dcsimg
Description
provided by eFloras
Plant 6-10 cm. Rhizome short. Leaves long-petiolate, with winged petiole, 2-7 cm long. Flowers large, 2.5-3.0 cm diam., dark violet. One plant bears 8-14 flowers. V - early spring to late autumn, some leaves overwinter. Fl - April (in St. Petersburg May) for 3-5 weeks. Fr - July-August. P - by seed and by cuttings, also self-sown. Grows in semi-shade, on rich soil. Z 4.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Ornamental Plants From Russia And Adjacent States Of The Former Soviet Union Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Ornamental Plants from Russia and Adjacent States @ eFloras.org
editor
Tatyana Shulkina
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eFloras.org
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eFloras
ID
183968
Description
provided by eFloras
Herbs perennial, acaulescent, 6-18 cm tall. Rhizome erect, dark brown, short, 5-12 mm, densely noded, often producing from a single point several robust brown long roots; roots obliquely descending or sometimes slightly horizontal, usually smooth. Leaves 3-5 or numerous, basal; stipules membranous, lower ones scalelike, brown, upper ones brownish, purplish, or glaucous, over 2/3 adnate to petiole, free part linear-lanceolate, apex acuminate, margin remotely denticulate or subentire; petiole 2.5-8 cm, narrowly winged in upper part, wing conspicuously broadened after anthesis, puberulous or glabrous; leaf blade oblong, ligulate, or ovate-lanceolate, lower ones usually smaller and narrowly ovate, 2-6 × 0.5-1.5 cm, accrescent after anthesis, narrowly triangular, elliptic-lanceolate, or slightly hastate, to 10 × 5 cm, broadest in lowest part, both surfaces glabrous or sparsely puberulous, midvein conspicuously raised abaxially, base truncate or broadly cuneate, decurrent to petiole, margin remotely and shallowly repand-crenate or sometimes subentire in lower part, apex obtuse or rounded. Flowers purple-violet or purplish, sometimes white, ca. 2 cm in diam.; pedicels long, usually exceeding leaves, slender, glabrous or puberulous, usually 2-bracteolate below or near middle; bracteoles linear. Sepals ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, 5-7 mm, apex acuminate, basal auricles short, 1.5-2 mm, broad, 3-veined, margin narrowly membranous, apex rounded or truncate, usually not dentate. Upper petals obovate, 1.1-1.3 cm × 5-8 mm, lateral ones oblong-obovate, 1.1-1.5 cm × 4-6 mm, distinctly or sparsely bearded, anterior one 1.5-2.3 cm (spur included); spur cylindric, long, 5-10 mm, robust, apex rounded, curved upward or straight. Appendage of connectives ca. 1.5 mm; anthers ca. 2 mm; spur of 2 anterior stamens 4-6 mm. Ovary ovoid-globose, ca. 2.5 mm, glabrous; styles clavate, base slender and geniculate forward, thicker in upper part; stigmas slightly thickened on lateral sides and abaxially and with erect, thin margins, shortly beaked in front, beak obliquely ascending, with a larger stigma hole at tip. Capsule oblong, 1-1.5 cm, glabrous, apex acute. Seeds brownish red, numerous, ovoid-globose, ca. 1.5 mm, glabrous. Fl. Apr-May, fr. May-Sep. 2n = 24, 48*.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 13: 77, 95 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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eFloras
ID
253112
Distribution
provided by eFloras
Far East (southern regions), Japan and China. In reedgrass meadows on loose, woodland humus-rich soil.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Ornamental Plants From Russia And Adjacent States Of The Former Soviet Union Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Ornamental Plants from Russia and Adjacent States @ eFloras.org
editor
Tatyana Shulkina
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras
ID
183967
Distribution
provided by eFloras
Anhui, Fujian, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shandong, Taiwan [Japan, Korea, Russia].
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 13: 77, 95 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras
ID
255591_distribution
Habitat
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Grasslands, grassy slopes, thickets, forest margins, sparse forests, fields, sandy places along river banks; below 1000 m.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 13: 77, 95 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras
ID
255591
Synonym
provided by eFloras
Viola alisoviana Kiss f. intermedia (Kitagawa) Takenouchi; V. hsinganensis Takenouchi; V. mandshurica f. albiflora P. Y. Fu & Y. C. Teng; V. mandshurica f. ciliata (Nakai) F. Maekawa; V. mandshurica var. ciliata Nakai; V. mandshurica f. glabra (Nakai) Hiyama ex Maekawa; V. mandshurica var. glabra Nakai; V. mandshurica f. macrantha (Maximowicz) Nakai & Kitagawa; V. oblongosagittata Nakai f. ishizakii Yamamoto; V. patrinii Candolle ex Gingins f. glabra (Nakai) F. Maekawa; V. patrinii var. macrantha Maximowicz; V. philippica Cavanilles f. intermedia (Kitagawa) Kitagawa; V. rhodosepala Kitagawa; V. yedoensis Makino f. intermedia Kitagawa.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 13: 77, 95 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras
ID
252692
Viola mandshurica
provided by wikipedia EN

Viola mandshurica is a perennial species of violet known by the common names dōng běi jǐn cài (zh:东北堇菜, meaning "northeastern violet," in China), jebikkot (ko:제비꽃, in Korea), and sumire (ja:菫, ja:スミレ in Japan, where V. mandshurica is considered the type species and other violet species have additional descriptors such as himesumire or nojisumire). Its specific name is derived from Manchuria, an area of its native habitat which has at different times in history included parts of modern China, Korea, Mongolia and the Russian Far East.

Distribution

It is native to eastern Asia, being found as far west as eastern Siberia, throughout China,Taiwan and Korea, north into Russian North Asia (particularly in and around the Ussuri River Basin), and in much of Japan, including Okinawa. Across its range, this species occurs in a variety of habitats, from undisturbed woodlands to urban areas, and from low-lying plains to mountainous regions. A number of varieties have been developed by horticulturalists and are popular as garden plants. The wild form, and most named varieties and hybrids, prefer a semi-shaded location and humus-enriched soil that is not overly moist.

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V. mandshurica along a roadside in Tanabe Wakayama, Japan

Description

Viola mandshurica, like many other viola species, does not have a true stem, with leaves and flowers each emerging directly from the ground (actually from its underground rhizome). Its rhizomatous roots are short and thick. The leaves are typically oval-lanceolate to lanceolate; while the color of the leaves is normally a medium green above and below, some cultivars, such as Fuji Dawn, have leaves variegated with white, yellow and/or pink spots, streaks or splotches.

As a violet, its trumpet-shaped flowers have five petals and bilateral symmetry. The lowermost petal is often the smallest, and all petals are typically a rich purple hue, though this can vary due to local conditions or localized mutations, and in some varieties deliberately bred for differing appearance.

Culinary uses

Flower pancakes, which may be made with the flowers of V. mandshurica among other species, are an essential part of the Korean Samjinnal festival celebrating the coming of spring.

Medicinal uses

Researchers have determined that various preparations of V. mandshurica have "potential antioxidant and anti-diabetic" properties; can be used to treat asthma by inhibiting inflammatory response, and could lead to development of anti-asthma pharmaceuticals using the same principles; can protect nerve cells from oxidative stress and even reduce apoptosis, which may lead to treatments for neuronal diseases; may be effective as an component of treatment for melanoma; and, due to its coumarin content, holds promise as a future treatment for osteoporosis, lymphedema and even HIV infection.[citation needed]

Cultivars, varieties and formae

Named subgroups of v. mandshurica include:

  • V. mandshurica f. albo-variegata (also known under the commercial name "Fuji Dawn") features variegated leaves, with pale markings against the normal green, sometimes suffused with a pink tinge; these markings fade as the leaves age, and are typically gone by midsummer, but it remains a popular plant for home gardeners.
  • V. mandshurica var. crassa is frequently seen in coastal areas, even on sandy beaches inhospitable to most Viola species; the name "crassa" comes from the Latin crassus, meaning thick, and refers to its shiny, coriaceous leaves which may be a factor in its ability to thrive in sandy soil and in full sun.
  • V. mandshurica f. plena has double flowers, i.e., ten petals per bloom instead of the usual five, and may be found in a variety of shades of purple.
  • V. mandshurica var. triangularis is also well-adapted to beaches, and similarly to var. crassa can thrive in full sun. This variety's name refers to its leaves, in this case to their shape, which are more pointed than other varieties of V. mandshurica, coming to a point, but still significantly longer than they are wide; like those of var. crassa, the leaves are quite glossy.

References

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7ad04f7250cc68b86fe8938a9d5e4510
Viola mandshurica: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Viola mandshurica is a perennial species of violet known by the common names dōng běi jǐn cài (zh:东北堇菜, meaning "northeastern violet," in China), jebikkot (ko:제비꽃, in Korea), and sumire (ja:菫, ja:スミレ in Japan, where V. mandshurica is considered the type species and other violet species have additional descriptors such as himesumire or nojisumire). Its specific name is derived from Manchuria, an area of its native habitat which has at different times in history included parts of modern China, Korea, Mongolia and the Russian Far East.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN
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2ef26f23caea82efed361488c9e0a090