей популяции, Индия передала несколько пар азиатских львов в дар европейским зоопаркам[4].

    В Библии описано столкновение Самсона со львом в окрестностях палестинской Фимнафы (Суд. 14:5). Аристотель в Истории животных упоминает «сирийского льва» (греч. ἐν Συρίᾳ λέοντες) и описывает распространение львов в Европе между «реками Ахелоем и Нессом»[5].

    Индийский (азиатский) подвид льва имеет массу от 150 до 220 кг, в основном 160—190 кг у самцов и 90—150, обычно 110—120 кг у самок[6]. Грива его не так густа и плотнее прилегает к телу, как будто прилизана. У этого подвида более приземистое тело, что создает обманчивое впечатление о его меньших размерах в сравнении с африканским. Рекордная длина азиатского льва — 2,92 м[6].

    Примечания

    1. Соколов В. Е. Редкие и исчезающие животные. Млекопитающие : Справ. пособие. — М. : Высшая школа, 1986. — С. 336. — 519 с., [24] л. ил. — 100 000 экз.
    2. Фишер Д., Саймон Н., Винсент Д. Красная книга. Дикая природа в опасности / пер. с англ., под ред. А. Г. Банникова. — М.: Прогресс, 1976. — С. 108—112. — 478 с.
    3. Популяция индийских львов выросла более чем на четверть (неопр.). BBC.
    4. В зоопарке Коркеасаари на свет появились три детеныша азиатского льва // © Yle Uutiset = Служба новостей Yle. = Сайт телерадиокомпании «Yleisradio Oy» (yle.fi) 8 мая 2014. (Проверено 9 мая 2014)
    5. История животных. Кн.6. Гл. XXXI
    6. 1 2 Asiatic Lion (англ.). WWF. Проверено 22 августа 2013. Архивировано 27 августа 2013 года.
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    Азиатский лев: Brief Summary ( Russian )

    provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию

    Азиа́тский лев (Panthera leo persica) был распространён на территории Южной Евразии от Греции до Индии. Сейчас сохранилось около 523 особей в Гирском заповеднике в штате Гуджарат, Индия. В 1990-е годы для сохранения исчезающей популяции, Индия передала несколько пар азиатских львов в дар европейским зоопаркам.

    В Библии описано столкновение Самсона со львом в окрестностях палестинской Фимнафы (Суд. 14:5). Аристотель в Истории животных упоминает «сирийского льва» (греч. ἐν Συρίᾳ λέοντες) и описывает распространение львов в Европе между «реками Ахелоем и Нессом».

    Индийский (азиатский) подвид льва имеет массу от 150 до 220 кг, в основном 160—190 кг у самцов и 90—150, обычно 110—120 кг у самок. Грива его не так густа и плотнее прилегает к телу, как будто прилизана. У этого подвида более приземистое тело, что создает обманчивое впечатление о его меньших размерах в сравнении с африканским. Рекордная длина азиатского льва — 2,92 м.

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    亞洲獅 ( Chinese )

    provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科

    亞洲獅學名Panthera leo persica)或稱印度獅狮子的一个亚种,又名“波斯亚种”,是亚洲僅次於老虎之後第二的大猫科动物[2],原广泛分布在从地中海西岸到印度北部的广大地区,大部分野生种群已经灭绝,仅在印度古吉拉特邦的吉尔保护区内有少量分布。

    亞洲獅現今在野外的族群只生活在印度西部古吉拉特邦吉爾森林國家公園,根據2015年5月發布的調查,族群數量約有523隻[3][4]。历史上牠們的分佈地囊括了从高加索也門及由希臘馬其頓伊朗阿富汗巴基斯坦至印度及孟加拉邊境的大片区域。

    值得注意的是,原分布在亚洲的狮子亚种还有印度亚种(学名Panthera leo goojratensis),主要分布在印度南部,已灭绝。吉尔的狮子是由印度政府从伊朗引进

    特徵及行為

    亞洲獅的毛皮較其非洲近親蓬鬆,尾巴端的穗及肘上的毛髮較長。雄獅及雌獅的腹部都有明顯摺疊的皮膚。亞洲獅是所有獅子亞種中最細小的,雄獅重160-190公斤,雌獅重110-120公斤。[5][6]科學紀錄上最長的雄獅長292厘米,肩高最高達107厘米。[7]最大被獵殺的雄獅則長3米。[8]

    亞洲獅是高度群居的動物。亞洲獅群較非洲獅群細小,平均只有兩隻雌獅。雄性亞洲獅較少群居,只會在交配或獵食大型動物時,才會與獅群聯繫。有指獅群的大小可能是與獵物的體型有關,亞洲獅所處理的獵物較非洲的細小,而獅子的數量亦不用太多。[9]亞洲獅的獵物主要是水鹿花鹿藍牛羚印度瞪羚野豬家畜

    保育狀況

    印度吉爾森林國家公園約有411隻亞洲獅,生活在1412平方公里的叢林及遼闊的落葉林。於1907年獲得全面保護時,牠們估計就只有13隻存活。到了1936年,第一次替吉爾森林國家公園內的亞洲獅進行統計,牠們就有234隻存活。

    孟加拉虎曾与亚洲狮一起生活在印度,印度人却更崇拜亚洲狮,由于过度猎杀和开发环境,而现在亚洲狮却退居西南一隅。亞洲獵豹喜歡棲息在遼闊的草原,而亞洲獅則喜歡棲息在茂密的森林。由於人類人口的暴漲,使得牠們的棲息地不斷減少,且成為當地及英國殖民者的獵殺對象。

    近親繁殖

    野外的亞洲獅群估計約有411隻,相信是源自13隻存活的亞洲獅,故很有可能是高度的近親繁殖。很多研究都指近親繁殖會出現較弱的免疫系統及不育的精子。早期的研究指亞洲獅的遺傳指紋分析就像是一對雙胞胎[10],使牠們很易染病及有70-80%的精子瓦解,若再進行近親繁殖,則會導致不育。後來的研究指亞洲獅低的遺傳變異性可能是牠們原有的特質,而非源自近親繁殖。原因是牠們的免疫分型與的很接近,且精子沒有異樣。[11][12]不過這項研究是使用不適合群族遺傳研究的隨機擴增多態性DNA技術,故其結果受到質疑。[13]

    1900年代的13隻亞洲獅的數量有指是不準確的,目的是要誇大問題來遏止獵殺。一些當時的統計指亞洲獅的數量應該接近100隻。[14]獵殺獅子是當時英國殖民者及印度皇室的歡迎的活動,在印度的其他獅子亞種都因此而滅絕

    威脅

    亞洲獅由於會襲擊家畜,故經常被毒殺。農民為了灌溉已挖掘的水井,也會令亞洲獅失足而溺斃。位於吉爾森林國家公園周邊的農民經常使用非法電網,避免藍牛羚來吃農作物,但也會殺死亞洲獅。[15]

    在吉爾森林國家公園附近的瑪爾德哈里牧民雖然是素食者,並不會獵殺亞洲獅作為食物。不過他們平均每家飼有50隻,令當地過份放牧。這種破壞令亞洲獅的獵物失去棲息地,牠們於是轉向攻擊牛群或人類。這些牧民現已遷離吉爾森林國家公園。

    其他的威脅包括洪水火災傳染病。牠們有限的棲息地令牠們更易受到威脅。

    歷史

    亞洲獅曾分佈在歐洲阿里士多德希羅多德都指巴爾幹半島獅子出沒。於前480年,波斯澤克西斯一世曾進駐馬其頓,有幾隻駱駝被獅子殺死。約於80年至100年,獅子已從希臘的邊境消失。這些歐洲的獅子有可能是亞洲獅的一群,或是另一個亞種歐洲獅,或是穴狮的餘種。

    於1968年,在北非發現了巴巴里獅頭顱骨。這些骨顱骨與好望角獅子、亞洲獅及非洲獅子的頭顱骨有相同的特徵。故此,估計北非及亞洲的獅子有著很親密的關係,而已滅絕的歐洲獅可能就是這條失落的關連。一些巴巴里獅可能是與北非的亞洲獅交配後,混種產下較大或較細小的獅子。

    參考

     src= 维基共享资源中相關的多媒體資源:亞洲獅分類 src= 维基物种中的分类信息:亞洲獅
    1. ^ Panthera leo persica. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2008.
    2. ^ http://bigcatrescue.org/lion-facts/
    3. ^ DeshGujarat. Asiatic Lion population up from 411 to 523 in five years. 2015 [10 May 2015].
    4. ^ Anonymous. Asiatic lion population in Gujarat rises to 523. Deccan Herald. 2015.
    5. ^ http://www.ourendangeredworld.com/species/land-mammals/asian-lion/
    6. ^ Nowell K, Jackson P. Panthera Leo. Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (PDF). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. 1996: 17–21. ISBN 2-8317-0045-0. 参数|title=值左起第49位存在換行符 (帮助)
    7. ^ Sterndale, R. A. Felis leo. Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink and Co. 1884: 200.
    8. ^ Wood. The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. Sterling Pub Co Inc. 1983. ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9.
    9. ^ Bristol Zoo Gardens. Asiatic lion. [2009-03-17]. (原始内容存档于2008-12-25).
    10. ^ Mattias Klum. Asia's Last Lions. 2001 [2009-03-17].
    11. ^ Shivaji, S., D. Jayaprakash and Suresh B. Patil. Assessment of inbreeding depression in big cats: Testosterone levels and semen analysis. Current science. 1998, 75 (9): 23–30.
    12. ^ Central Zoo Authority of India (CZA), Government of India 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2009-03-28.
    13. ^ Indians Look At Their Big Cats' Genes. Science. 1997, 278: 807. doi:10.1126/science.278.5339.807b.
    14. ^ The Asiatic Lion Information Centre 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2009-03-27. Accessed January 2007
    15. ^ Kaushik, H. 2005. Wire fences death traps for big cats. Times of India, Thursday, October 27, 2005.
    • S.M.Nair (English edition); Translated by O. Henry Francis. Endangered Animals of India and their conservation (In Tamil). National Book Trust. 1999.
    • Nowell, K. and Jackson, P. (compilers and editors). Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 1996.
    • Chellam, Ravi, and A. J. T. Johnsingh. "Management of Asiatic Lions in the Gir Forest, India" Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. (1993), No. 65, 409-424.

    外部連結

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    亞洲獅: Brief Summary ( Chinese )

    provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科

    亞洲獅(學名:Panthera leo persica)或稱印度獅,狮子的一个亚种,又名“波斯亚种”,是亚洲僅次於老虎之後第二的大猫科动物,原广泛分布在从地中海西岸到印度北部的广大地区,大部分野生种群已经灭绝,仅在印度古吉拉特邦的吉尔保护区内有少量分布。

    亞洲獅現今在野外的族群只生活在印度西部古吉拉特邦吉爾森林國家公園,根據2015年5月發布的調查,族群數量約有523隻。历史上牠們的分佈地囊括了从高加索也門及由希臘馬其頓伊朗阿富汗巴基斯坦至印度及孟加拉邊境的大片区域。

    值得注意的是,原分布在亚洲的狮子亚种还有印度亚种(学名:Panthera leo goojratensis),主要分布在印度南部,已灭绝。吉尔的狮子是由印度政府从伊朗引进

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    インドライオン ( Japanese )

    provided by wikipedia 日本語
    インドライオン Gir lion-Gir forest,junagadh,gujarat,india.jpeg
    インドライオン(ギル森林国立公園、左からメス、オス、幼獣)
    保全状況評価 ENDANGERED (IUCN Red List Ver. 3.1 (2001))[1]
    Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
    分類 : 動物界 Animalia : 脊索動物門 Chordata 亜門 : 脊椎動物亜門 Vertebrata : 哺乳綱 Mammalia 亜綱 : 獣亜綱 Theria : 食肉目 Carnivora 亜目 : ネコ亜目 Feliformia : ネコ科 Felidae 亜科 : ヒョウ亜科 Pantherinae : ヒョウ属 Panthera : ライオン P. leo 亜種 : インドライオン P. l. persica  学名 Panthera leo persica
    (Meyer, 1826) 和名 インドライオン 英名 Asiatic Lion、 Indian Lion

    インドライオン学名Panthera leo persica)は、哺乳綱食肉目ネコ科ヒョウ属に分類されるライオンのひとつの亜種で、アフリカに生息するライオンと比較すると小柄であり、体色も薄い。かつてはインドから、中東アジアまで分布していたが、イラン中東アジアでは絶滅した。現在では保護されたものがインド北西部のグジャラート州カーティヤーワール半島ギル森林国立公園 野生生物保護区で523頭が生息しているだけとなっている。[2]

    形態の比較[編集]

    インドライオン
    • 頭胴長:140-195cm
    • 尾長:70-88cm
    • 体重:120-200kg
    • 寿命:25-30年ほど
    アフリカライオン(参考)
    • 頭胴長:オス170-250cm メス140-175cm
    • 尾長:オス70-105cm メス60-100cm
    • 体重:オス150-250kg メス120-182kg
    • 寿命:15-20年 性成熟:2-3年
    •  src=

      タテガミが短いのが特徴のインドライオン

    •  src=

      タテガミが長いのが特徴のアフリカライオン

    分布[編集]

     src=
    ギル森林国立公園 野生生物保護区

    インドグジャラート州ギル森林国立公園野生生物保護区)

    インドライオンの特徴[編集]

     src=
    インドライオンのオス(恩賜上野動物園)
     src=
    インドライオンは木がまばらに配置された施設で飼われることが多い。よこはま動物園ズーラシア
     src=
    アフリカライオンは草原のような開けた施設で飼われることが多い。多摩動物公園

    (アフリカに生息するライオンと比較してのインドライオンの特徴)

    • やや小柄。
    • 体色が薄い。
    • 体毛は密集している。
    • オスのタテガミも荒く短い。
    • 腹部の皮膚に長いひだ状のたるみがある。
    • 尻尾の房毛が長い。
    • 主に林の中に住む。
    • 単独で狩りをする。
    • 食性は肉食であるが、昆虫類から爬虫類、小動物-大型草食獣までと多岐にわたる。草を食べる事もある。

    生態[編集]

    アフリカに生息するライオンは草原に生息し、主に群れで狩りを行う。一方でインドライオンは森林・主に林の中に住み、狩りは単独で行う。動物園などの展示飼育においても生息地の状況を考慮している場所が多く、アフリカライオンは草原のような開けた施設で飼われているのに対し、インドライオンは木がまばらに置かれた施設に展示されていることが多い。

    食性は肉食であり、シカスイギュウイノシシ等の大型草食獣を主に捕食する。この他に昆虫類から爬虫類、草を食べる事もある。

    アフリカに生息するライオンは20頭近いメスライオンを従え群れを作り、繁殖力が高いが、インドライオンは最盛期でも5-6頭程度にしかならない。

    インドライオンの繁殖力は低く、約500回近い交尾で1回の出産となる。1回につき平均2-3頭を出産する。また生息地や個体数が限られているため遺伝的多様性が低く、精子の70-80%が奇形と言われているのも低い繁殖力の要因のようである。

    人間との関係[編集]

    絶滅危惧[編集]

    イラン中東アジアでの絶滅の原因は不明である。 インドでは、19世紀以前には1,000頭以上のインドライオンが生息していたが、狩猟や開発により頭数が激減し、1913年には20頭までに減少した。その後、森林省当局の効果的な保護や努力の結果、ギル森林国立公園内のライオンの生息数が大幅な増加を記録し、2015年現在では、523頭に増加し保護に成功した[3]

    19世紀後半までインドライオンとベンガルトラは、インドの多くの地域で共存していたが、現在はインドライオンはギル森林国立公園野生生物保護区のみで生息してる。他州の森林国立公園野生生物保護区にインドライオンを移す計画もあるが、ベンガルトラがインドライオンを殺すかもしれない懸念から計画は進んでない。[4]

    頭数 オス:メス:幼獣. 1968 177 - 1974 180 - 1979 261 76:100:85 1984 252 88:100:64 1990 249 82:100:67 1995 265 94:100:71 2000 327 - 2005 359 - 2010 411 97:162:152 2015 523 109:201:213

    参考:ライオンの亜種[編集]

     src=
    木の上に登っているインドライオンのメス(恩賜上野動物園)

    体の大きさや毛の長さ、体色などが地域によって異なるので下記の亜種があるとされている。アフリカに生息するライオン達の亜種とインドライオンの亜種では大きな違いがある為、アフリカライオンとインドライオンと分けての比較をした。

    • Panthera leo persica インドライオン
      • インドからイランに分布。
      • 現在はインドのギル保護区にのみ生息。イランは1930年に絶滅。
    • Panthera leo leo バーバリライオン
      • モロッコの首都ラバトに開園したラバト動物園に生息。
    • Panthera leo roosevelti アビシニアライオン
      • エチオピアからスーダンに分布。
    • Panthera leo somaliensis ソマリライオン
      • ソマリアからケニヤに分布。
    • Panthera leo senegalensis セネガルライオン
      • セネガルとナイジェリアに分布。
    • Panthera leo kamptzi カメルーンライオン
      • チャド湖に分布。
    • Panthera leo nyanzae ウガンダライオン
      • ウガンダに分布。
    • Panthera leo azandica コンゴライオン
      • 中央アフリカに分布。
    • Panthera leo hollisteri ビクトリアライオン
      • ビクトリア湖北岸に分布。
    • Panthera leo massaica マサイライオン
      • ケニヤ・タンザニアに分布。
    • Panthera leo bleyenbergi アンゴラライオン
      • アンゴラ・ザンビアに分布。
    • Panthera leo vernayi カラハリライオン
      • カラハリ砂漠に分布。
    • Panthera leo krugeri トランスバールライオン
      • トランスバール地方に分布。
    • Panthera leo melanochaita ケープライオン
      • ケープ地方に分布していたが1865年に絶滅。

    学者・学説によっては同一種としてみる見方もある種も多い。

    脚注[編集]

    1. ^ Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D.P., Ahmad Khan, J. & Driscoll, C. 2008. Panthera leo ssp. persica. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1.
    2. ^ Asiatic lion population in Gujarat rises to 523[1]
    3. ^ Boost to Gujarat pride: Lion numbers cross 500[2]
    4. ^ College of Biological [3]

    関連項目[編集]

     src= ウィキメディア・コモンズには、インドライオンに関連するメディアおよびカテゴリがあります。  src= ウィキスピーシーズにインドライオンに関する情報があります。

    外部サイト・参考資料[編集]

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    インドライオン: Brief Summary ( Japanese )

    provided by wikipedia 日本語

    インドライオン(学名Panthera leo persica)は、哺乳綱食肉目ネコ科ヒョウ属に分類されるライオンのひとつの亜種で、アフリカに生息するライオンと比較すると小柄であり、体色も薄い。かつてはインドから、中東アジアまで分布していたが、イラン中東アジアでは絶滅した。現在では保護されたものがインド北西部のグジャラート州カーティヤーワール半島ギル森林国立公園 野生生物保護区で523頭が生息しているだけとなっている。

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    아시아사자 ( Korean )

    provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과
    삼명법 Panthera leo persica
    Meyer, 1826

    아시아사자(Panthera leo persica)는 사자의 아종이다. 인도사자라고도 한다.캅카스에서 예멘, 마케도니아 왕국에서 이란, 이라크, 터키, 인도를 거쳐 파키스탄, 방글라데시의 일부까지 분포했으나, 현재는 인도 서부 구자라트 주기르 숲 국립공원에 불과 350 마리(2005년 8월 기준)만이 야생으로 살고 있다. 그러나 이들의 개체수의 안정적인 증가와 유전적 다양성을 유지하기 위해 마디아 프라데시 주에 있는 쿠노 야생동물 보호구역에 재도입하는 계획이 구상중이라 한다.

    이들은 아프리카사자에 비해서 아메리카사자동굴사자와 유전적으로 가깝다고 한다.

    생태

    이들은 수천년전만 하더라도 이베리아 반도, 남부프랑스, 이탈리아, 그리스, 마케도니아 지방 등의 온화한 지중해 지역에 서식했다. 발칸반도의 일부와 그리스, 터키, 카프카스, 이스라엘과 팔레스타인, 레바논과 시리아, 아라비아 반도의 일부, 이란, 아프가니스탄의 일부, 파키스탄의 남부(주로 발루치스탄), 인도 북부의 대부분 지역에 살았었으나, 발칸반도의 일부와 그리스에서는 AD 100년 경에 사라졌으며 팔레스타인 지역에서는 십자군 전쟁 때 사라졌다.

    터키에서는 1870년대 후반에 멸종된것으로 보이며, 이라크에서도 멸종되었다. 이란(특히 자그로스 산맥과 아라비스탄)에서는 좀 더 오래 생존한것으로 보이인다. 그러나 이란에서는 언제 사라졌는지는 정확히 알수 없다고한다. 파키스탄에서도 사라졌고 인도의 북동부 지역에서도 사라져 갔다. 그리고 우타르프라데시와 마디아프라데시주에서도 사라져 갔으며 펀자브, 라자스탄에서도 사라져 가고 구자라트의 대부분 지역(기르 숲을 제외한)에서 사라졌다.

    이러한 원인은 서식지 감소, 인간의 스포츠사냥(재미를 위해 하는 사냥)으로 멸종된 것으로 보인다. 이들은 기르에서 개체수가 350여 마리정도 되며 멸종위기에 처해 있다. 이들의 새로운 서식지에 재도입하는 방안도 논의되고 있다.

    생존을 위협하는 요소

    현재 아시아사자가 마지막으로 생존하는 것은 기르 보호구역 및 국립공원에서만 살아남았다. 하지만 렌즈콩 같은 콩과 작물과 망고와 같은 작물을 재배하기 위해 이들의 서식지가 파괴되면서 이들의 생존을 위협하게 될 것이다. 비록 재미를 스포츠 사냥은 인도에서는 자행 되지 않는다고 하지만 서식지 파괴 위험은 무시할 수 없는 요소이며 한정된 유전자풀로 인한 재앙의 위험도 내포하고 있다. 간혹 아시아사자와 같은 곳에 사는 대형 고양잇과 맹수인 인도호랑이에게 밀려 절멸했다는 이야기도 있지만 터무니없는 소리다. 인도호랑이와 아시아사자의 힘은 비슷하지만, 만약 만난다면 서로 피할것이다. 이들은 불과 12마리로 줄어들었다가 350마리로 늘어났기 때문이다. 최근에는 밀렵조직으로 인한 밀렵으로 인해 밀렵이라는 위험이 또 늘어났다.

    재도입

    아시아사자를 재도입하려는 노력은 과거에도 있었다. 우타르프라데시에서 사자를 재도입했었는데 이것은 실패로 끝났다. 그것은 지역 주민들의 이기심으로 인해 사자들이 독살당했기 때문이다.

    하지만 지금은 서식지가 기르밖에 남지 않았기 때문에 제 2의 서식처를 마련해주어야 한다. 현재 기르와 기후조건이 비슷한 마디아프라데시쿠노 야생동물 보호구역이 그 장소이다. 이 프로젝트를 쿠노 프로젝트라고 한다. 아직 계획 구상중에 있으며 지금 필요한 것은 현지 주민에 대한 교육과 사자들의 안전이다. 쿠노 야생동물 보호구역은 사자의 먹이가 될만한 악시스사슴(치탈), 삼바사슴, 닐가이영양, 검은영양, 네뿔영양, 멧돼지의 서식지이기도 하다.

    그러나 구자라트주 정부는 이에 반대하고 있다. 아시아사자의 유일하게 남은 서식지라는 이름을 잃기 싫어서라는 것이 주된 이유다. 그렇다해도 이미 아시아사자는 이미 기르에서는 포화 상태이다. 라비 첼람(Ravi Chellam)이라는 사람은 동물원이나 포획사육 프로그램에 보내야 하지만 그럴수 조차 없으면 사살해야 한다고 주장한다. 독립한 어린 사자들(특히 수컷)에게 영토를 마련할 자리 또한 필요하다.

    인가에 나타나서 보호구역 밖의 가축(말다리의 가축이 아닌)을 해칠 수도 있고 기차에 치이거나 자동차 사고, 독살, 감전사로 인한 아시아사자의 사망은 분명 악순환이다. 이러한 상황을 줄이기 위해서라도 재도입은 필요한 과제라고 한다.

    유럽과 서남아시아의 아시아사자

    유럽에서는 헤라클레스가 잡은 네메아의 사자에 관한 내용에서 볼 수 있듯이 유럽에서 사자가 살았다는 증거가 될 수 있다.

    헤로도투스가 기록한 것에 의하면 기원전 480년경에 크세르크세스가 대군을 이끌고 그리스로 진군했을 때 보급부대의 낙타만 공격하여 잡아먹었다고 한다. 그 당시에 크세르크세스가 사자로 골머리를 썩혔던 네스토스 강과 아켈로스 강 사이의 지역에서 사자가 들끓었다고 헤로도투스는 기록하였다.

    기원전 7세기의 아시리아의 왕인 아슈르바니팔 왕은 이렇게 기록하였다.

    "...나는 나의 즐거움을 위해 아슈르 신과 전쟁의 여신인 이슈타르 여신의 도움을 받아 야생사자를 창으로 꿰뚫었노라."라고 기록하였다. 아슈르나시르팔 2세는 자신이 사자 15마리를 죽였다고 기록하고 있으며 그 보다 전에 티글라트-필레세르 3세는 맨발로 걸으면서 사자 120마리를 죽였고 전차를 타고 800마리를 죽였다고 하는데 과연 그가 사자를 900마리 넘게 죽인 게 사실인지 확인할 길은 없다. 그렇지만 이것은 한때 메소포타미아에서도 사자를 볼 수 있다는 증거가 될 수 있다.

    페르세폴리스의 사자형상의 타일이 있다고 한다. 이란지역에서도 사자를 볼 수 있었다는 증거다. dkdk

    같이 보기

    각주

    1. Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D. P., Ahmad Khan, J. and Driscoll, C. (2008). “Panthera leo ssp. persica”. 《멸종 위기 종의 IUCN 적색 목록. 2012.2판》 (영어). 국제 자연 보전 연맹. CS1 관리 - 여러 이름 (링크)
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    아시아사자: Brief Summary ( Korean )

    provided by wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

    아시아사자(Panthera leo persica)는 사자의 아종이다. 인도사자라고도 한다.캅카스에서 예멘, 마케도니아 왕국에서 이란, 이라크, 터키, 인도를 거쳐 파키스탄, 방글라데시의 일부까지 분포했으나, 현재는 인도 서부 구자라트 주기르 숲 국립공원에 불과 350 마리(2005년 8월 기준)만이 야생으로 살고 있다. 그러나 이들의 개체수의 안정적인 증가와 유전적 다양성을 유지하기 위해 마디아 프라데시 주에 있는 쿠노 야생동물 보호구역에 재도입하는 계획이 구상중이라 한다.

    이들은 아프리카사자에 비해서 아메리카사자동굴사자와 유전적으로 가깝다고 한다.

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