Brief Summary

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Araneomorphae (the "true spiders") is one of the two major clades of living spiders and includes the great majority of the world's spider families and species. The other major clade is Mygalomorphae (the tarantulas and allies). Sister to (Araneomorphae + Mygalomorphae) is Mesothelae, but this clade includes just a single family of living spiders, the Liphistiidae (with fewer than a hundred known species, all from eastern Asia; Platnick 2014).

Araneomorphs have evolved a range of novel features associated with complex silk production, although a number of lineages have independently switched from a sedentary web-spinning lifestyle to being wandering hunters.

(Coddington 2005)

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Araneomorphae

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 src=
Hippasa agelenoides – common funnel web spider

The Araneomorphae (also called the Labidognatha) are an infraorder of spiders. They are distinguished by having chelicerae (fangs) that point diagonally forward and cross in a pinching action, in contrast to the Mygalomorphae (tarantulas and their close kin), where they point straight down. Most of the spiders that people encounter in daily life belong to the Araneomorphae.

Distinguishing characteristics

Note the difference in the orientations of the chelicerae (fangs) of the two spiders below, representatives of the Mygalomorphae and the Araneomorphae. The number of book lungs (when present) can also help distinguish between members of these two major groups.

Mygalomorphae

This Atrax robustus (a member of the Hexathelidae) is presenting a defensive posture, and by so doing clearly shows the orientation of its chelicerae, which go up and down and parallel to the long axis of the spider's body, as with other representatives of the Mygalomorphae.

Araneomorphae

In the Araneomorphae, the fangs slope towards each other, giving these spiders many more possibilities than the Mygalomorphae, which can only bite top down. In contrast to the Mygalomorphae, where females can live for many years, most Araneomorphae die after about a year.[1]

Spiders included

Almost all of the familiar spiders are included in this group. The major exception is the Tarantulas, which have become so common as pets that many people have seen them. There are a few other members of Mygalomorphae that one might see around homes or gardens, but they typically are relatively small and not easily noticed. For instance, the females of one such species lives and hunts from within a long silken tube, so unless one opens the tube or chances upon a male looking for a mate, one will never see them. The Araneomorphae, to the contrary, include the weavers of spiral webs, the cobweb spiders that live in the corners of our rooms and between windows and screens, the crab spiders that lurk on the surfaces of the flowers in our gardens, the jumping spiders that look back at us curiously from walls and tree trunks, the wolf spiders that sometimes carpet good hunting sites in a sunny spot in the lawn, the large huntsman spiders that sometimes frighten people by getting into their cars or taking up residence behind wall clocks.

Systematics

In older schemes, the Araneomorphae are divided into two lineages, the Hypochilae (containing only the family Hypochilidae), and the Neocribellatae. The Neocribellatae are in turn divided into the Austrochiloidea, and the two series Entelogynae and Haplogynae, each containing several superfamilies:

A cladogram shows the relation among taxa:[2]

Opisthothelae

Mygalomorphae

  Araneomorphae

Hypochilidae

    Austrochiloidea

Gradungulidae

   

Austrochilidae

    Araneoclada

Haplogynae

   

Entelegynae

         

Most spiders in the Haplogynae series have six eyes, while most of those in the Entelegynae series have eight.

Table of families

References

Citations

  1. ^ http://www.publish.csiro.au/samples/spiders/html/SPIDERS.HTM
  2. ^ Coddington, Jonathan A.; Levi, Herbert W. (1991). "Systematics and Evolution of Spiders (Araneae) STOR". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 22: 565–592. doi:10.1146/annurev.es.22.110191.003025. ISSN 0066-4162. JSTOR 2097274.
  3. ^ World Spider Catalog (2018), Currently valid spider genera and species. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFWorld_Spider_Catalog2018 (help)

General sources

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN

Araneomorphae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN
 src= Hippasa agelenoides – common funnel web spider

The Araneomorphae (also called the Labidognatha) are an infraorder of spiders. They are distinguished by having chelicerae (fangs) that point diagonally forward and cross in a pinching action, in contrast to the Mygalomorphae (tarantulas and their close kin), where they point straight down. Most of the spiders that people encounter in daily life belong to the Araneomorphae.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN