Brief Summary

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Fragaria is a genus of about 12 species, the strawberries, in the Rosaceae (rose family) native primarily to north temperate regions (North America, Eurasia). The genus includes the garden or pineapple strawberry (F. X ananassa), which is cultivated in temperate and semitropical regions worldwide for its delicious fruit. Wild strawberries of various species are edible and often collected despite their small size, while horticultural varieties have been developed for use as ornamentals and ground cover. Widespread wild strawberry species include F. virginiana, which grows through eastern North America; F. vesca, the alpine strawberry, which has a Eurasian distribution and has now also naturalized in North America; and F. chiloensis, beach strawberry, which occurs from coastal Alaska to California and extends into South America. F. ananassa, the garden strawberry, is a hybrid of F. virginiana and F. chiloensis, although some studies suggest that it may also carry genes from other species. Native to Europe, the musk strawberry (F. moschata) is also cultivated, similarly to the garden strawberry. Fragaria plants are woody (or occasionally herbaceous) perennials that spread vegetatively, by stolons--rooting runners that form new plantlets at the tip--as well as seed; commercial propagation is entirely by the runners. The leaves, which overwinter are alternate (in winter, appearing as a basal rosette) and compound, usually with 3 but occasionally with 5 coarsely toothed leaflets. Flowers have 5 sepals and 5 petals and are generally white, although may be pinkish or reddish in some species and cultivars. The strawberry, which usually ripens to red, is not a true berry botanically, but is a fleshy receptable bearing multiple fruits on the surface—these apparent seeds are actually achenes, small, one-seeded fruits with hard coverings that do not split open (dehisce) when ripe. Strawberries are often eaten as a fresh fruit, famously in strawberry shortcake, and are also processed into ice creams, jams and preserves, mousses, fruit juice, and various baked goods and candies. Strawberries may also be fermented into wine or liqueur (such as the Italian fragoli). In 2010, the worldwide commercial production of strawberries was 4.4 million metric tons (mmt), harvested from around 244,000 hectares. Nearly 10% of the area harvested was in the U.S., but that accounted for more than than 25% of the total (1.3 mmt). Strawberry production is particularly important in California, which produces 88% of the U.S. total, valued at around $2.3 billion annually. The U.S. harvest was more than 5 times that of any other country. Other major producers include Turkey, Spain, Egypt, Korea, and Mexico. Strawberries are particularly susceptible to damage from frost, and became the subject of a famous early field test of releasing genetically engineered organisms into the environment. Research starting in the 1960s had identified a bacterial species, Pseudomonas syringae, that provides nucleation sites for ice crystals to form (the so-called “ice-plus” bacteria). With a single genetic modification, the surface proteins in these bacteria can be altered so that they no longer provide a suitable ice-formation surface. Bacteria altered to have the “ice-minus” gene, developed by the California company, Advanced Genetic Sciences, were tested in a controversial field experiment on strawberries in 1987, in which a bacterial solution was sprayed on the strawberry plants before a frost. Although initial results suggested the modified bacteria did prevent ice formation, concerns about whether releasing these bacteria for commercial application might adversely affect snow and ice formation, with potentially large implications for regional weather patterns, have inhibited widespread use of ice-minus bacteria in strawberry cultivation. (Bailey et al. 1976, California Strawberry Commission 2012, Domoto et al. 2008, FAOSTAT 2012, Flora of China 2012, Nottingham 2003, van Wyk 2005.)
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Jacqueline Courteau
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Fragaria

provided by wikipedia EN

Fragaria /frəˈɡɛəriə/[1] is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, commonly known as strawberries for their edible fruits. There are more than 20 described species and many hybrids and cultivars. The most common strawberries grown commercially are cultivars of the garden strawberry, a hybrid known as Fragaria × ananassa. Strawberries have a taste that varies by cultivar, and ranges from quite sweet to rather tart. Strawberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world.

Description

Strawberries are not true berries.[2] The fleshy and edible part of the "fruit" is a receptacle, and the parts that are sometimes mistakenly called "seeds" are achenes and therefore the true botanical fruits.[2][3]

Etymology

The latin name derives from the verb fragro, referring to the aroma of the fruit. Although it is commonly thought that strawberries get their name from straw being used as a mulch in cultivating the plants, the word is possibly derived from "strewn berry" in reference to the runners that "strew" or "stray away" from the base of the plants. David Mikkelson argues that "the word 'strawberry' has been part of the English language for at least a thousand years, well before strawberries were cultivated as garden or farm edibles."[4][5]

Classification

There are more than 20 different Fragaria species worldwide. A number of other species have been proposed, some of which are now recognized as subspecies.[6] One key to the classification of strawberry species is that they vary in the number of chromosomes. They all have seven basic types of chromosomes, but exhibit different polyploidy. Some species are diploid, having two sets of the seven chromosomes (14 chromosomes total), but others are tetraploid (four sets, 28 chromosomes total), hexaploid (six sets, 42 chromosomes total), octoploid (eight sets, 56 chromosomes total), or decaploid (ten sets, 70 chromosomes total).

As a rough rule (with exceptions), strawberry species with more chromosomes tend to be more robust and produce larger plants with larger berries.[7]

Diploid species

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Fragaria daltoniana, a species from the Himalayas
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Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca), a Northern Hemisphere species
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Flower of Fragaria nilgerrensis, an Asian species
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Wild strawberries (Fragaria viridis) from Sosnovka, Penza Oblast, Russia
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Strawberries (Fragaria viridis) gathered in Buryatia, Russia

Tetraploid species

Pentaploid hybrids

Hexaploid species

Octoploid species and hybrids

Decaploid species and hybrids

Uncategorized hybrids

Ecology

A number of species of butterflies and moths feed on strawberry plants: see list of Lepidoptera that feed on strawberry plants.

See also

References

  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^ a b Esau, K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  3. ^ E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia: Fragaria virginiana.
  4. ^ "Etymology of Strawberry". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
  5. ^ Darrow, G.M. (1966). The Strawberry: History, Breeding and Physiology 3. Early History of the Strawberry: 16
  6. ^ "Species records in the database (for the query: genus = Fragaria)". U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. Retrieved 2017-08-24.
  7. ^ Darrow, George M. The Strawberry: History, Breeding and Physiology. New York. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966. online text
  8. ^ Hummer, K.E. (2012). "A new species of Fragaria (Roseaceae) from Oregon". Journal of Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 6 (1): 9–15. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
  9. ^ Bors, R.H.; Sullivan, J.A. (2005). "Interspecific Hybridization of Fragaria vesca subspecies with F. nilgerrensis, F. nubicola, F. pentaphylla, and F. viridis" (PDF). J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 130 (3): 418–423. doi:10.21273/JASHS.130.3.418.
  10. ^ Bors, Robert H.; Sullivan, J. Alan (August 1996). "Production of Interspecific Hybrids between Hexaploid Fragaria moschata and the diploid species F. nubicola and F. viridis". HortScience. 31 (4): 610. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.31.4.610b.
  11. ^ Karp, David (July 2006). "Berried Treasure". Smithsonian Magazine.
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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN

Fragaria: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Fragaria /frəˈɡɛəriə/ is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, commonly known as strawberries for their edible fruits. There are more than 20 described species and many hybrids and cultivars. The most common strawberries grown commercially are cultivars of the garden strawberry, a hybrid known as Fragaria × ananassa. Strawberries have a taste that varies by cultivar, and ranges from quite sweet to rather tart. Strawberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world.

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