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Comprehensive Description

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Phyllonorycter salicifoliella (Chambers)

Lithocolletis salicifoliella Clemens, 1861:81 [nomen nudum]; 1872:69.—Packard, 1869:353 [nomen nudum].—Chambers, 1871:163, 185; 1875:126, 302; 1877:139.—Walsingham, 1889:54.—Riley, 1891:109 [Lithocolletes (sic)].—Dyar, 1903a:556 [Lithocolletes (sic)]; 1903b:411.—Braun, 1908b: 316 [in part]; 1914:115, 153 [in part]; 1923:192.—Meyrick, 1912a:9; 1912b: 9.—Barnes and McDunnough, 1917:187.—McDunnough, 1939:96.—Martin, 1956:155.—Watson, 1956:168.—Freeman, 1970:272.

Lithocolletis atomariella Braun [not Zeller, 1876], 1908b:316 [synonym of salicifoliella].—Meyrick, 1912a:9 [synonym of L. salicifoliella]; 1912b:37 [synonym of L. salicifoliella].

Phyllonorycter atomariella (Braun).—Ely, 1917:64 [synonym of L. salicifoliella].

Phyllonorycter salicifoliella (Clemens).—Ely, 1918:64.

Lithocolletis kenora Freeman, 1970:280. [New synonymy.]

Phyllonorycter kenora (Freeman).—Davis, 1983:10.

Phyllonorycter salicifoliella (Chambers).—Davis, 1983:10.—Maier and Davis, 1989:16.

ADULT (Figures 32, 33).—Length of forewing: 3–4 mm. Small moths with slender, golden brown forewings with a large to greatly reduced basal-dorsal white spot, usually 5 costal and 4 dorsal white strigulae. Male genitalia with symmetrical and ridged apical processes. Antrum of female genitalia 0.3 mm or less in length. Larva usually on Salix, rarely on Populus.

Head: Vertex rough, with a variable mixture of white and brown, piliform scales, usually mostly white. Frons smooth, rarely with light brownish suffusion. Antenna with scape and pedicel usually entirely white, occasionally with slight brownish suffusion dorsally; flagellomeres variable, usually mostly white with brownish suffusion over dorsal apex, to mostly brown with whitish basal annulations. Labial palpus entirely white or with brownish suffusion ventrally.

Thorax: Dorsum variable, usually white and lightly irrorated with dark brown to fuscous, sometimes mostly reddish brown. Venter white. Forewing light golden to reddish brown, variably marked with white streaks and scattered dark brown to fuscous scales as follows: 5 white costal strigulae with basal two most oblique and sometimes indistinct; usually a large, white basal spot on dorsum that may be largely obliterated by reddish brown; 4 white strigulae usually present distad to basal spot with basal two strigulae the broadest and sometimes joined to costal strigulae; outer two strigulae narrow, costal and dorsal pairs often joined but with distal-most band usually separated by an elongate, subapical fuscous spot; termen with a fuscous margin; fringe pale gray. Hindwing uniformly gray. Legs generally light fuscous dorsally, white ventrally, becoming progressively paler on mid- and hindlegs; apices of tibial and tarsal segments white.

Abdomen: Pale to dark grayish brown dorsally, white ventrally; conspicuous sex-scaling absent. Seventh sternum of female usually rough (Figures 431, 446, 447). Eighth sternum of male (Figures 246, 249) elongate, triangular, tapering to a narrowly rounded apex.

Male Genitalia (Figures 245, 247, 248, 250, 269–308): Vinculum V-shaped, tapering to rounded apex. Transtilla moderately robust, quadrate. Valvae symmetrical, variable in form, relatively slender, usually broadest near middle to distal third then tapering to slightly curved apical process bearing 10–14 longitudinal ridges and an apical pore (Figures 272, 276, 280, 284, 288, 292, 296); subapical brush consisting of a tight bundle of ~15–50 long setae arising from a low tubercule immediately basad of apical process (Figures 248, 270, 274, 278, 283, 287, 291). Anellus membranous. Aedoeagus slender, elongate, 1.7–2.3× the length of eighth sternum, with a short, subapical lobe (Figures 247, 250, 342–350).

Female Genitalia (Figures 431, 432): Antrum tubular, sclerotized, moderately elongate, ~0.5–1.2× the length of posterior apophyses, ranging 0.13–0.3 mm in length. Accessory bursa slightly larger in diameter than corpus bursae; accessory duct ~0.5× the length of ductus bursae, both arising from anterior end of antrum. Signum a circular plate near caudal end of corpus with a pair of widely spaced minute spines and a slightly larger, less sclerotized, oval plate near opposite end.

EGG (Figures 13–17).—Approximately 0.34–0.37 mm long, 0.20–0.21 mm wide, and 0.14 mm deep. Upper half of chorion reticulate, underside smooth. Both surfaces separated by an irregular zone of rugose tissue; circumferential fringe poorly developed. Two micropyles present at anterior pole surrounded by low ridges (Figure 17).

LARVA (Figures 161–185).—Similar to P. nipigon. Length of largest third instar 3.3 mm; head width 0.37 mm. Fifth instar: Length of largest larva 6 mm; head width 0.4 mm. A1, A2, and P1 arising distant from adfrontal suture. S2, S3 present. Apical spines of hypopharynx (Figure 174) elongate, approximately 0.8× the length of spinneret. Prothorax with D1 below D2. Crochets on A3–A5 with 5 hooks in caudal row and 3 or 4 in anterior row.

LARVAL MINE (Figures 21–23).—As illustrated.

PUPA (Figures 186–194).—Maximum length 4.2 mm, width 0.9 mm. Vertex with relatively broad, triangular, dorsally flattened cocoon cutter with minutely serrated lateral ridges (Figure 186). Forewing extending to caudal margin of A6; hindleg to caudal margin of A8. Dorsum of A2–A8 densely covered with evenly scattered, short spines, with those of anterior third slightly enlarged (Figure 188); intersegmental surfaces reticulated as in Figure 189. Accessory cremaster of A7 with 1 or 2 pairs of lateral spines (Figure 190). Terminal cremaster consisting of 2 pairs of broad-based hooks, with one pair more laterad and slightly more ventrad (Figures 191, 193). A9 with sternum abruptly constricted to flattened A10 (Figure 194).

TYPES.—Syntypes (2), “Ky, near Cincinnati, O”; deposition unknown, currently believed not to exist (salicifoliella Cham.). Neotype (new designation), , Fort Washington, Prince Georges Co, Maryland, 15 Sep 1974, e. 28 Sep 1974, D.R. Davis, Salix babylonica L., DRD 362, USNM (salicifoliella Cham.). Holotype, , Ramsay, Ont., Canada, 3 Aug 1962, no. 10,889, CNC (kenora Freeman).

HOSTS (Table 1).—Several species of Salix are preferred hosts, with S. alba L., S. amygdaloides Anderss., S. babylonica L., S. bebbiana Sarg., S. bonplandiana Kunth (=laevigata Bebb), S. caroliniana L., S. eriocephala Michx., S. lasiolepis Benth., S. “longifolia” [?S. interior Rowlee (=fluviatilis (Anderss.) Ball)], S. lutea Nutt., S. monticola Bebb, S. purpurea L., S. x rubens Schrank (S. alba x fragilis), S. scouleriana J. Barratt ex Hook., and S. sericea Marshall being reported. Much less commonly, larvae also may mine Populus, particularly P. balsamifera L. and P. tremuloides Michx.

PARASITOIDS (Table 2).—Braconidae: Miraux minuta Ashmead, Parahormius pallidipes Ashmead; Eulophidae: Aprostocetus sp., Chrysocharis boriquensis Hanssen, Chrysocharis sp., Didlyphus sp., Horismenus sp., Sympiesis marylandensis Girault, Sympiesis sp.

FLIGHT PERIOD.—Apparently bivoltine (July to mid-August and late August to November), at least at lower elevations or in southern part of range, with the adults overwintering and flying again in May to early June.

DISTRIBUTION (Map 4).—Widespread across North America between latitudes 30°N, and 60°N, from Mississippi to Ontario in the East and from southern California to northern British Columbia in the West.

MATERIAL EXAMINED.—CANADA: ALBERTA: 6 km W Drumheller: 15, 13, mine: 22–23 Aug 1982, e. 23 Aug–5 Sep 1982 [e.=emerged], G. Deschka, mine in Salix [possibly monticola], zucht nr. 1691, slide GD 1765 (GD); same data: 1, 4, slides USNM 22905, 22906, 30875 (USNM). Edmonton, 600 m: 1, 1, mine: 9 Jul 1979, e. 27–28 Jul 1979, G. Deschka, mine in Salix, zucht nr. 1430, slides GD 1526, 1537 (GD); same data: 1 (USNM). Mitsue Lake North, 544 m: 5, 3, mine: 14 Jul 1982, e. 21–27 Jul 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Salix, zucht nr. 1654, slides GD 1736, 1737 (GD); same data: 2 (USNM). 11 km W Red Deer, 853 m: 4, 6, mine: 28 Aug 1982, e. 31 Aug-8 Sep 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Salix, zucht nr. 1697 (GD); same data: 2, 1 (USNM). Sturgeon Lake, 2300 ft [854 m]: 5, 2, mine: 16 Jul 1982, e. 25–30 Jul 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Salix, zucht nr. 1656, slide GD 1741 (GD); same data: 1, 1, slide USNM 30786 (USNM). BRITISH COLUMBIA: Clinton, 887 m: 1, mine: 12 Aug 1982, e. 22–25 Aug 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Salix, zucht nr. 1680, slide GD 1762 (GD); same data: 1, 2, slides USNM 30787, 30872 (USNM). 10 km SW Dawson Creek, 650 m: 16, 12, mine: 17 Jul 1982, e. 28 Jul–3 Aug 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Salix [bebbiana], zucht nr. 1658 (tomentose), slide GD 1745 (GD); same data: 2, 3, slide USNM 30877 (USNM); same data: 2, 5, mine in Salix (glabrous) [scouleriana], zucht nr. 1659 (GD); same data: 1, 2 (USNM). Fort Nelson: 1, 28 Jul 1967, Freeman and Lewis, Salix, 67–41, CNC slide MIC 309 (CNC). 73 km SE Fort Nelson, 418 m: 1, mine: 18 Jul 1982, e. 3 Aug 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Salix, zucht nr. 1663 (GD); same data: 1 (USNM). Hazelton, 330 m: 9, 11, mine: 16 Jul 1982, e. 21–29 Jul 1982, G. Deschka, mine in Salix [bebbiana], zucht nr. 1439, slides GD 1518, 1535 (GD); same data: 2, slides 2208, 22909 (USNM). Hikon: 1, 27 Jul 1967, Freeman and Lewis, Salix, 67-10 (CNC). Keremeos: Shingle Creek Road: 1, 3, 20–31 Aug 1934, Salix (CNC). Manson Creek: 2, 2, 8–9 Aug 1967, Freeman and Lewis, Salix, 67-51, CNC slides MIC 2307, 2308 (CNC). Penticton: Shingle Creek: 1, 1, 7–8 Sep 1934, A. Gartrell, Salix, CNC slide MIC 2310 (CNC). Summerland: 2, 2, 13–17 Aug 1934, A. Gartrell, Salix, (CNC). Thornhill, 250 m: 12, 9, mine: 17 Jul 1979, e. 24 Jul–3 Aug 1979, G. Deschka, mine in Salix ?bebbiana, zucht nr. 1442, slides GD 1520, 1530, 1536 (GD); same data: 1, 1, slide USNM 30876. Vernon: 1, 3, 22 Aug 1927, L. Ward, CNC slide MIC 2246 (CNC). ONTARIO; Ignace: 1, 1 (paratypes L. kenora), e. 29 Aug 1962, S62-5480-01, Salix, slides CNC 2033, 2481 (CNC). Porcupine: 1, 4 Aug 1967, Salix (CNC); 2, 13 Sep 1967, Salix, slides CNC 2856, 2857 (CNC). Red Lake: 1, 1 (paratypes L. kenora), e. 15 Aug 1962, S62-5446-01, Salix, slides 2107 (CNC). Shebandowan: 1 (paratype L. kenora), e. 9 Aug 1963, A63-3782-01, Salix, slide CNC 2034 (CNC). UNITED STATES: CALIFORNIA: Alameda Co., Berkeley: 2, 18 Oct 1981, e. 24–26 Oct 1981, D. Wagner, Salix laevigata, JAP 81 K11, slide GD 1983 (DLW). Tilden Park: 1, 13 Oct 1981, e. 18 Oct 1981, D. Wagner, Salix lasiolepis, JAP 81 J46.5 (DLW); 1, 18 Oct 1981, e. 1 Nov 1981, D. Wagner, Salix lasiolepis, JAP 81 K13 (DLW); 1, 21 Nov 1981, e. DOA 13 Dec, JAP 81 J50 (DLW). Contra Costa Co., Briones Park: 4, 1, 21 Oct 1981, e. 21–27 Oct 1981, D. Wagner, Salix lasiolepis, JAP 81 K16 and 17, slide USNM 30403 (DLW, USNM). Tilden Regional Park: 1, 20 Aug 1983, e. 28 Aug 1983, D. Wagner, Salix laevigata, JAP 83 H52, slide GD 1982 (DLW); 1, 15 Sep 1981, e. 1 Oct 1981, D. Wagner, Salix laevigata, JAP 80 I 35 (DLW); 2, 3, 6 Nov 1982, e. 19 Oct–20 Nov 1982, J. Whitfield, Salix ?laevigata, JAP 82 L52, slides USNM 30823, 31074 (DLW, USNM). El Dorado Co., Fallen Leaf Lake: 1, 2, 22 Aug 1982, e. 2–9 Sep 1982, D. Wagner, Salix lutea, JAP 82 H38, slides GD 1976, USNM 30402 (DLW, USNM). Fresno Co., Cedar Grove, 1414 m: 1, mine: 26 Jul 1977, e. 31 Jul–2 Aug 1977, G. Deschka, mine in Salix, zucht nr. 1276, slide GD 1403 (GD). Kern Co., 6 mi [9.6 km] S. Monolith: 1, 2, 15 Sep 1968, e. 26 Sep 1968, P. Opler, Salix, JAP 68 J60, slides DRD 3814, USNM 30386, 30822 (DLW, USNM). 5 mi [8 km] S. Monolith: 2, 3, 2 Oct 1967, e. 12–18 Oct 1967, J. Powell, Salix, JAP 67 K25, slides USNM 30821, 31021 (DLW, USNM). Mono Co., Glass Creek Campground, 4 air mi [6.4 km] ESE June Lake: 2, 26 Aug 1983, e. 12–15 Sep 1983, D. Wagner, Salix ?lutea, JAP 83 H104 (DLW). Rock Creek, 1.4 mi [2.2 km] W Tom's Place: 2, 26 Aug 1983, e. 10–12 Sep 1983, D. Wagner, Salix ?lutea, JAP 83 M119 (DLW). Monterey Co., Monterey: 4, 5, mine: 9 Oct 1992, e. 20–26 Oct 1992, L.B. Turner, Salix laevigata, DRD 1207, slide 31145 (USNM). Nevada Co., Old Donner Pass, 7000 ft [2134 m]: 5, 9, 12 Sep 1988, e. 14–25 Sep 1988, Wagner and DeBenedictis, Salix lutea, DLM 88 J32, slides USNM 30802, 30809, 31075 (DLW, USNM). Placer Co., Sugar Bowl Ski Area: 1, 25 Sep 1982, e. 3 Oct 1982, D. Wagner, Salix lutea, JAP 82 J136 (DLW). 3 mi [4.8 km] S Tahoe City along Ward Creek: 1, 2, 15 Aug 1981, e. 7 Sep 1981, D. Wagner, Populus tremuloides, JAP 81 H19, slides USNM 30388, 30883 (DLW, USNM). San Mateo Co., near Pacifica: 1, 30 Sep 1981, e. 13 Oct 1981, D. Wagner, Salix, JAP 81 J57, slide GD 1981 (DLW). Santa Clara Co., Mt. Hamilton: 1, 10 Sep 1983, e. 20 Oct 1983, D. Green, Salix laevigata JAP 83 K2 (DLW). Siskiyou Co., Mt. Shasta: 2, 3, 2 Aug–1 Sep 1871, Walsingham, BMNH slide 3967 (BMNH); 6, 3, Aug 1871 (BMNH); 1, 1, Aug 1871, Walsingham, Salix, sldes USNM 28414, 30881 (USNM). Sutter Co., Feather River, near Nicolaus: 1, 11 Oct 1982, e. 28 Oct 1982, D. Wagner, Salix, JAP 82 K16.5 (DLW); same data: 1, e. 16 Oct 1982, Salix sp. near gooddingii, JAP 82 K45 (DLW); same data: 2, JAP 82 K16 (DLW). COLORADO: Alamosa Co., Alamosa City, 2250 m: 24, 29, mine: 26 Jul 1978, e. 9–17 Aug 1978, G. Deschka, mine in Salix ?amygdaloides [probably x rubens Schrank (S. alba x fragilis)], zucht nr. 1345, slides GD 1548, USNM 30874 (GD, USNM). Boulder Co., Boulder: 2, e. 11–16 Aug 1916, A. Braun, Salix bebbiana, B.1021, slide DRD 3825 (ANSP). Grand Co., Grand Lake, 2450 m: 54, 57, 30 Jul 1978, e. 10–21 Aug 1978, G. Deschka, mine in Salix [monticola Bebb], zucht nr. 1347, 1348, slides GD 1550, 1551, USNM 30785, 30873 (GD, USNM). Larimer Co., Livermore, 2210 m: 11”, 12, 4 Aug 1978, e. 16–22 Aug 1978, G. Deschka, mine in Salix amygdaloides, zucht nr. 1351, slides GD 1553, USNM 30879 (GD, USNM). CONNECTICUT: Litchfield Co., Goshen: 1, 1, 26 Aug 1981, Salix (CTM); 1, larva, 26 Aug 1981, C. Maier, Salix, slide 22080 (USNM). New Haven Co., 1 mi [1.6 km] N Cheshire: 1, 15 Sep 1979, Salix (CTM); 1, pupa 15 Sep 1979, C. Maier, Salix, slide 21271 (USNM). Norwalk: 86J61, 2 (DLW). DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA [WASHINGTON]: 1, 1 May 1971 (BMNH); 3, e. 2 Aug 1898, Salix (USNM); 1, 25 Sep 1920, A. Busck, slide USNM 31087 (USNM); National Arboretum: 1, 17 Jul 1985, H. Larew, Salix purpurea, slide USNM 23684 (USNM). IDAHO: Kootenai Co., Coeur d'Alene: 1 , 2, 21 Aug 1936, H. Rust, Salix, Hopk. no. 21905, slide 31086 (USNM). Latah Co., Moscow: 1, 25 Oct 1982, M. Furniss, Salix alba, slide 23623 (USNM). MARYLAND: Prince Georges Co., Beltsville: 1, Sep 1974, R. Webb, Salix, slide 17926 (USNM). Henson Creek, Fort Washington: 1 (neotype), 15 Sep 1974, e. 28 Sep 1974, D. Davis, Salix babylonica L., DRD 362 (USNM); same data as neotype except: 15, 11, 15 Sep 1974, e. 28 Sep–3 Oct 1974, slides USNM 17901, 17926, 17937, 22735, 22931, 28409, 30784, 31069 (USNM); 1, 26 Sep 1992, e. 22 Oct 1992, D. Davis, Salix sp., DRD 1240 (USNM). MASSACHUSETTS: Cambridge: 1 (syntype, L. atomariella), slide BMNH 26071 (BNMH); 1, 3, slide BMNH 26072 (BMNH). MICHIGAN: Clinton Co., Bath: 1, 9 May 1957, R. Hodges (USNM). MISSISSIPPI: Clay Co., 1 mi [1.6 km] east of West Point: 2, 1, 1 Sep 1984, R. Brown, Populus sp., USNM slide 31427 (MEM, USNM). MISSOURI: Crawford Co., Meramac River, near Steelville: 1, 15 Aug 1985, e. 17 Aug 1985, J. Whitfield, Salix caroliniana, JBW 18-14-88, slide DRD 3776 (DLW). MONTANA: Mineral Co., Cabin City: 5, 3, e. 11–18 Aug 1936, A. Braun, Salix, B.1509, slide USNM 31101 (ANSP, USNM). NEW JERSEY: Essex Co., Essex County Park: 1, 10 May (USNM). NEW MEXICO: Bernalillo Co., Juniper Canyon, Sandia Mts: 4, 1, 27–28 Jul 1989, e. 3–7 Aug 1989, D. Wagner, Salix, DLW 89 G90, slides DRD 3812, USNM 30496 (DLW, USNM). Sandoval Co., Pakitza Campground, 7000–7500 ft [2134–2287 m], 4 mi [6.4 km] east of Ponderosa: 4 larvae, 31 Jul 1989, D.R. Davis, Salix, DRD 678, slides USNM 30462, 30463 (USNM). NEW YORK: Essex Co., Giant Mtn., Roaring Brook Trail: 1, 28 Jul–4 Aug 1988, e. 9 Aug 1988, D. Wagner, Salix, DLM 88 M13, slide DRD 3775 (DLW); same data: 1, e. 9–21 Aug 1988, Populus balsamifera, DLM 88 G110, slide DRD 3778 (DLW). Oswego Co., Hannibal: 1, 30 Aug 1972, Salix, E. Jäckh (USNM). Otsego Co., Milford: 3, 2, larvae, eggs, R. Fritz, Salix eriocephala, S. sericea, slides USNM 30440, 30678, 30804, 30805, 31070 (USNM). Tompkins Co., Six Mile Creek, Ithaca: 1, 1, 10, 17 May 1959, R. Hodges (USNM). Slaterville Springs: 3, 3, e. 12–15 Sep 1960, R. Hodges, Salix, slide USNM 28426 (USNM). OHIO: Hamilton Co., Cincinnati: 1 (ANSP). OREGON: Clackamas Co.: 1 mi [1.6 km]: 2, 13 Sep 1988, e. 29 Sep 1988, D. Wagner, Salix, DLW 88 J54, slide USNM 30803 (DLW, USNM). Clatsop Co., Warrington: 7, 1, 9 Sep 1944, Salix, lot 44-25293, slide USNM 18318 (USNM). Hood River Co., Cooper's Spur Inn, 4000 ft [1219.5 m]: 1, 5, 14 Sep 1988, e. 15–28 Sep 1988, D. Wagner, Salix ?lutea, DLW 88 J39, slide USNM 30824 (DLW, USNM). Jackson Co., to Rogue River: 1, 4–6 May 1872, Walsingham (BMNH). VIRGINIA: Alexandria Co., Veitch: 6, 4, 10 Oct 1913, C. Heinrich, Populus, Hopk. no. 11195, slides USNM 28415, 31071, 31072 (USNM). Fairfax Co., Falls Church: 6, 3, 15–16 Oct 1915, J. DeGryse, Populus, slides USNM 30880, 31136 (USNM).


MAP 4.—Distribution of Phyllonorycter salicifoliella.
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bibliographic citation
Davis, Donald R. 2001. "Biology and Systematics of the North Phyllonorycter Leafminers on Salicaceae, with a Synoptical Catalogue of the Palearctic Species Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 1-89. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.614

Phyllonorycter salicifoliella

provided by wikipedia EN

Phyllonorycter salicifoliella is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is widespread across North America, from Mississippi to Ontario in the east and from southern California to northern British Columbia in the west.

The length of the forewings is 3–4 mm. Adults are on wing from July to mid-August and again from late August to November in two generations.

The larvae mostly feed on Salix species, including Salix alba, Salix amygdaloides, Salix babylonica, Salix bebbiana, Salix bonplandiana, Salix caroliniana, Salix eriocephala, Salix lasiolepis, Salix "longifolia", Salix lutea, Salix monticola, Salix purpurea, Salix x rubens (Salix alba x Salix fragilis), Salix scouleriana and Salix sericea, but may also feed on Populus species, including Populus balsamifera and Populus tremuloides. They mine the leaves of their host plant.

References

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Phyllonorycter salicifoliella: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Phyllonorycter salicifoliella is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is widespread across North America, from Mississippi to Ontario in the east and from southern California to northern British Columbia in the west.

The length of the forewings is 3–4 mm. Adults are on wing from July to mid-August and again from late August to November in two generations.

The larvae mostly feed on Salix species, including Salix alba, Salix amygdaloides, Salix babylonica, Salix bebbiana, Salix bonplandiana, Salix caroliniana, Salix eriocephala, Salix lasiolepis, Salix "longifolia", Salix lutea, Salix monticola, Salix purpurea, Salix x rubens (Salix alba x Salix fragilis), Salix scouleriana and Salix sericea, but may also feed on Populus species, including Populus balsamifera and Populus tremuloides. They mine the leaves of their host plant.

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