Papilio

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Papilio is a genus in the swallowtail butterfly family, Papilionidae, as well as the only representative of the tribe Papilionini. The word papilio is Latin for butterfly.[1]

It includes the common yellow swallowtail (Papilio machaon), which is widespread in the Northern Hemisphere and the type species of the genus, as well as a number of other well-known North American species such as the western tiger swallowtail (Papilio rutulus). Familiar species elsewhere in the world include the Mormons (Papilio polytes, Papilio polymnestor, Papilio memnon, and Papilio deiphobus) in Asia, the orchard and Ulysses swallowtails in Australia (Papilio aegeus, Papilio ulysses, respectively) and the citrus swallowtail of Africa (Papilio demodocus).

Older classifications of the swallowtails tended to use many rather small genera. More recent classifications have been more conservative, and as a result a number of former genera are now absorbed within Papilio. The genus as recognized by modern systems has about 200 members. The genus Chilasa is regarded as a subgenus of Papilio by some workers, as are the baggy-tailed swallowtails (Agehana), although the latter taxon is usually considered a subgenus of Chilasa.

Many of the larvae resemble bird droppings during a development stage. Adults are edible to birds and some species are mimics.[2]

Now included in the genus Papilio, are the former genera: Achillides, Eleppone, Druryia, Heraclides (giant swallowtails), Menelaides, Princeps, Pterourus (tiger swallowtails), and Sinoprinceps.

Ecology

In their laval form, members of Papilio typically feed upon plants of Rutaceae including common ornamental and agriculturally important species such as Citrus species, Murraya species, Choisya species and Calodendrum species. Caterpillars sequester terpenoids from their diet to produce a foul smelling oil used in defence.

Species

Listed alphabetically within groups.[3]
subgenus: Papilio Linnaeus, 1758

species group: machaon
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  • Papilio alexanor Esper, 1800 – southern swallowtail
  • Papilio brevicauda Saunders, 1869 – short-tailed swallowtail
  • Papilio hospiton Géné, 1839 – Corsican swallowtail
  • Papilio indra Reakirt, 1866 – Indra swallowtail, short-tailed black swallowtail, or cliff swallowtail
  • Papilio joanae J. Heitzman, 1973 – Ozark swallowtail
  • Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758 – Old World swallowtail, common yellow swallowtail, or artemisia swallowtail
  • Papilio polyxenes Fabricius, 1775 – black swallowtail, eastern black swallowtail, American swallowtail, or parsnip swallowtail
  • Papilio saharae Oberthür, 1879 – Sahara swallowtail
  • Papilio zelicaon Lucas, 1852 – anise swallowtail or western swallowtail

subgenus: Princeps Hübner, [1807]

species group: antimachus
species group: zalmoxis
species group: nireus
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Broad green-banded swallowtail (Papilio chrapkowskii), Kenya
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Narrow blue-banded swallowtail (Papilio nireus), Uganda
species group: cynorta
species group: dardanus
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African swallowtail (Papilio dardanus Ethiopia
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Green-banded swallowtail (Papilio phorcas), Kenya
species group: zenobia
species group: demodocus
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Citrus swallowtail (Papilio demodocus), South Africa
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Lime butterfly (Papilio demoleus), India
species group: echerioides
species group: oribazus
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Banded blue swallowtail (Papilio oribazus), Madagascar
species group: hesperus
species group: menestheus
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Western emperor swallowtail (Papilio menestheus), Ghana
species group: incertae sedis
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Papilio mangoura, Madagascar
species group: noblei
species group: demolion
species group: anactus
species group: aegeus
species group: godeffroyi
species group: polytes
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Common Mormon (Papilio polytes), India
species group: castor
species group: fuscus
species group: helenus
species group: memnon
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Blue Mormon Papilio polymnestor, India
species group: protenor
species group: bootes

subgenus: Chilasa Moore, [1881]

species group: agestor
species group: clytia
species group: veiovis
species group: laglaizei
species group: unnamed

subgenus: Achillides Hübner, [1819]

species group: paris
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Malabar banded peacock (Papilio buddha)
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Common banded peacock (Papilio crino), India
species group: palinurus
species group: unnamed
species group: ulysses

subgenus: Heraclides Hübner, [1819]

species group: anchisiades
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Prickly ash swallowtail (Papilio pelaus), Jamaica
species group: thoas
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Bahamian swallowtail (Papilio andraemon), Jamaica
species group: torquatus
species group: unnamed

subgenus: Pterourus Scopoli, 1777

species group: troilus
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Spicebush swallowtail (Papilio troilus)
species group: glaucus
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Canadian tiger swallowtail (Papilio canadensis), Canada
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Two-tailed swallowtail (Papilio multicaudata), Mexico
species group: zagreus
species group: scamander
species group: homerus

subgenus: Sinoprinceps Hancock, 1983

species group: xuthus Hancock, 1983
  • Papilio xuthus Linnaeus, 1767 – Asian, Xuthus, or Chinese yellow swallowtail

References

  1. ^ Fabales. (2009) In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 September 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: [1]
  2. ^ The Butterflies of North America, James A. Scott, ISBN 0-8047-1205-0, 1986
  3. ^ Savela, Markku (March 20, 2019). "Papilio Linnaeus, 1758". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
  4. ^ "Lepidopterists Discover New Swallowtail Species on Fiji | Biology | Sci-News.com". Breaking Science News | Sci-News.com. Retrieved 2018-11-04.

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Papilio: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Papilio is a genus in the swallowtail butterfly family, Papilionidae, as well as the only representative of the tribe Papilionini. The word papilio is Latin for butterfly.

It includes the common yellow swallowtail (Papilio machaon), which is widespread in the Northern Hemisphere and the type species of the genus, as well as a number of other well-known North American species such as the western tiger swallowtail (Papilio rutulus). Familiar species elsewhere in the world include the Mormons (Papilio polytes, Papilio polymnestor, Papilio memnon, and Papilio deiphobus) in Asia, the orchard and Ulysses swallowtails in Australia (Papilio aegeus, Papilio ulysses, respectively) and the citrus swallowtail of Africa (Papilio demodocus).

Older classifications of the swallowtails tended to use many rather small genera. More recent classifications have been more conservative, and as a result a number of former genera are now absorbed within Papilio. The genus as recognized by modern systems has about 200 members. The genus Chilasa is regarded as a subgenus of Papilio by some workers, as are the baggy-tailed swallowtails (Agehana), although the latter taxon is usually considered a subgenus of Chilasa.

Many of the larvae resemble bird droppings during a development stage. Adults are edible to birds and some species are mimics.

Now included in the genus Papilio, are the former genera: Achillides, Eleppone, Druryia, Heraclides (giant swallowtails), Menelaides, Princeps, Pterourus (tiger swallowtails), and Sinoprinceps.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN