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Osteichthyes

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Osteichthyes (/ˌɒstiˈɪkθiz/), popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage. The vast majority of fish are members of Osteichthyes, which is an extremely diverse and abundant group consisting of 45 orders, and over 435 families and 28,000 species.[1] It is the largest class of vertebrates in existence today. The group Osteichthyes is divided into the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) and lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii). The oldest known fossils of bony fish are about 420 million years old, which are also transitional fossils, showing a tooth pattern that is in between the tooth rows of sharks and bony fishes.[2]

Osteichthyes can be compared to Euteleostomi. In paleontology, the terms are synonymous. In ichthyology, the difference is that Euteleostomi presents a cladistic view which includes the terrestrial tetrapods that evolved from lobe-finned fish, whereas prior to 2014 the view of most ichthyologists was that Osteichthyes includes only fishes, and were therefore paraphyletic. However, in 2014, an ichthyology paper was published with phylogenetic trees that treat the Osteichthyes as a clade including tetrapods.[3]

Characteristics

"
Guiyu oneiros, the earliest known bony fish, lived during the Late Silurian, 419 million years ago).[4][5] It has the combination of both ray-finned and lobe-finned features, although analysis of the totality of its features place it closer to lobe-finned fish.[6][7][8]

Bony fish are characterized by a relatively stable pattern of cranial bones, rooted, medial insertion of mandibular muscle in the lower jaw. The head and pectoral girdles are covered with large dermal bones. The eyeball is supported by a sclerotic ring of four small bones, but this characteristic has been lost or modified in many modern species. The labyrinth in the inner ear contains large otoliths. The braincase, or neurocranium, is frequently divided into anterior and posterior sections divided by a fissure.

Early bony fish had simple lungs (a pouch on either side of the esophagus) which helped them breathe in low-oxygen water. In many bony fish these have evolved into swim bladders, which help the body create a neutral balance between sinking and floating. (The lungs of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals were inherited from their bony fish ancestors.)[9][10][11] They do not have fin spines, but instead support the fin with lepidotrichia (bone fin rays). They also have an operculum, which helps them breathe without having to swim.

Bony fish have no placoid scales. Mucus glands coat the body. Most have smooth and overlapping ganoid, cycloid or ctenoid scales.

Classification

Traditionally, Osteichthyes is considered a class, recognised on having a swim bladder, only three pairs of gill arches, hidden behind a bony operculum and a predominately bony skeleton.[12] Under this classification systems, the Osteichthyes are paraphyletic with regard to land vertebrates as the common ancestor of all Osteichthyes includes tetrapods amongst its descendants. The largest subclass, the Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) are monophyletic, but with the inclusion of the smaller sub-class Sarcopterygii, Osteichthyes is paraphyletic.

This has led to an alternative cladistic classification, splitting the Osteichthyes into two full classes. Osteichthyes is under this scheme monophyletic, as it includes the tetrapods, making it a synonym of the clade Euteleostomi. Most bony fish belong to the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii).

Phylogeny

A phylogeny of living Osteichthyes, including the tetrapods, is shown in the cladogram.[3][14][15][16]

Osteichthyes/ Sarcopterygii Coelacanthimorpha

Coelacanthiformes "Coelacanth

Rhipidistia Dipnomorpha

Ceratodontiformes"Barramunda

   

Tetrapodomorpha"Deutschlands

      Actinopterygii Cladistia

Polypteriformes"Cuvier-105-Polyptère.jpg"

Actinopteri Chondrostei

Acipenseriformes"Atlantic

Neopterygii Holostei

Amiiformes"Amia

   

Lepisosteiformes"Longnose

    Teleostei Elopocephalai

Elopiformes"M.E.

     

Albuliformes"Pterothrissus

     

Notacanthiformes"Notacanthus

   

Anguilliformes"Anguilla

        Osteoglossocephalai Osteoglossomorpha

Osteoglossiformes "F

   

Hiodontiformes

    Clupeocephala Otomorpha Clupei

Clupeiformes"Clupea

    Alepocephali

Alepocephaliformes"Xenodermichthys

Ostariophysi Anotophysa

Gonorynchiformes"Chanos

Otophysa

Cypriniformes"Cyprinus

     

Characiformes"F

     

Gymnotiformes "Johann

   

Siluriformes"Black

              Euteleosteomorpha

Lepidogalaxiiformes

      Protacanthopterygii

Argentiniformes"Alepocephalus

     

Galaxiiformes

     

Salmoniformes "Salmo

   

Esociformes

            Stomiatii

Osmeriformes"Osmerus

   

Stomiatiformes"Melanocetus

     

Neoteleostei"Zeus

                    Euteleostomi

Whole-genome duplication took place in the ancestral Osteichthyes.[17]

Biology

All bony fish possess gills. For the majority this is their sole or main means of respiration. Lungfish and other osteichthyan species are capable of respiration through lungs or vascularized swim bladders. Other species can respire through their skin, intestines, and/or stomach.[18]

Osteichthyes are primitively ectothermic (cold blooded), meaning that their body temperature is dependent on that of the water. But some of the larger marine osteichthyids, such as the opah,[19][20] swordfish[21][22] and tuna[23][24] have independently evolved various levels of endothermy. Bony fish can be any type of heterotroph: numerous species of omnivore, carnivore, herbivore, filter-feeder or detritivore are documented.

Some bony fish are hermaphrodites, and a number of species exhibit parthenogenesis. Fertilization is usually external, but can be internal. Development is usually oviparous (egg-laying) but can be ovoviviparous, or viviparous. Although there is usually no parental care after birth, before birth parents may scatter, hide, guard or brood eggs, with sea horses being notable in that the males undergo a form of "pregnancy", brooding eggs deposited in a ventral pouch by a female.

Examples

"
Ocean sunfish is the heaviest bony fish in the world

The ocean sunfish is the heaviest bony fish in the world,[25] while the longest is the king of herrings, a type of oarfish. Specimens of ocean sunfish have been observed up to 3.3 metres (11 ft) in length and weighing up to 2,303 kilograms (5,077 lb). Other very large bony fish include the Atlantic blue marlin, some specimens of which have been recorded as in excess of 820 kilograms (1,810 lb), the black marlin, some sturgeon species, and the giant and goliath grouper, which both can exceed 300 kilograms (660 lb) in weight. In contrast, the dwarf pygmy goby measures a minute 15 millimetres (0.59 in).

Arapaima gigas is the largest species of freshwater bony fish. The largest bony fish ever was Leedsichthys, which dwarfed the beluga sturgeon, ocean sunfish, giant grouper, and all the other giant bony fishes alive today.

Comparison with cartilaginous fishes Chondrichthyes

Cartilaginous fishes can be further divided into sharks, rays and chimaeras. In the table below, the comparison is made between sharks and bony fishes. For the further differences with rays, see sharks versus rays.

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Bony fishes SeaWorld. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  2. ^ Jaws, Teeth of Earliest Bony Fish Discovered
  3. ^ a b Betancur-R, Ricardo; et al. (2013). "The Tree of Life and a New Classification of Bony Fishes". PLOS Currents Tree of Life. 5 (Edition 1). doi:10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288. PMC 3644299. PMID 23653398. Archived from the original on 2013-10-13.
  4. ^ "2009/03/guiyu-oldest-articulated-osteichthyan_26". palaeoblog.blogspot.com. 2009-03-26. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  5. ^ "Descubrimiento de fósil de pez óseo en China aporta nuevos conocimientos clave sobre origen de los vertebrados_Spanish.china.org.cn". spanish.china.org.cn. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  6. ^ Zhu, M; Zhao, W; Jia, L; Lu, J; Qiao, T; Qu, Q (2009). "The oldest articulated osteichthyan reveals mosaic gnathostome characters". Nature. 458 (7237): 469–474. Bibcode:2009Natur.458..469Z. doi:10.1038/nature07855. PMID 19325627.
  7. ^ Coates, M.I. (2009). "Palaeontology: Beyond the Age of Fishes". Nature. 458 (7237): 413–414. Bibcode:2009Natur.458..413C. doi:10.1038/458413a. PMID 19325614.
  8. ^ Pharyngula Archived 2012-03-09 at the Wayback MachineScience blogs, 1 April 2009.
  9. ^ Clack, Jennifer A. (27 June 2012). Gaining Ground, Second Edition: The Origin and Evolution of Tetrapods. Indiana University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-253-00537-3. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  10. ^ Laurin, Michel (2 November 2010). How Vertebrates Left the Water. University of California Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-520-94798-6. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  11. ^ Benton, Michael (4 August 2014). Vertebrate Palaeontology. Wiley. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-118-40764-6. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  12. ^ Parsons, Alfred Sherwood Romer, Thomas S. (1986). The vertebrate body (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders College Pub. ISBN 978-0-03-910754-3.
  13. ^ Clack, J. A. (2002) Gaining Ground. Indiana University
  14. ^ Betancur-R; et al. (2013). "Complete tree classification (supplemental figure)" (PDF). PLOS Currents Tree of Life (Edition 1). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-21.
  15. ^ Betancur-R; et al. (2013). "Appendix 2 – Revised Classification for Bony Fishes" (PDF). PLOS Currents Tree of Life (Edition 1).
  16. ^ Ricardo Betancur-R; Edward O. Wiley; Gloria Arratia; Arturo Acero; Nicolas Bailly; Masaki Miya; Guillaume Lecointre; Guillermo Ortí (2017). "Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 17 (1): 162. doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0958-3. PMC 5501477. PMID 28683774.
  17. ^ Dehal, Paramvir; Boore, Jeffrey L. (2005-09-06). "Two Rounds of Whole Genome Duplication in the Ancestral Vertebrate". PLOS Biology. 3 (10): e314. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030314. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC 1197285. PMID 16128622.
  18. ^ Helfman & Facey 1997.
  19. ^ Wegner, Nicholas C., Snodgrass, Owen E., Dewar, Heidi, John, Hyde R. Science. "Whole-body endothermy in a mesopelagic fish, the opah, Lampris guttatus". pp. 786–789. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
  20. ^ "Warm Blood Makes Opah an Agile Predator". Fisheries Resources Division of the Southwest Fisheries Science Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. May 12, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015. "New research by NOAA Fisheries has revealed the opah, or moonfish, as the first fully warm-blooded fish that circulates heated blood throughout its body..."
  21. ^ Fritsches, K.A., Brill, R.W., and Warrant, E.J. 2005. Warm Eyes Provide Superior Vision in Swordfishes. Archived 2006-07-09 at the Wayback Machine Current Biology 15: 55−58
  22. ^ Hopkin, M. (2005). Swordfish heat their eyes for better vision. Nature, 10 January 2005
  23. ^ Sepulveda, C.A.; Dickson, K.A.; Bernal, D.; Graham, J.B. (1 July 2008). "Elevated red myotomal muscle temperatures in the most basal tuna species, Allothunnus fallai" (PDF). Journal of Fish Biology. 73 (1): 241–249. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2008.01931.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 7, 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
  24. ^ "Tuna — Biology Of Tuna". Retrieved September 12, 2009.
  25. ^ "Mola (Sunfish)". National Geographic. 2010-11-11. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  26. ^ Based on: Kotpal R. L. (2010) Modern Text Book Of Zoology Vertebrates Archived 2016-04-22 at the Wayback Machine Pages 193. Rastogi Publications. ISBN 9788171338917.
  27. ^ Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 396–399. ISBN 978-0-03-910284-5.
  28. ^ Schwab, IR; Hart, N (2006). "More than black and white". British Journal of Ophthalmology. 90 (4): 406. doi:10.1136/bjo.2005.085571. PMC 1857009. PMID 16572506.

Bibliography

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Osteichthyes: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Osteichthyes (/ˌɒstiˈɪkθiiːz/), popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage. The vast majority of fish are members of Osteichthyes, which is an extremely diverse and abundant group consisting of 45 orders, and over 435 families and 28,000 species. It is the largest class of vertebrates in existence today. The group Osteichthyes is divided into the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) and lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii). The oldest known fossils of bony fish are about 420 million years old, which are also transitional fossils, showing a tooth pattern that is in between the tooth rows of sharks and bony fishes.

Osteichthyes can be compared to Euteleostomi. In paleontology, the terms are synonymous. In ichthyology, the difference is that Euteleostomi presents a cladistic view which includes the terrestrial tetrapods that evolved from lobe-finned fish, whereas prior to 2014 the view of most ichthyologists was that Osteichthyes includes only fishes, and were therefore paraphyletic. However, in 2014, an ichthyology paper was published with phylogenetic trees that treat the Osteichthyes as a clade including tetrapods.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN