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Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
Aglaonema section Aglaonema

Roots rarely approaching the stem in thickness. Stem erect to partially decumbent, 10–200 cm tall, 0.2–6.0 cm thick. Internodes 0.4–3.0 (5) cm long. Petiolar sheaths conspicuous, (0.8) 4–17 (25) cm long, (0.1) 0.3–0.8 (1) times as long as the petiole. Leaf-blades ovate-elliptic to lanceolate-narrowly elliptic, occasionally broadly ovate to sublinear; variegation rarely affecting the lower leaf surface, never with a central white stripe; venation undifferentiated to weakly or strongly differentiated. Cataphylls usually found only among the inflorescences (except possibly in A. rotundum and A. pumilum). Peduncles solitary to 7 together. Spathe (1) 3–7 (12) cm long. Spadix thin-cylindric to clavate, (1.2) 2.5–5.0 (7) cm long, from l/2 the spathe length to exceeding the spathe by 1 cm; pistillate portion 0.2–1.0 (2) cm long, pistils (3) 10–25 (38); staminate portion rarely (A. tenuipes) with a gap between staminate and pistillate portions. Fruits ellipsoidal, green but turning yellow and finally red, up to 3 cm long and up to 1.5 cm thick.
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bibliographic citation
Nicolson, Dan H. 1969. "A revision of the Genus Aglaonema (Araceae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany. 1-69. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.0081024X.1

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
Aglaonema section Chamaecaulon Nicolson

Caudex repens, internodiis vix 0.5 cm longis; cataphylla petiolum plerumque amplexa, nonnumquam, deliquescens; petioli vagina usque ad 1 cm longa, vix ⅕ petioli longitudinis.

Roots frequently approaching the stem thickness. Stem repent and often branching, usually less than 1 cm thick. Internodes usually less than 0.5 cm long. Petiolar sheaths inconspicuous, to 1 cm long, 0.03–0.15 times as long as the petiole. Leaf-blades lanceolate to ovate, rarely narrowly elliptic; variegation none or with white spots affecting both sides of leaf and/or a central white stripe on or over the midrib; venation usually differentiated. A cataphyll subtending and clasping each petiole, this soon deliquescent in A. costatum. Peduncle solitary. Spathe (1.5) 2.5–4.0 (5) cm long. Spadix ellipsoidal-cylindric, (1.2) 1.8–3.5 cm long, commonly exceeding spathe by 0.3–1.0 (1.5) cm; pistillate portion 0.2–0.5 cm long, pistils 6–13. Fruits red, 1.2–1.7 cm long, 0.5–1.0 cm thick.

TYPE OF SECTION.—Aglaonema costatum N. E. Brown.

DISTRIBUTION.—Two species of continental Southeast Asia.

HABITAT.—Humid shady places below 500 m.

The section Chamaecaulon is characterized by a creeping and branching habit, exceedingly short petiolar sheaths, and the occurrence of cataphylls among the leaves. In these characters it is similar to two genera that are considered to be closely related, Aglaodorum (west Malesia) and Anubias (Africa); however, unlike Aglaonema, both these genera are tidal mudflat or swamp dwellers.

Within the genus Aglaonema, several of the smaller species, such as A. pumilum and A. rotundum, seem to be intermediate between the two sections. These rare and poorly known species are decumbent, occasionally have short petiolar sheaths, and may have cataphylls among the leaves.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
bibliographic citation
Nicolson, Dan H. 1969. "A revision of the Genus Aglaonema (Araceae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany. 1-69. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.0081024X.1

Aglaonema

provided by wikipedia EN

Aglaonema is a genus of flowering plants in the arum family, Araceae. They are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and New Guinea.[1][2] They are known commonly as Chinese evergreens.[3]

Description

These are evergreen perennial herbs with stems growing erect or decumbent and creeping. Stems that grow along the ground may root at the nodes. There is generally a crown of wide leaf blades which in wild species are often variegated with silver and green coloration. The inflorescence bears unisexual flowers in a spadix, with a short zone of female flowers near the base and a wider zone of male flowers nearer the tip. The fruit is a fleshy berry that ripens red. The fruit is a thin layer covering one large seed.[2]

Plants of the genus are native to humid, shady tropical forest habitat.[3]

Cultivation and uses

Aglaonema have been grown as luck-bringing ornamental plants in Asia for centuries.[3] They were introduced to the West in 1885,[3] when they were first brought to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.[4] They have been cultivated, hybridized, and bred into a wide array of cultivars. They live in low-light conditions and are popular houseplants.[3]

This mainly tropical genus is known for its intolerance of cold temperatures. Chilling injury can begin at 59 °F (or 15 °C).[5] The injury manifests in dark, greasy-looking patches on the foliage.[5]

Cultivars have been selected for their shape and size, and especially for the color and pattern of the leaves. Many have white or cream-colored stems. Some have also been developed to tolerate colder temperatures.[3] The most common cultivar is 'Silver Queen',[3] which has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[6][7]

Most propagation of Aglaonema is done with cuttings and by dividing the basal shoots. Care of the houseplant involves protecting it from cold temperatures and excessive sunlight and removing any inflorescences that develop, which can prolong the life of the plant. It requires moist soil, and while some cultivars require a small amount of fertilizer, plants are easily injured when oversupplemented.[3] Aglaonema are prone to false mites (Brevipalpus californicus). They may also acquire populations of nematodes, such as root-knot nematodes and Pratylenchus species, which cause root lesions.[8] Pathogens include the fungus Myrothecium roridum and bacteria such as Pseudomonas cichorii, Erwinia chrysanthemi, and Xanthomonas campestris, which can all cause leaf spot. Colletotrichum fungi can cause anthracnose.[9]

The NASA Clean Air Study determined that the species modestum of this plant genus was effective at removing common household air toxins formaldehyde and benzene.

Aglaonema plants are poisonous due to calcium oxalate crystals. If ingested they cause irritation of the mucous membranes, and the juice can cause skin irritation and painful rash.[10]

Diversity

Species include:[1]

  1. Aglaonema brevispathum - Indochina
  2. Aglaonema chermsiriwattanae - Thailand
  3. Aglaonema cochinchense Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia
  4. Aglaonema commutatum - Philippines, Sulawesi; naturalized in West Indies
  5. Aglaonema cordifolium - Mindanao
  6. Aglaonema costatum – Fox's aglaonema, spotted evergreen - Pulau Langkawi, Indochina
  7. Aglaonema densinervium - Philippines, Sulawesi
  8. Aglaonema flemingianum - Terengganu
  9. Aglaonema hookerianum - Darjiling, Assam, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar
  10. Aglaonema marantifolium - Maluku, New Guinea
  11. Aglaonema modestum – Japanese-leaf - Bangladesh, Indochina, southern China
  12. Aglaonema nebulosum - Borneo, Malaysia, Sumatra
  13. Aglaonema nitidum - Borneo, Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Indochina
  14. Aglaonema ovatum - Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
  15. Aglaonema philippinense - Philippines, Sulawesi
  16. Aglaonema pictum - Nias, Sumatra
  17. Aglaonema pumilum - Myanmar, Thailand
  18. Aglaonema roebelinii - Luzon
  19. Aglaonema rotundum - Sumatra
  20. Aglaonema simplex – Malayan-sword - Yunnan, Indochina, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines
  21. Aglaonema tricolor - Philippines
  22. Aglaonema vittatum - Sumatra, Lingga Islands

References

  1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ a b Aglaonema. Flora of China.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Chen, J., et al. Cultural Guidelines for Commercial Production of Interiorscape Aglaonema. ENH957. Environmental Horticulture. Florida Cooperative Extension Service. University of Florida IFAS. 2003.
  4. ^ Chen, J., et al. (2004). Genetic relationships of Aglaonema species and cultivars inferred from AFLP markers. Annals of Botany 93(2), 157-66.
  5. ^ a b Chen, J., et al. Chilling Injury in Tropical Foliage Plants: II. Aglaonema. ENH843. Environmental Horticulture. Florida Cooperative Extension Service. University of Florida IFAS. 2001.
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Aglaonema 'Silver Queen' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  7. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). www.rhs.org. Royal Horticultural Society. November 2018. p. 4. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  8. ^ Conover, C. A., et al. Aglaonema Production Guide for Commercial Growers. Archived June 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Foliage Digest. Mid-Florida Research & Education Center. University of Florida IFAS.
  9. ^ Moorman, G. W. Aglaonema Diseases. Penn State Extension. The Pennsylvania State University. 2013.
  10. ^ Toxic Plants. Safe and Poisonous Garden Plants. Agriculture and Natural Resources. University of California.

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Aglaonema: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Aglaonema is a genus of flowering plants in the arum family, Araceae. They are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and New Guinea. They are known commonly as Chinese evergreens.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN